PMBOK Chapter 1 and Appendixes - Introduction and Extras Flashcards

Terms Definitions
What is a Project?
A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. Temporary means that every project has a definite beginning and a definite end.
How is the end of a Project determined?
The end is reached when the project's objectives have been achieved, or it becomes clear that the project objectives will not or cannot be met, or the need for the project no longer exists and the poject is terminated.
What does a project create?
A project creates unique deliverables, which are products, services, or results. Uniqueness is an important characteristic of project deliverables.
What is Project Management?
The application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.
How many project management processes are there?
What are the process groups?
- Initiating
- Planning
- Executing
- Monitoring and Controlling
- Closing
What constraints are balanced in Project Management?
Scope, Quality, Schedule, Budget, Resources and Risks
What is Progressive Elaboration?
Continuously improving and detailing a plan as more detailed and specific information and more accurate estimates become available as the project progresses, thereby producing more accurate and complete plans from successive iterations of the planning process.
What is the hierarchy of Project Management?
1. Strategic Plan
2. Portfolio
3. Program
4. Project
5. Subproject
What is Portfolio Management?
A Portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of work to meet strategic business objectives.
Why is Portfolio Management referred to as "The Investment View"?
To achieve strategic objectives we must invest in projects to effect change. Those investments are limited by financial constraints, and must be prioritized so that the greatest benefit is achieved within the limited resources available.
What is Program Management?
A group of projects managed in a coordinated way to obtain benefits and control not available from managing them individually. Programs may include elements of related work outside the scope of the projects in the program. A project m ay or may not be part of a program, but a program always has projects.
What are Subprojects?
They are a smaller portion of the overall project. They are created when a project is subdivided into more management components or pieces.
What are some strategic considerations during strategic planning?
Market demand
Strategic opportunity or business need
Customer request
Technological advance
Legal requirements
Maintenance of production capability
What is a Project Management Office?
An organizational unit to centralize and coordinate the management of projects under its domain. Responsibilities of a PMO may range from providing support functions to actual responsibility for the management of a project.
What are some potential PMO functions?
- Managing shared resources across projects
- Fostering project management methodology, project policies, procedures, templates, best practices, and standards
- Coaching, mentoring, training, and oversight
- Monitoring compliance with standards, policies, procedures, and templates via project audits
- Coordinating communications across projects
What are the three PMO implementation models?
1. Project Control
2. Organizational Project Control
3. Enterprise Project Management
What does the PMO model "Project Control" do?
Manages planning, cost, schedule, and resources at a project level. Develops and supports project management processes.
What does the PMO model " Organizational Project Control" do?
Develops and supports development and organizational processes. Coordinates project management, schedule, and cost across the organization
What does the PMO model "Enterprise Project Management" do?
Supports strategic planning and project portfolio management. "Owns" the organization's project managers, trains them and assigns t hem to projects. Develops and supports the development and organizational processes.
What does the Gartner Group say about PMOs?
Information Services organizations that establish enterprise standards for project management, including a Project Office with suitable governance, will experience half the major project cost overruns, delays and cancellations of those that do not.
What is the difference between Operations Management versus Project Management?
Operations Management is ongoing and repetitive. Its objective is to sustain the business.
What is the role of the Project Manager?
The Project Manager is the person assigned by the organization to achieve the project objectives.
What is the role of the Functional Manager?
The Functional Manager is focused on management oversight of an administrative area.
What is the role of the Operations Manager?
The Operations Manager is focused on a facet of the core business (production, sales, etc.)
What are characteristics of a Project Manager?
- Knowledge of project management
- Area specific skills and general management proficiencies
- Performance capabilities while apply knowledge
- Personal characteristics driving how the manager behaves in doing project management: Attitudes, Core Personality, Leadership
What are Enterprise Environmental Factors?
These are internal and external environmental factors that influence a project's success. They may enhance or constrain project management options. They may have a positive or negative influence on outcomes. The are inputs to most planning processes.
What are examples of Enterprise Environmental Factors?
- Organizational culture, structure and processes
- Government or industry standards
- Infrastructure
- Existing human resources
- Personnel administration
- Work authorization systems
- Marketplace conditions
- Stakeholder risk tolerance
- Political climate
- Established communication channels
- Commercial databases for estimating, etc
- PMIS (Project Management Information System)
What are Application Areas?
Application Areas are categories of projects that have common elements significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of:
- Functional departments and supporting disciplines (legal, marketing, etc)
- Technical elements (software devs, design engineering, etc)
- Management specializations (community dev, new product dev)
- Industry groups (HVAC, automotive, etc)
What is a Standard?
A standard is "a document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides (for common and repeated use) rules, guidelines, or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context." They vary from industry to industry and country to country.
What is a Regulation?
A regulation is a "government-imposed requirement, which specifies product, process or service characteristics, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory." They vary from government body to government body, often within the same country or locale.
Flash Fact!
Regulators are Stakeholders!
What are the cultural and social environment aspects that affect the project?
What is Culture?
Culture is the "totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought. Everything that people have, think, and do as members of their society. Culture is transmitted through the process of learning and interacting with one's environment rather than through the process of genetics.
What is Generalization?
A Generalization is a starting point for any kind of study.
What is a Stereotype?
A Stereotype is a closed system of belief. Often it's a negative interpretation of a cultural generalization.
What is Ethnocentrism?
Ethnocentrism is culture centered. "My way is normal; your way is not."
What is Culture Shock?
Culture Shock is disorientation felt by those living or working in a different culture.
How does language differ by culture?
Gender: masculine, feminine, neuter is applied to nouns in many languages.
Sex: specific roles
Technology - advanced vs. basic
Sports analogies (Football vs. soccer)
Distinctions - I versus we
What are examples of Non-Verbal communication?
Facial expressions
Eye contact
Clothing, artifacts, hair styles, scents
What are examples of culture complexities?
Slang - Subculture (colloquialisms, Professions, Advertising)
Verbal dueling
Culture Myths
What aspects do cultures often differ on?
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Environment?
Control over it (humans can change it to suit their needs)
Harmony with it (People live in harmony with the world)
Constrained by it (The world places limits)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Time?
Single-focused (task-oriented)
Multi-focused (Simultaneous tasks)
Fixed/Linear (Time sliced into fixed periods)
Fluid/Natural (Time is a process)
Past (emphasis on tradition)
Present (emphasis on short term)
Future (trade short term goals for long term results)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Action?
Doing (what one does is more important than who one is)
Being (emphasis on quality of life)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Communication?
High Context (Broad context needs to be established)
Low Context (Focus on the business, not the personal)
Direct (Address conflict directly)
Indirect (Conflict handled either by avoidance or third parties)
Formal (Adherence to social rank and business status)
Informal (Aversion to social rank)
Instrumental (Problem-centered)
Expressive (Use of emotions/gestures)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Space?
Private (Orientation towards partitioned areas)
Public (Orientation towards open spaces)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Power?
Hierarchy (Value placed on power difference between groups)
Equality (Value placed on the minimization of levels of power)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Individualism?
Individualistic (High value on independence)
Collectivist (Loyalty and obedience to group)
Universalistic (Abstract rules before relationships)
Particularistic (Relationships before abstract rules)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Competitiveness?
Competitive (Achievement, assertiveness, and material success reinforced)
Cooperative (emphasis placed on quality of life, interdependence and relationships)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Structure?
Order (threatened by ambiguity)
Flexibility (tolerance for ambiguity and deviation)
How do cultural attitudes differ regarding Thinking?
Deductive (Focus on why)
Inductive (Focus on what and how)
Linear (break large pieces into small chunks)
Systemic (Integrated approach)
What legal and ethical constraints must all PMI members comply with?
PMI members must comply with the PMI Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, with company polices and standards, and then with the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
What constraints are listed in the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) of 1977?
Makes it unlawful to bribe government officials to obtain or retain business.
Permits payment only for routine governmental action (Permits, Police Protection, Utilities, etc).
Record-Keeping and internal control.
What interpersonal skills are essential for project managers?
Team Building
Decision Making
Political and Cultural Awareness
What are the most important project management skills according to Project Managers?
1. Communication skills - 84% (Listening, Persuading)
2. Organization Skills - 75% (Planning, Goal setting, Analyzing)
3. Team building skills - 72% (Empathy, Motivation, Esprit de Corps)
4. Leadership skills - 68% (Sets Example, Energetic, Vision, Delegates, Positive)
5. Coping skills - 59% (Flexibility, Creativity, Patience, Persistence)
6. Technological skills - 46% (Experience, Project Knowledge)
What is Leadership?
Leadership is a style of behavior designed to integrate both the organizational requirements and one's personal interests into the pursuit of some objective. It is the ability to develop a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy. It is the process of influencing other team members towards a goal. It is the ability to get things done well through others.
Regarding balancing technical and managerial project functions, what happens if the PM has greater technical experience?
The greater the PM's technical expertise, the higher his propensity to over-involve himself in the technical details of the project.
Regarding balancing technical and managerial project functions, what happens if the PM has greater difficulty in delegating technical tasks responsibilities?
The greater the PM's difficulty in delegating technical task responsibilities, the more likely it is that he will over-involve himself in the technical details of the project (depending on his ability to do so).
Regarding balancing technical and managerial project functions, what happens if the PM has greater interest in the technical details of the project?
The greater the PM's interest in the technical details of the project, the more likely it is that he will defend the PM's role as one of a technical specialist.
Regarding balancing technical and managerial project functions, what happens if the PM has lower technical expertise?
The lower the PM's technical expertise, the more likely it is that he will overstress the nontechnical project functions (administrative functions).
What does Verma's project leadership acronym L.E.A.D. stand for?
L - Listen to your project team and the client (build trust among stakeholders)
E - Encourage the heart of team members (motivation)
A - Act as a real team (inspire team for high performance)
D - Deliver the deliverable (with emphasis on quality)
What does the Rees leadership acronym L.E.A.D. stand for?
L - Lead with a clear purpose
E - Empower to participate
A - Aim for consensus
D - Direct the process
What are Rees ten essentials of teamwork?
1. Common goals
2. Leadership
3. Interaction and involvement of all members
4. Maintenance of individual self-esteem
5. Open communication
6. Power within the group to make decisions
7. Attention to both process and content
8. Mutual trust
9. Respect for differences
10. Constructive conflict resolution
What is the difference between leading and managing?
Leadership is a subset of management. Leading emphasizes mainly behavioral issues.
Managing covers non-behavioral and behavioral issues, such as aspects of planning, organizing, directing, controlling and influencing, including motivating and rewarding.
What are some key aspects of Project Leadership?
- Set direction/vision
- Inspire teamwork
- Align employees
- Motivate and support
What are some key aspects of Project Management?
- Plan and budget
- Organize work groups
- Staff project
- Control project
How to Project Leaders differ from Project Managers?
Project leaders do the right things; project managers do things right. Leaders focus on effectiveness, while managers focus on efficiency.
How is leadership emphasized in Initiating and Planning?
Vision, creativity, analysis, facilitation, integration, innovation
How is management emphasized in Executing, Monitoring and Controlling?
Organization, interface management, training, task direction, performance reporting, schedule and cost control, administration
Team development/maturity stages - how do teams behave in stage 1. Forming?
Team members are polite, guarded, and businesslike. Leaders should emphasize directive behavior.
Team development/maturity stages - how do teams behave in stage 2. Storming?
Team members confront each other, struggle for control and either become entrenched or opt out. Leaders should display directive and supportive behavior.
Team development/maturity stages - how do teams behave in stage 3. Norming?
Team members confront issues instead of people, establish procedures collectively and become team oriented. Leaders must provide high support and low direction.
Team development/maturity stages - how do teams behave in stage 4. Performing?
Team members settle down to open and productive effort. Leaders must be willing to delegate and provide low direction and low support.
Team development/maturity stages - how do teams behave in stage 5. Adjourning?
Team completes its work and moves on.
Describe the Fielder Leadership Contingency Model.
- Holds that there is no best overall style
- Style is contingent on the situation
- Variables affecting the situation include: Leader, degree of task structure and position power
Describe the Hersey and Blanchard Situation Leadership Model
Identifies four leadership styles:

1. Telling
2. Selling
3. Participating
4. Delegating
What can motivation not be accomplished without?
Motivation cannot be accomplished without a least a fundamental knowledge of human behavior.
What's the difference between content and process motivation theories?
Content theories attempt to determine the link between intrinsic factors and certain behaviors.
Process theories explore how personal factors interact and influence each other to procedure behaviors.
Describe Maslow's hierarchy of Needs
1. Self-Actualization
2. Esteem
3. Social/Affiliation
4. Safety/Security
5. Physiological
Describe the Herzberg's Motivator/Hygiene Theory
Hygiene factors
- Compensation
- Company policies and administration
- Working Conditions
- Relationships with supervisors and subordinates
- Relationships with peers
- Level of supervision (too much or too little

- Opportunity for advancement
- Opportunity for achievement
- Challenge or variety in work
- Sense of responsibility
- Opportunity for recognition and personal growth
What does a McGregor's Theory X manager assume of the average worker?
McGregor's Theory X managers assume the average worker:
- is gullible and not very bright
- is indifferent to the organization's needs
- dislikes work
- is motivated only by financial incentives
- must be closely supervised
What does a McGregor's Theory Y manager assume of the average worker?
McGregor's Theory Y managers assume the average worker:
- feels work is natural
- can enjoy work
- is motivated by the desire to do a good job
- might do a better job if control is minimized.
- has potential for development and advancement
What does Ouchi's Theory Z manager assume of the average worker?
Ouchi's Theory Z Managers assume the average worker wants to be involved in managing a company and building trust among all organizational members is central to raising productivity.
What is Ouchi's Theory Z secret to Japanese success and quality?
Ouchi's Theory Z secret to Japanese success and quality is not technology but a special way of handling people.
What are the three ingredients to Ouchi's Theory Z?
The three ingredients to Ouchi's theory Z are:
- Trust
- Recognize ever-changing relationship among people
- Intimacy
What are the Cultural Values of Ouchi's Theory Z?
The Cultural Values of Ouchi's theory Z are:
- Lifetime employment
- Slow promotions and infrequent evaluations
- Non-specialized career paths
- Collective decision-making and responsibility
What is the Expectancy Theory?
The Expectancy Theory is if there is expectation for favorable change, motivation will take place. People will behave in ways they believe will lead to desired outcome.
What is the Equity Theory?
The Equity Theory is that people are motivated by desire to be treated equitably. Team members compare their job inputs and outcomes with others on the project. Inequities influence the degree of effort exerted.
What is the most important part of a Project Manager's job?
The most important part of a Project Manager's job is communicating with stakeholders. Project Managers spend 90% of their time communicating.
What is effective communication?
Effective communications is:
- An exchange of information.
- An act or instance of transmitting information
- A verbal or written message
- A technique for expressing ideas effectively
- A process by which meanings are exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols
What happens as the number of people involved in communication increases?
As the number of people involved in communication increases, the number of communication channels increases geometrically:
Where: n = number of people (senders and receivers)
In the basic communication model there is a sender and a receiver. What does the sender do?
The sender is the originator of a message. The sender determines what information to share, encodes this information in the form of a message, and then transmits the message as a signal to the receiver.
In the basic communication model there is a sender and a receiver. What does the receiver do?
The receiver is the intended audience for the message. The receiver decodes the transmitted message to determine its meaning and then responds accordingly. If the message decoded is the same as the sender intended, communication is successful.
What is Encode?
Encode is the translating of thoughts or ideas into a language that is understood by others.
What is Message?
Message is the output of encoding.
What is Medium?
Medium is the method used to convey the message.
What are some filters and noises that can impact the receiving of messages?
Receiving can be impacted by Filters and Noise such as:
- Hearing acuity
- Reading skills
- Visual acuity
- Tactile sensitivity
- Olfactory sensitivity
- Extrasensory perception
What is Noise?
Noise is anything that interferes with the transmission and understanding of the message such as: Words, Judgements, Emotions, Culture, Values and Personalities
What is Decode?
Decode is the translation of a message back into meaningful thoughts or ideas.
What is Feedback (message)?
Feedback (message) is the response (message) from Receiver to Sender for Sender's Message.
The success of project managers is directly proportional to their communication skills in what four directions?
1. Upward: Corporate management, clients, sponsor for organization support, requirements, guidance, and funding.
2. Lateral Internal: Functional managers and other project managers for resources
3. Lateral External: Stakeholders - regulators, public, press
4. Downward: Project team, contractors, subcontractors, subordinates for project management
During Stakeholder Analysis, what questions should you ask about your audience?
Who is the Audience?
What is their job, role, responsibility?
What do they know?
What do they NOT know?
What do they want to know/receive?
What should they NOT know/receive?
What response do you want from them?
How might they react to your message?
What are some techniques for improving communication?
- Obtain feedback, possibly in more than one form
- Establish multiple communication channels
- Use face to face communications when possible
- Determine how sensitive the receiver is to the message
- Be aware of nonverbal meaning such as facial expressions
- Use simple language
- Reinforce words with actions
- Use repetition (present material in different ways)
- Choose medial appropriate to the receiver and to the message
Communication Style - Authoritarian
Gives expectations and specific guidance
Communication Style - Promotional
Cultivates team spirit
Communication Style - Facilitating
Guilds guidance as required, non-interfering
Communication Style - Conciliatory
Friendly and agreeable, builds compatible team
Communication Style - Judicial
Uses sound judgement
Communication Style - Ethical
Honest, fair, by the book
Communication Style - Secretive
Not open or outgoing
Communication Style - Disruptive
Breaks unity of group, agitator
Communication Style - Intimidating
"tough guy," can lower moral
Communication Style - Combative
Eager to fight or be disagreeable
For total message impact, what is the percentage breakdown between Words, Vocal Tones and Facial Expressions.
Words 7%
Vocal Tones 38%
Facial Expressions 55%
Presentation Techniques

1. The Introduction
Tell 'em what you're going to tell 'em

- Get the audience's attention
- Around their interest
- Introduce yourself, the idea, and the purpose
Presentation Techniques

2. The Explanation
Tell 'em

- Develop idea logically; use examples
- How the idea relates to the audience
- Use audience's language
- Use visual aides
Presentation Techniques

3. The Summary/Conclusion
Tell 'em what you told 'em

- Restate the idea and how the idea relates to the audience
- Invite questions and feedback
- Call for action/decision, be specfic
Meeting Management Techniques
- Start on time
- Develop agenda 'objectives'
- Conduct one piece of business at a time
- Allow each emmber to contribute
- Actively seek opinions
- Confront the verbose member
- Test the readiness to make; make; and test for commitment to the decision
- Assign roles and responsibilities, agree on follow-up with due dates, indicate next step(s)
- Set time and place for next meeting
- End on time
- Ask, "Was the meeting necessary?"
What is Power?
Power is an ability to influence others so that they will respond favorably to the instructions issued to them.
What is Authority?
Authority is the formal power given to a person due to their hierarchical position on the organization chart. It is the power granted to individuals (possibly by their position) so that they can make final decisions for others to follow.
What is Politics?
Politics is an activity concerned with the acquisition of power.
What is the difference between Authority and Power?
Authority is the right to command or give orders whereas power is an ability to command through influencing others and getting them to do what you want them to do, when you want them to do it, and in the manner you propose.
What is Responsibility?
Responsibility is the obligation incurred by individuals in their roles in the formal organization in order to effectively perform assignments.
What is Accountability?
Accountability is the state of being totally answerable for the satisfactory completion of a specific assignment.
What is the formula for Accountability?
Authority + Responsibility = Accountability
What are the five major categories of power according to French & Raven?
Legitimate, Reward, Coercive, Referent and Expert
What are the five major categories of power according to Mitchell?
Formal Authority, Rewards, Punishment, Charisma and Expertise
What are the four basic styles of decision making?
Command, Consultation, Consensus and Coin flip
What factors affect the use of a decision making style?
Time constraints, Trust, Quality and Acceptance
Describe the four steps of the scientific method.
1. Observation and description of a phenomenon
2. Formulation of a hypothesis to explain the phenomena.
3. Use the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena
4. Performance of experimental tests of the predictions by several independent experimenters and properly performed experiments.
What are the steps for solving Technical Problems?
1. Input data to mental process (get the facts)
2. Analyze data
3. Predict outcomes
4. Evaluate outcomes and compare alternatives
5. Choose the best alternative
6. Take action
7. Measure results and compare them with predictions
What are the steps for solving Interpersonal Problems?
1. Identify the problem or goal (Get the facts, hear from as many as possible)
2. Generate alternate solutions
3. Establish objective criteria for solution
4. Decide on a solution that best fits the criteria
5. Proceed with the solution
6. Evaluate the solution
What are some useful questions when trying to identify the source of an Interpersonal Problem?
- What seems to be the problem?
- How do you see the problem?
- What seems to be causing the problem?
- If the problem were solved, what would happen?
Describe Constructive Confrontation
1. Be direct and to the point
2. Be specific about what is the problem
3. Keep a positive and constructive tone and manner
4. Give the team member a chance to respond
5. Remember: the objective is to find out what went wrong and how you can both fix it, NOT who was wrong.
What is Negotiation?
Negotiation is the conferring with others to come to terms with them or reach an agreement. In a project, negotiation involves bargaining with individuals concerning the transfer of resources, the generation of information, and the accomplishment of activities.
What does Conflict Management consist of?
Conflict management consists of a diagnostic process; a selection of interpersonal style, communication and negotiating strategies; the development of trust and respect; and structural interventions designed to avoid unnecessary conflict and reduce or resolve excessive conflict
What are the principles of negotiating?
1. Separate the people from the problem
2. Focus on common interests
3. Generate options that advance shared interests
4. Results based on standard criteria
What are the steps of negotiating?
1. Pre-negotiation planning (planning how to conduct negotiations)
2. Actual negotiations or agreements (working out the details and reaching an agreement)
3. Post-negotiation critique (evaluating how successful the negotiation process and outcome was)
What are the three methods of negotiation?
1. Soft - Friendly, with emphasis on avoiding personal conflict.
2. Hard - Situation is a contest with parties taking strong positions and seeing others as adversaries
3. Principled - Separate people from the problem. Focus on interests, not positions. Generate options/alternatives for mutual gain.
What are the five stages of a Negotiation Meeting?
1. Protocol: Introduction & stage setting
2. Probing: Each party states concerns. Strengths and weaknesses are discovered.
3. Scratch Bargaining: Points of concession are offered through actual bargaining.
4. Closure: Final concessions are documented.
5. Agreement: Mutual understanding of terms and concessions are recorded in the contract.
Negotiation Tactics and Terms
Time pressure by Deadline - travel plans
Stalling - based on the missing man
Fair and Reasonable 0 others are paying the same price or agreeing to the same terms
Reasoning together - work out problems to the benefit of both
Withdrawal - to hide position weakness
Make other party seem Unreasonable - concede on a number of minor issues, then on a major issue, point out all the concessions that have been given and accuse the other party of being unreasonable
Arbitration - a third party brought in to help in reaching an agreement
Fait Accompli - what is asked for has already been accomplished and cannot be changed
What are the conventional views of change?
- Caused by troublemakers
- Bad
- Results from poor planning and mistakes in the initial organization design
- Creates problems and difficulties by displacing experienced personnel
- Disrupts the status quo
- Should be avoided
- Must be controlled and suppressed
- best implemented by "getting it over quickly"
What are the contemporary views of change?
- Inevitable as organizations react to external pressure
- Often beneficial
- Natural result of evolution and growl
- Provides opportunities for individual participation and involvement
- Provides for challenges and growth
- Should be welcomed
- Can and should be managed
- Requires time for individual acceptance
Where do half of the conflicts come from in project management?
Schedules, Priorities and Human Resources
Conflict Resolution Style - Withdrawing / Avoiding
- It fails to resolve conflict.
- Task/relationship is not critical.
- Neither can adapt and differences are destructive
Conflict Resolution Style - Smoothing / Accommodating
- It's only temporary
- Task/relationship is not critical
- Other party won't adapt and they have power
Conflict Resolution Style - Forcing
- May result in hard feelings
- Used if the task is critical and time is limited
- You have the power
Conflict Resolution Style - Collaborating
- Provides long-term resolution
- Seeking consensus and commitment
Conflict Resolution Style - Confronting / Problem-Solving
- Provides ultimate resolution
Conflict Resolution Style - Compromising
- Provides definitive resolution
- Bargaining for solutions
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