Exam 1 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Racep Erdogan
Prime Minister of Turkey
Bashir Assad
Current leader of Syria
Haffez Assad
Former Ba'athist leader of Syria crushed the Muslim Brotherhood
Moamar Qadaffi
Leader of Libya
Anwar Sadat
Leader of Egypt after Nasser signed Camp David Peace Accords, assassinated by militants for seeking peace with Israel
Hoshi Mubarak
Current president of Eygpt
Gamel Nasser
Leader of Free Officers, first president of Eygpt
Avraham Stern
Broke from Irgun Zvai Leumi, led Stern Gang
Manachim Begin
Israeli Prime Minister, signed camp David Peace Accords, former member of the Irgun Zvai  Leumi
King Hussein
Leader of Jordan during the Six Day War, Black September, and Yom Kippur War
King Abdullah
Current king of Jordan
Turkey al Saud
Head of Saudi intelligence during the Soviet-Afghan War
King Aziz
Founder of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Saddam Hussein
Ba'athist leader of Iraq, led during Persian Gulf War (Iran-Iraq War) Desert Storm, and Operation Iraqi Freedom (Cobra II), captured by American forces and executed by the Iraqi government
Tariq Aziz
Member of Saddam Hussein's inner click- rose through Ba'athist trade ranks- last position was Deputy Prime Minister, Finance Minister, captured by American forces
Mamoud Ahmadinejad 
Current leader of Iran
Ayatollah Sistani
Quietest Shi'ite leader in southern Iraq- originally from Iran, returned to Iraq from Detroit after the fall of Saddam Hussein
Maqtada al Sadr
Shi'ite leader of the Mahdi Army in Southern Iraq
Hassan Fadallah
Spiritual leader of Hezbollah
Hassan Nasrallah
Political leader of Hezbollah
Ayatollah Khomeini
Current religious leader of Iran
Ayatollah Khomeni
led 1978-79 Iranian Revolution, purged revolutionary forces, set up theocracy in Iran
Hamed Karzi
Leader of Afghanistan
Mustafa Kamel
Kamel Ataturk- military founder of modern Turkey
Osma bin Laden
Leader of al Qaeda
Ayman al Zawahiri
Intellectual leader of al Qaeda- bin Laden's so called Number 2
Saif al Adel
Former head of al Qaeda's military council- currently in hiding in Iran
Mohhamed Atta
9/11 Leader and Pilot
Zaid Jarrah
9/11 pilot- stopped by Maryland State Police just before 9/11 for speeding
Abu Musab al Zarqawi
Leader of al Qaeda in Iraq, killed in an ambush by US forces
Yasser Arafat
Founder of the PLO and Fatah
George Habash
Lebanese Christian, broke from Fatah, founder of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
Walid Jumblat
Broke from the Habash, founder of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command
Sabri al Banna
Abu Nidal, founder and leader of the Abu Nidal Organization
Mahmoud Abbas
Prime Minister of the Palestine Authority
Sayyid Qutb
Eygptian military philosopher author of "milestones"
Maulana Mawdudi
Jihadist intellectual of Central Asia
Glubadin Hekmatyar
Mujahadeen leader, Afghanistan
Mullah Omar
Exiled leader of the Taliban
Northern Alliance
Majuhadeen militia responsible for the fall of the Taliban
Afghan Mujahadeen
Holy warriors during and following the Soviet-Afghan War
Fatah
Military wing of the PLO
PFLP
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine
broke from Fatah
PFLP-GC
Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command
broke from the PFLP
Al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades
Fatah's military wing from the al Aqsa Intifada, uses suicide bombings
Force 17
Fatah's paramilitary security force
Salafi Call and Combat
Algerian Jihadist Group
al Qaeda in Iraq
Jihadist Iraqi insurgents
aka al Qaeda in Mesopotamia
Ansar al Islam
Kurdish jihadist group in Iraq
PKK
Kurdisk Worker Party
Wants a socialist Kurdistan
GIA
Algerian Islamic Group
headquartered in Italy after military crackdown
EIJ
Eygptian Islamic Jihad
Led by Ayman al Zawahiri 
al Gama al Islamiyya
The Islamic group (Eygpt) rival group to the EIJ
PIJ
Palestininian Islamic Jihad
Sunni Group originating in Eygpt
Hamas
Sunni group from first Intifada seeks an Islamic state with the elimination of Israel
Hezbollah
Shia group from 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon- backed by Iran
Taliban
The Students, Islamic group that ruled Afghanistan by defeating warring  mujahadeen militias in 1996- fell from power October 2001
Jamaat Islamiyya
Indonesian jihadist group organized in a traditional heirarchy
Muslim Brotherhood
An organization founded by Hassan al Banna designed to recapture the spirit and religious purity during the period of Mohammed and the four Rightly Guided caliphs.  The Brotherhood seeks  to create a single Muslim nation through education and religious reform.  A militant wing founded by Sayyid Qutb sought the same objective through violence.  Hamas has rejected the multinational approach in favor of creating a Muslim Palestine wing of the Muslim Brotherhood.
IDF
Israeli Defense Forces- Israel's army navy and air force
Mohammed
The Prophet, Muslims believed he received the final prophecy
Ali ibn Talib
(Circa 599-661) The son of Mohammed's uncle Abu Talib and married to Mohammed's oldest daughter Fatima.  Ali was Mohammed's male heir because he had no surviving sons.  The followers of Ali are known as Shiites.  Most Shiites believe that Mohammed gave a sermon while perched on a saddle, naming Ali the heir to Islam.  Differing types of Shiites accept authority from diverse lines of Ali's heirs.  Sunni Muslims believe Ali is the fourth and last Rightly Guided caliph.  Both Sunnis and Shiites believe Ali tried to return Islam to the purity of Mohammed's leadership in Medina
Fatima
Oldest daughter of Mohammed and Khadijah, married Ali
Khadijah
Mohammed's first wife
Aisha
Mohammed's favorite wife, reviled by Shias and blamed for inspiringthe murder of Ali
Muawiya
Govenor of Damascusm, solidified Ummayad Empire
Yazid
Son of Muawiya, dispatched troops to destroy Hussein andShi'ites at Karbala
Abu Bakr
First Caliph
(circa 573-634) Also known as Abu Bakr as Saddiq, the first caliph selected by the Islamic community (umma) after Mohammed's death in 632.  Sunnis believe Abu Bakr is the rightful heir to  Mohammed's leadership, and they regard him as the first of the Rishidun, or Rightly Guided caliphs.  He led military expeditions expanding Muslim influence to the north of Mecca.
Umar
Second Caliph(circa 580-644) Also known as Umar ibn al Khattab, the second  Rightly Guided Caliph, according to Sunnis.  Under his leadership the Arab empire expanded into Persia, the southern part of the Byzantine empire, and Egypt.  His army conquered Jerusalem in 637
Uthman
Third Caliph
(circa 580-656) Also known as Uthman ibn Affan, the third Rightly Guided caliph, according to Sunnis.  He conquered most of the remaining parts of North Africa, Iran, Cyprus, and the Caucasia region.  He was assassinated by his own soldiers for alleged nepotism.
Caliph
Leader of the Umma (Muslim community)
Ulema
Muslim Scholars
Fiqh
Interpretation of Islamic law
Sufi
Islamic Mystics
Sunni
Followers of the community elected by Mohammed's companions.
Shia
Followers of Mohammed's male heir.
According to Flynn, the United State has simultaneously prepared to fight overseas and protect the home front.
False
American terrorist groups have the same impact as the foreign counterparts
False
Hamas was formed in December 1987, at the beginning of the second Intifada.
False
The best current model for homeland security is the air industry
 
True
Leaders of Igrun studied the tactics of Marighella
False
Terrorism in the horn will remain a problem due to porous borders, lax security, and political instability
True
The religious situation in Indonesia provided a climate for growth of Jihadist groups.
False
Americans will be better prepared to secure the homeland if they have engaged in a nationwide discussion of defense in depth and its impact on civil liberties after an attack.
False
Pakistan is not as much of a modern country as it is a modern series of tribal confederations
True
Hezbollah international often works in conjunction with organized crime, drug trafficking, and other terrorist.
True
Many police departments have not prepared for terrorism
True
Jewish groups have also been involved in terrorist violence, and some of them have direct links to the United States
True
Max Weber coined the term bureaucracy
True
Arafat merged the Fatah into the PIJ in 1964
False
Most Uighar terrorism is not part of the Jihadist movement
True
Al Qaeda was born in the last stages of the Afghan-Soviet War
True
The American borders are vulnerable
True
Osama bin Laden was the driving force behind another terrorist group in Egypt, the Egypt Islamic Jihad (EIJ)
False
Thailand is experiencing a rebellion in its southern provinces
True
Hezbollah is not part of the Jihadist network
False
The al Aqsa Martyrs Brigades have a strong centralized structure
False
The Sixth Amendment ensures that suspect cannot lose their right except by the due process of law
False
Increased border protection will not protect America from Terrorism
True
State and local officers are rewarded for thinking in terms of international issues and national security
False
There are always tradeoffs when considering security
True
Unlike Israel's excellent tactical record, it counterterrorism policies have stirred international controversy 
True
Different Islamic scholars (ulema) interpret jihad the same way 
False
Left-wing terrorism lost its base when student activism  began to disappear from American academic life.
True
September 11, 2001 was the opening shot in bin Laden's war against the United States and an international campaign
False
The Middle East is a geographical, social, and historical concept
True
The factor seperating the average criminal from the average terrorist is support
False
The Tamil experience was similar to the situation in Kashmir
False
Christian Idenity is based on the premise that God is white.
True
Many state and local police executives trust the FBI
False
The federal government undertook massive reforms and reorganizations  from 2002 to 2005, in wake of 9/11
True
Lewis Katz says the real test of the Fourth Amendment  is reasonableness
True
Not all bureaucracies can be militarized
False
Mainstream Muslims following the caliph were conventionally called Sunnis, while the followers of Ali became known as Shiite
True
Ethnic violence can be traced to the founding of teh modern state of Israel
True
Jihadist organizations took root in the United States during the Soviet-Afghan  War
True
Iranians are Arabs
False
Weber argued that bureaucracies should be designed to accomplish specific purposes
True
Khomeini used a mixture of repressive tactics and political strategies to consolidate his power in Iran, and he is best understood within the Shi'ite tradition of Islam.
True
Title VI of the Safe Streets Act mandates judicial review of police surveillance
False
Peurto Rican support come primarily from Cuba
True
The GIA followed the Qutb philosophy that no believer was really Muslim unless he or she accepted Qutb's narrow theological path
True
Hezbollah formed in Lebanon after the Iranian Revolution
True
In Africa, it is difficult to single out terrorism because of the violence associated with conventional and guerilla wars, several revolutions, and crime.
True
The IACP has traditionally favored the civil role of policing over the militristic approach
True
The trade-off between security and freedom is a new phenomenon.
False
The displace Baathists, the Iraqis who want the United States out of the country and the Jihadist who have come to Iraq all share a common vision of the future of Iraq
False
The October 1973 Yom Kippur, or Ramadan war caused a shift in the structure of Middle Eastern terrorism
True
Muslims believe that Mohammed was given the direct revelation of God through Jesus
False
The U.S. Constitution seperates the power of the three branches of government, executive, legislative, and judicial
True
The Uighars are fighting for independence from Pakistan
False
Edward Abbey has a hate-filled ideologue like William Pierce
False
At the 1988 Olympic games, al Qaeda struck the olympic village and took most of the Israeli olympic team hostage, killing those who tried to escape
False
Palestinian Islamic Jihad emerged from Egypt
True
The GIA was connected to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing.
False
Left-wing terrorism is dominated by a belief in conspiracy and conspiracy theories
False
Title II of the USA Patriot Act contains a sunset clause
True
By 2007, al Qaeda was trying to reestablish some kind of leadership structure in Pakistan along the Afghan border, but al Qaeda's strength came not from its ability to command but its inspirational ability to motivate
True
Ariel Sharon was the founder and leader of the PLO
False
Qutb believed that the Islamic world descended into darkness after the death of Mohammed
True
Suicide bombing became the most important tactic of all the Palestinian terrorist groups at the beginning of al Aqsa intifada
True
Strict Muslims who follow the practices of Wahhab argue that they are trying to rid the religion of superstition and return it to the state envisioned by Mohammed and his first followers
True
Militant Muslims embrace the reforming doctrines of Wahhab and Salafiyya and the Muslim Brotherhood
True
As the new Russian Federation formed after the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, the Russians wanted to continue to control their possessions in Central Asia
False
In the United States, the lead agent for counterterrorism is the CIA
False
Hate crimes are manifestation of terrorism
False
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