Gases 2 Flashcards

gas particles
Terms Definitions
Boyle's law
Temperature (In Kelvins)
combined gas Laws
kinetic energy (KE)
energy available
Charles' Law
temperature-volume relationship. Law states that at a constant pressure, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to it's absolute temperature.
V1T2=V2T1 (V is directly proportional to T)
force applied per unit area
Higher elevation = __________ pressure and _________ boiling point
Scientist started studying gases about ___ years ago.
The process that occurs when vaporization takes place only on the surface of a liquid
motion more random that solid, but generally stay towards bottom of container
an instrument used to measure the pressure of the atmosphere
Charles's law
_______ states that at constant pressure, the volume of a fixed amount of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
expand to fill their container, highly compressible,
V of gas=V of container
What is pressure?
a force exerted over an area
Ozone (O3)
Ozone in the troposphere is harmful photochemical oxidant and component of smog. Acrid odor and damages vegetation, animal tissues, building materials. Can lead to eye irritation, bronchitis, headache, emphysema. Solar energy drives a reaction with nitrogen oxide = ozone (making it secondary pollutant)
Pneumatic trough
Device used for collecting gas samples over water. Pgas= Patmos-Pwater
ideal gas law
The law that combines the relationships of Boyle's, Charles's, and Avogadro's laws into one comprehensive equation of state with the proportionality constant R in the form of PV = nRT.
boiling point
The temperature at which a liquid boils. Depends on the pressure..
Which is larger, the average speed or the most probable speed?
Average speed
what is the equation for the Ideal gas Law?
Charles law
at a constant pressure and moles the volume of a sample of gas is directly related to its temperature in KELVIN
Guy-Lussac's Law
The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin Temperature at constant volume.
P1T2 = P2T1 OR P1/T1 = P2/T2
Average Kinetic Energy of particles
is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
1) # of hits per second
2) force per hit
Avogodro's Law
Two given samples of an ideal gas, at the same temperature, pressure and volume, contain the same number of molecules.
What does varies directly mean
as one increases the other increases
millimeter of mercury (mmHg)
A common unit of pressure referring to the air pressure required to push a column of mercury to a height of 1 mm in a barometer; 760 mmHg = 1 atm.
When the number of moles of gas is increased by a factor of 5, the volume increases by_____
a factor of 5
A real gas most resembles an ideal gas..
under high temperatures and low pressures
Explain the reason water is always the same amount that flows in any section of a pipe
Consider a continuous flow of water through a pipe. Because water doesn't "bunch up", the amount of water that flows past any given section of the pipe is the same as the amount that flows past any other section of the same pipe. This is true whether the pipe widens or narrows. As a consequence of continuous flow, the water in the wide parts will slow down, and in narrow parts, will speed up. You can observe this when you stick your finger over the outlet of the hose
How many atoms of a substance are in 1 mole of that substance?
In 1 mole of a given substance, there are 6.02 x 10²³ atoms.
Avogadro's Law
boyle's law equation
1 atm=x kPa
Carbon Dioxide
Makes Limewater Milky
Constant R
0.0831 atm L/Mol K
GasesExpand spontaneously to fill container; volume of gas = volume of containerHighly compressible; when pressure is applied, volume readily decreasesForm homogenous mixtures regardless of component gasesProperties are because molecules are far apart; molecules behave as if others are not presentVapors: refer to substances in the gaseous state that are normally a solid or liquid at room temperaturePressure: force that acts on a given area P = F AGasees exert a pressure on any surface with which they are in contact.Force = mass x accelerationBarometer: Torricelliglass tube more than 760 mm long, closed at one endfilled with mercury and inverted in a dish of mercuryheight of the mercury in column measures atmospheric pressureStandard Atmospheric Pressure: corresponds to typical pressure at sea level760 mm Hg1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr = 1.0325 x 105 Pa = 101.325 kPaSee notes for illustration and explanation of manometer. Boyle's Law: pressure-volume relationshipPressure decreases, volume increasesPressure increases, volume decreasesVolume and pressure are inversely proportional V = constant x 1/P P1V1 = P2V2 If n and T are constantCharles' Law: temperature-volume relationshipTemperature increases, volume increasesTemperature decreases, volume decreasesDirectly proportional V = constant x T V1 = V2 T1 T2 If n and P are constantLaw of Combining Volumes: the volumes of gases that react with one another are in the ratios of small whole numbersAvogadro's Hypothesis: equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of moleculesAvogadro's Law: the volume of a gas maintained at a constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas V = constant x n V1 = V2 n1 n2 If P and T are constantDoubling moles doubles volumeIdeal Gas Equation: PV = nRT R = 0.08206 L - atm mol - KIdeal Gas: hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior are described completely by the ideal gas equationStandard Temperature and Pressure (STP): 0ºC and 1 atm, 1 mol occupies 22.41 LCombined Gas Law: P1V1 = P2V2 T1 T2Gas Densities and Molar Massd = PM RTDensity depends on pressure, molar mass, and temperature.M = dRT PDalton's Law of Partial Pressures: the total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the pressures that each would exert if it were present aloneAt a constant temperature and volume the total pressure is determined by the total number of moles of gas present.Mole Fraction (x): ratio of number of moles of one component to the total number of moles in the mixture x = n1 nt P1 = x * PtCollecting Gases Over Water: Ptotal = Pgas + PH2OKinetic Molecular TheoryGases consist of large numbers of molecules that are in continuous, random motion.The combined volume of all the molecules of gas is negligible relative to the total volume in which the gas is contained.Attractive and repulsive forces between gas molecules are negligible.Energy can be transferred between molecules during collisions, but the average kinetic energy of the molecules does not change with time, as long as the temperature of the gas remains constant. The collisions are perfectly elastic.The average kinetic energy of the molecules is proportional to the absolute temperature. At any given temperature the molecules of all gases have the same kinetic energy.Pressure is determined by how hard and how often molecules strike the walls of their container.Molecular motion increases with increasing temperature.Root-mean-square (rms) speed (u): the speed of a molecule possessing average kinetic energy u = √(3RT/M)The less massive the molecule, the higher the speed.Applications to the Gas Laws:Boyle's Law: increased volume means molecules must travel a longer distance between strikes on container, lowering the pressureCharles' Law: increase in temperature increases kinetic energy, increases u, increased pressureEffusion: the escape of gas molecules through a tiny hole into an evacuated spaceDiffusion: the spread of particles as a result of thermal motion; spread of one substance throughout a space or throughout a second substanceGraham's Law of EffusionEffusion rate of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass r1/r2 = √(M2/M1)Mean Free Path: average distance traveled by a molecule between collisions; varies with pressureReal GasesDo not behave ideally at high pressureThe deviations from ideal behavior increase as temperature decreasesReal molecules have finite volumes and attract one anotherThe van der Waals Equation(P + n2a)(v - nb) = nRT V2constant a: measure of how strongly gas molecules attract each otherconstant b: measure of the small but finite volume occupied by the gas molecules themselvesa and b increase with increase in mass of molecule and complexity of structure
CO will diffuse ____ than CO2
Absolute temperature is the ______ scale
Postulate 2:
Molecules move randomly in straight lines
What is atmospheric pressure
Changing weather or altitude
The pascal - N/M^2
Absolute Zero
The theoretical temperature at which entropy reaches its minimum value.
Combined Gas Law
relates volume to pressure to temperature. It is defined as the volume occupied by a given amount of gas is proportional to the absolute temperature divided by the pressure
Adiabatic System
completely insulated so that no heat exchange can take place with the surroundings
The most abundant gas on Superman's home planet.
Krypton Gas
Vapor pressure
The pressure exerted by the particles of a vapor above a liquid
ideal gas
A hypothetical gas that follows the ideal gas law.
Charle's Law
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature, if the pressure remains constant
kinetic energy
temp is measurement of the ________ of the gas particles
At constant temperature, if pressure increases by a factor of 2, what does the volume do?
It decreases by half.
It has less lifting power. It is rare and expensive , but it is much safer. It has no tendency to burn because it is a noble gas.
Graham's Law
A law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its moleclar weight, r= rate of effusion. r1/r2= sqrt(mw2/mw1)
Dalton's Law
the total pressure is equal to the sum of its parts.
Archimedes principle
Explain why a blimp or boat rise or stay afloat? Whose concept is it and what does it mean?
reversible change
when matter can be changed back to an earlier state.
A gas is matter that has no shape or size of its own, and has no color.
Why doesn't the pressure of the atmosphere break windows?
The atmospheric pressure doesn't normally break windows because it acts on BOTH sides of a window. So no net force is exterted by the atmosphere on the windows
Four statements of the kinetic molecular theory
ideal gas molecules have essentially no volume, ideal gas particles are in constant rapid motion in all directions unnitl they collide with other particles(ASK), there are no attractive or repulsive forces between particles, average kinetic energy of particles is directly proportional to absolute temperature
What's the pressure like in fast moving water?
The pressure within fast-moving water in a fire hose is relatively low, whereas the pressure that the water can exert on anything in its path to slow it down may be huge.
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure
the total of pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases
On the periodic table, the masses given for the elements are masses for what quantity of the element?
The masses given for the elements are masses for 1 mole of the element.
number of moles
Standard temperature and standard atmospheric pressure.
Stage 2 renal disease
GFR 60-89
ideal gas law equation
PV = nRT
Charles' Equation
V1 = V2
T1 = T2
Temperature and pressure are ... related
he reciprocal of the bulk modulus, equal to the ratio of the fractional change in volume to the stress applied to a body.
Used to measure the pressure of enclosed gas
The spreading of one substance through another.
Boyle's Equation
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
Gay Lussac's Equation
P1 / T1 = P2 / T2
Conditions that affect force:
velocity, number, and mass of particles
partial pressure
the pressure of a gas in a mixture
Gay-Lussac's Law
the law that states that the pressure of a gas at a constant volume is directly proportional to the absolute temperature., P1/T1=P2/T2
joule (J)
unit of energy given by newtons * meters
ideal gas model
the model for gases that assumes the particles are point masses (they have mass but no volume) and there are no attractive or repulsive forces between the particles.
charles law define
the law that states that for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure, the volume of the gas increases as the temperature of the gas increases and the volume of the gas decreases as the temperature of the gas decreases
Boyles Law
The volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversley proportional to it's pressure at constant temperature (K)
What does an indirect relationship mean?
If one variable increases, the other variable increases.
Graham's Law of Diffusion
The rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of the mass of its particles.
Gas Density (molar volume)
22.4 L of ANY gas AT STP = 1 mole
density = mass / volume
How can you test the property that states all gases have mass? (pg 419)
weighing a basketball when it is empty and full of air
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