Rita6 - Time Management Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What estimating method would use optimistic time estimate?
Three-point estimate. Also used in cost estimating.
The critical path is?
The longest duration path in the network, The shortest time to complete the project.
The types and quantities of resources required are calculated in what part of time management?
Activity resource estimating
What schedule network analysis technique involves crashing?
Schedule compression
Why would you want to crash a project?
To shorten the project duration.
The "what-if" scenario method of schedule network analysis primarily makes use of what technique?
Monte Carlo analysis
What does a milestone chart show?
Dates of significant events on the project.

Are good tools for reporting to management and customers.
What is the duration of a milestone?
What is analogous estimating?
Top-down estimating.
What schedule network analysis technique uses buffers?
Critical chain
What is the formula for total float?
LS - ES, or LF - EF
Why would a project manager want to use resource leveling?
To smooth the peaks and valleys of monthly resource usage consumed by the project.
A critical path activity will generally have how much float?
What is parametric estimating?
Using mathematical relationships found in historic information to create estimates. (e.g., dollars per foot)
What is the Time Management Process?
1.Activity definition
2.Activity sequencing
3.Activity resource estimating
4.Activity duration estimating
5.Schedule development
6.Schedule control
Note: Activity definition can lead to a discovery that the WBS or some other part of the project management plan under development needs to be changed.
No part of project management plan exists alone.
In it's purest form, the network diagram shows
just dependencies.
If activity duration estimates (estimates) are added, the network diagram could also show
the critical path
If plotted out against time (or placed against a calendar-based scale), the network diagram would be
a time-scaled schedule network diagram.
Define Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) or Activity-on-Node (AON) method.
In PDM or AON method, nodes (or boxes) are used to represent activities, and arrows show activity dependencies.
Precedence Diagramming Method (PDM) or Activity-on-Node (AON) can have four types of relationships
1.Finish-to-start. An activity must finish before the successor can start (most common)
2.Start-to-start. An activity must start before the successor can start
3.Finish-to-finish. An activity must finish before the successor can finish
4.Start-to-finish. An activity must start before the successor can finish (rarely used)
What is Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) or Activity-on-Arrow (AOA).
In this method of drawing a network diagram, the arrows are used to represent activities. The notes (in this case circles) represent activity dependencies.
What is GERT? (Rarely on the exam and when it does appear, it is most often just a choice)
GERT is a network diagram drawing method that allows loops between activities. For example when you have an activity to design a component and then test it. After testing, it may or may not need to be redesigned.
The sequence of activities is determined based on how many types of dependencies?
Mandatory Dependency (Hard Logic), Discretionary Dependency (Preferred, Preferential or Soft Logic) and External Dependency.
What are the charachteristics of Arrow Diagramming Method or Activity on Arrow?
1.Uses only finish-to-start relationships between activities.
2.May use dummy activities. Dummies are usually represented by a dotted line.
What are the various estimating techniques?
1.One-Time Estimate
2.Analogous Estimating
3.Parametric Estimating
5.Three Point Estimating
6.Reserve Analysis
How is One-Time Estimating done?
One estimate per activity is received.

The estimate can be made based on expert judgement, by looking at historic information, or even by just guessing.
Negative effects of One-time estimating?
1.Can force people into padding their estimates
2.Hides important information about risks & uncertainties
3.Creates schedule that no one believes in, thus loosing buy-in to the project
4.Can make the person who provided the estimate look untruthful and untrustworthy
5.Has estimator work against the project manager
Define Analogous Estimating.
The overall project estimate given to the project manager from management or the sponsor. (Form of expert judgement)
What is Parametric estimating?
Parametric estimating uses a mathematical model to calculate project times.

Time per line of code, time per linear meter or time per installation.

Used if you do not have detailed information on which to base time estimates.
Types of Parametric Estimating techniques?
1.Regression analysis (scatter diagram) - This diagram tracks two variables to see if they are related and creates a mathematical formula to use in future parametric estimating.

2.Learning curve - The 100th room painted will take less time than the first room.
What is Heuristics method of estimating?
A heuristic means a rule of thumb.

eg - 80/20 rule that, in quality, suggests that 80 percent of quality problems are caused by 20 percent of potential sources of problems.

The result of parametric estimates can become heuristics.
What is three point estimating?
Weighted average of
optimistic O),
pessimistic (P) and
most likely (M) estimates
What forms does Schedule Network Analysis take?
2.Critical path method
3.Schedule compression
4.What-if scenario analysis
5.Resource leveling
6.Critical chain method
Program Evaluation and Review Technique.
PERT = (P+4M+0)/6
Standard deviation = (P-0)/6
Variance = Standard deviation squared
How do you find the duration and standard deviation for project?
For duration add the PERT estimates for each activity on the critical path. Σ (TE on path)

For standard deviation, add variances for the activities and then take square root.
How does the critical path help the project manager?
1.Helps prove how long the project will take.
2.Helps determine where best to focus efforts
3.Helps determine if an issue needs immediate attention
4.Provides a vehicle to compress the schedule during planning and whenever there are changes
5.Provides a vehicle to determine which activities have float and can therefore be delayed without delaying the project
How many types of float?
1.Total float (slack) - amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the project end date or milestone

2.Free float (slack) - amount of time an activity can be delayed without delaying the early start date of its successor(s)

3. Project float (slack) - amount of time a project can be delayed without delaying the external end date.
What is zero float?
Critical path activities that are delayed or have dictated dates can result in negative float.

Activities on critical path almost always have zero float.
How is schedule compression done?
1.Fast tracking - doing critical path activities in parallel that were originally planned in series.

2.Crashing - Taking resources from non-critical path for critical path activities
Crashing almost always results in
increased cost
Fast tracking often results in
rework, usually increases risk and requires more attention to communications
What are Bar charts used for?
Weak planning tools, but effective tools for progress reporting and control.

Bar charts are not PM plans.
Activity completion rules
50/50 - considered 50% complete when it begins


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