Tortora chapters 12-15 Flashcards

DNA
Terms Definitions
Plasmogamy
A haploid nucleus of a donor cell (+) penetrates the cytoplasm of a recipient cell (-)
Karyogamy
The (+) and (_) nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote nucleus
Meiosis
The diploid nucleus gives rise to haploid nuclei (sexual spores), some of which may be genetic recombinants
What is unique about the nutritional requirements of fungi?
Grow better with low pH (5); molds are aerobic while yeasts are facultative anaerobes; resistant to osmotic pressure; can grow with low moisture content, use less nitrogen, can metabolize complex carbohydrates
Zygomycota
have coencytic hyphae; Rhizopus stolonifer or common black bread mold; asexual spores are sporangeospores; sexual spores are zygospores.
Ascomycota
sac fungi include molds with septate hyphae and some yeasts; Microsporum or ringworm; asexual spores - conidia; sexual spores - ascospores; saclike structure - ascus
Basidiomycota
club fungi; septate hyphae; includes mushrooms
systemic mycoses
fungal infection deep within the body that affects tissues and organs; usually caused by fungi that live in soil; histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis
Subcutaneous Mycoses
Fungal infections beneath the skin; soil and vetetation fungi
Cutaneous Mycoses
fungal infections of skin, hair or nails; fungi have keratinase
Superficial mycoses
fungal infections localized along hair shafts and in surface skin cells
Describe the thallus of a lichen
Consists of medulla (fungal hyphae surrounding algal cells), rhizines (fungal hyphae that anchor the lichen to its habitat), and a cortex (also made of fungal hyphae forming a protective covering)
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning
Caused my dinoflagellates which secrete saxitoxins; the dinoglagellates are eaten by mollusks which are eaten by humans
Ciguatera
Dinoglagellate: Gambierdiscus toxicus; causes the endemic death of large fish
What is the difference between the protozoan cyst and trophozoite stages?
The cyst stage aids survival in harsh environments and can contribute to a protozoans ability to survive excretion; trophozoite stage involves nourishment and growth
How to protozoans obtain food?
aerobic heterotrophs; some are photosynthetic; digestion takes place in vacuoles and waste is secreted from anal pore
Archaezoa
have mitosomes; spindle shaped with flagella projecting from the front end; Trichomonas vaginalis and Giardia lamblia
What is a medically relevent amoebozoa?
Entamoeba histolytica - amoebic dystentery
What species carries malaria?
Anopheles mosquito
Life cycle of malaria carried out in human
1)mosquito deposits sporozoites into bloodstream 2)sporozoites travel to liver and undergo schizogony producing mirozoites 3)Mirozoites released many infect new RBCs 4)Mirozoite develops into ring stage inside RBC are replicated and released; gametocytes
Life cycle of malaria within mosquito
Mosquito bites infected human and ingests gametocytes 2)gametocytes come together forming zygote in mosquitos digestive tract 3)new sporozoites are produced and travel to salivary glands
At which life cycle stage is fever/chills experienced in malaria?
Release of merozoites
hemoflagellates
blood parasites; euglenoids; Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: african sleeping sickness
List two classes of the phylum Platyhelminthes
Flatworms; Trematodes (flukes) and cestodes (tapeworms)
Paragonimus westermani
Lung fluke; contracted by humans who eat undercooked crayfish
What is the life cycle of the lung fluke?
Hermaphroditic adult fluke; eggs released into water; miracidium enters snail; redia; cercaria enters crayfish; metacercaria
Taenia saginata
cestodes; beef tapeworms; human difinitive host; cyst form exists in meat of cattle: cysticerci
Taenia solium
cestodes; pork tapeworms; human difinitive host; larval helminth encysts in pig's muscles; mostly passed human to human
For which species of helminths are humans the difinitive host?
Taenia saginata (beef) and Taenia solium (pork)
For which species of helninths are humans the intermediate host?
Echinococcus granulosus (dog tape worm)
Echinococcus granulosus
Cestode; dog tape worm; humans intermediate host; eggs hatch in the human's small intestine, and the larvae migrate to liver or lungs; develops into a hydatid cyst; diagnosis made by autopsy or x-ray
Nematodes
roundworms; complex digestive system; males are smaller than females
Trematodes
flukes; oral suckers
Cestodes
tapeworms; lack digestive system; have scolex and proglottids
Enterobius vermicularis
pinworm; spend entire life in humans; adults found in the large intestine; females deposit eggs on the perianal skin; diagnosed by Graham sticky-tape method; eggs infect humans
Ascaris lumbricoides
large nematode; adult lives in small intestines of humans; feeds on semidigested food; eggs excreted and can live in soil; eggs infect humans
Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale
hookworms; nematodes; larvae infect humans; live in small intestine; enter host by penetrting host's skin (usually feet) travel to lungs where it can be coughed and swallowed to end up in small intestine
Dirofilaria immitus
nematode; heartworms; infect mostly dogs and cats, transmitted by mosquito
What are three criteria for classifying viruses?
1)nucleic acid type 2)replication strategy 3)morphology
What are the suffixes for viral genus names, family names and order names?
-virus, -viridae, -ales
What is the Cytopathic effect?
Cell deterioration caused by viral infections; refers to the growth of viruses on an animal cell culture in the lab, used to detect viral growth
List common DNA viruses
Parvoviridae ssDNA, Herpesviridae dsDNA, Papovaviridae dsDNA, Poxviridae dsDNA, Hepadnaviridae (reverse transcriptase)
List common RNA viruses
Picornaviridae (+), Rhabdoviridae (-), Reoviridae dsRNA, Retroviridae (reverse transcriptase)
Parvoviridae
ssDNA; parvo
Herpesviridae
dsDNA; herpes viruses such as HHV-1 and HHV-2 (coldsores), HHV-3 (chickenpox)
Papovaviridae
dsDNA; warts
Poxviridae
dsDNA; smallpox and cowpox
Hepadnaviridae
DNA with reverse transcriptase; Hepatitis B; synthesize DNA by copying RNA
Picornaviridae
RNA +strand; polio, smallest virus
Togaviridae
RNA +strand, arthropod borne, enveloped
Rhabdoviridae
RNA -strand; rabies virus
Reoviridae
RNA dsRNA; Respiratory enteric and orphan viruses
Retroviridae
RNA; HIV uses viral RNA and reverse transcriptase to produce DNA and degrade original RNA; viral DNA is inserted into host's chromosome - "provirus"
commensalism
symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is not harmed
List Koch's postulates
1)same pathogen present in every case of the disease 2)pathogen isolated from diseased host, grown in pure culture 3)pathogen from pure culture must cause same disease in healthy animal 4)pathogen isolated from inoculated animal and compared to original
List periods of disease
incubation, prodromal, period of illness, period of decline, convalescence
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