Davidson Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Forensic Psychology
application of the science and profession of psychology to questions and issues relating to law and the legal system
Forensic Psychiatry
branch of psychiatry pertaining to the study of crime and criminality
Psychological Theory
derived from the behavioral sciences thatt focuses on the individual
the frequency of any behavior can be increased or decreased through reward, punishment or association with other stimuli
personality disorder characterized by antisocial behavior and lack of affect
Psychopath/ sociopath
individual who has a personality disorder, especially one manifested in aggressively antisocial behavior and who is lacking in empathy
Antisocial (asocial) personality
individuals who are basically unsociolized and whose behavior pattern brings them repeatedly into conflict with society
electrical measurement of brain wave activity
Psychiatric criminology
theories that are derived from the medical sciences and that focus on the individual as the unit of analysis
theory of human psychology founded by Freud on the concepts of the unconscious, resistance, repression, sexuality and the Oedipus Complex
Form of Psychiatric treatment based on psychoanalytical principles and techniques
pleasure principle
Reality Principle
Ethical Principle
Psychological process whereby one aspect of consciousness comes to be symbolically substituted for another
death wish
functional disorder of the mind or the emotions involving anxiety, phobia...
form of mental illness in which sufferers are said to be out of touch with reality
mentally ill individual who is out of touch with reality and suffers from disjointed thinking
Paranoid Schizophrenic
schizophrenic individual who suffers from delusions and hallucinations
Alloplastic Adaptation
form of adjustment that results from changes in the environment surrounding the individual
autoplastic adaptation
a form of adjustment that results from changes within an individual
Modeling theory
form of special learning theory that asserts that people learn how to act by observing others
Behavior Theory
psychological perspective that posits that individual behavior that is rewarded will increase and that which is punished will decrease
operant behavior
behavior that affects the environment in such a  way as to produce responses
attachment theory
successful development of secure attachment between child and parent provides the basic foundation for all psychological development
person's ability to alter their responses
insanity (legal)
inability to understand right from wrong or to conform one's behavior to the requirements of the law
insanity (psychological)
persistent mental disorder
M'Naughten rule
standard for judging legal insanity that requires that offenders not know what they were doing, or if they did, that they not know it was wrong
irresistible-impulse test
holds that a defendant is not guilty of a criminal offense if the person, by virtue of his or her mental state or psychological condition, was not able to resist committing the action in question
Durham Rule
standard for judging legal insanity that holds that an accused is not criminally responsible if his or her unlawful act was the product of mental disease or mental defect
Substantial-capacity test
standard for judging legal insanity that requires that a person lack the mental capacity needed to understand the wrongfulness of his or her act or to conform his or her behavior to the requirements of the law
Brawner rule
delegates the responsibility to the jury to determine what constitutes insanity
guilty but mentally ill (GBMI)
a finding that offenders are guilty of the criminal offense with which they are charged, but because of their prevailing mental condition, they are generally sent to psychiatric hospitals for treatment rather than prison. once cured, such offenders can be transferred to correctional facilities to serve out their sentences
Selective Incapacitation
social policy that seeks to protect society by incarcerating the individuals deemed to be the most dangerous
Correctional Psychology
branch of forensic psychology concerned with the diagnosis and classification of offenders, the treatment of correctional populations, and the rehabilitation of inmates and other law violators
Psychological Profiling
attempt to categorize, understand and predict the behavior of certain types of offenders based on behavioral clues they provide
sociological theory
a perspective that focuses on the nature of the power relationships that exist between social groups and on the influences that various socail phenomena bring to bear on the types of behaviros that ted to characterize groups of people
social structure
the pattern of socail organization and the interrelationships among institutions characteristic of a society
social process
the interaction between and among social institutions, individuals and groups
social life
the ongoing and typically structured interaction that occurs between persons in a society, including socialization and social behavior in general
social structure theory
a theory that explains crime by reference to some aspect of the socail fabric. These theories emphasize relationships among social institutions and describe the types of behavior that tend to characterize groups of people rather than individuals
social disorganization theory
a perspective on crime and deviance that sees society as a kind of organism and crime and deviance as a kind of disease or social pathology. Theories of social disorganization are often associated with the perspective of social ecology and with the Chicago School of criminology
social disorganization
a condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus
social ecology
an approach to criminological theorizing that attempts to link the structure and organization of a human cummunity to interactions with its localized environment
social pathology
a concept that compares society to a physical organism and that sees criminality as an illness
cultural transmission
the transmission of delinquency through successive generations of people living in the same area through a process of social communication
ecological theory
a type of sociological approach that emphasizes demographics and geographics and that sees the social disorganization that characterizews delinquency areas as a major cause of criminality and victimization
Chicago School of Criminology
An ecological approach to explaining crime that examined how social disorganization contributes to social pathology
criminology of place
A perspective that emphasizes the importance of geographic location and architectural features as they are associated with the prevalence of criminal victimization
environmental criminology
an emerging perspective that emphasizes the importance of geographic location and architectural features as they are associated with the prevalence of criminal victimization
broken windows thesis
a perspective on crime causation that holds that physical deterioration in an area leads to increased concerns for persoanl safety among area residents and to higher crime rates in that area
defensible space
the range of mechanisms that combine to bring an environment under the control of its residents
a socail condition in which norms are uncertain or lacking
strain theory
a sociological approach that posits a disjuncture between socially and subculturally sanctioned means and goals as the cause of criminal behavior
relative deprivation
a sense of social or economic inequality experienced by those who are unable, for whatever reason, to achieve legitimate success within the surrounding society
distributive justice
the rightful, equitable, and just distribution of rewards within a society
general strain theory (GTS)
a perspective that suggests that lawbreaking behavior is a coping mechanism that enables those who engage in it to deal with the socioemotional problems generated by negative social relations
negative affective states
adverse emotions that derive from the experience of strain, such as ange, fear, depression, and disappointment
culture conflict theory
a sociological perspective on crime that suggests that the root cause of criminality can be found in a clash of values between variously socialized groups over what is acceptable or proper behavior
conduct norms
shared expectations of a social group relative to personal conduct
a collection of values and preferences that is communicated to subcultural participants through a process of socialization
subcultural theory
a sociological perspective that emphasizes the contribution made by variously socialized cultural groups to the phenomenon of crime
focal concerns
the key values of any culture, especially the key values of a delinquent subculture
techniques of neutralization
culturally available justifications that can provide criminal offenders with the means to disavow responsiblity for their behavior
illegitimate opportunity structure
subcultural pathways to success that the wider society disapproves of
reaction formation
the process by which a person openly rejects taht which he or she wants or aspires to but cannot obtain or achieve
Chicago Area Project
A program focusing on urban ecology and originating at the University of Chicago during the 1930s, which attempted to reduce delinquency, crime, and social disorganization in transitional neighborhoods
social process theory
a theory that asserts that criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others and that socialization processes that occur as the result of group membership are the primary route through which learning occurs
learning theory
a perspective that places primary emphasis upon the role of communication and socialization in the acquisition of learned patterns of criminal behavior and the values that support that behavior
differential association
the sociological thesis that criminality, like nay other form of behavior, is learned through a process of association with others who communicate criminal values
differential identification theory
an explanation for crime and deviance that holds that people pursue criminal or deviant behavior to the extent that they identify themselves with real or imaginary people from whose perspective their criminal or deviant behavior seems acceptable
social control theory
a perspective that predicts that when social constraints on antisocial behavior are weakened or absent, delinquent behavior emerges. Rather than stressing causative factors in criminal behavior, control theory asks why people actually obey rules instead of breaking them
containment theory
a form of control theory that suggests that a series of both internal and external factors contributes to law-abiding behavior
aspects of the social bond that act to prevent individuals from committing crimes that keep them from engaging in deviance
social bond
the link, created through socialization, between individuals and the society of which they are a part
general theory of crime
asserts that the operation of a single mechanism, low self-control, accounts for all crime at all times
control ratio
the amount of control to which a person is subject versus the amount of control that person exerts over others
the process whereby an individual is negatively defined by agencies of justice
secondary deviance
deviant behavior that results from official labeling and from association with others who have been so labeled
an interactionist perspective that sees continued crime as a consequence of limited opportunities for acceptable behavior that follow from the negative responses of society to those defined as offenders
moral enterprise
the efforts made by an interest group to have its sense of moral or ethical propriety enacted into law
stigmatic shaming
a form of shaming, imposed as a sanction by the criminal justice system, that is thought to destroy the moral bond between the offender and the community
reintegrative shaming
a form of shaming, imposed as a sanction by the criminal justice system, that is thought to strengthen the moral bond between the offender and the community
dramaturgical perspective
a theoretical point of view that depicts human behavior as centered around the purposeful management of interpersonal impressions
impression management
the intentional enactment of practiced behavior that is intended to convey to others one's desirable personal characteristics and social qualities
discrediting information
information that is inconsistent with the managed impressions being communicated in a given situation
total institution
a facility from which individuals can rarely come and go and in which communal life is intense and circumscribed. 
prosocial bonds
bonds between the individual and the social group that strengthen the likelihood of conformity. characterized by attachment to conventional social institutions, values and beliefs
human development
the relationship between the maturing individual and his or her changing environment, as well as the social processes that the relationship entails
social development perspective
and integrated view of human development that examines multiple levels of maturation simultaneously, including the psychological, biological, familial, interpersonal, cultural, societal, and ecological levels
life course criminology
draws attention to the fact that criminal behavior tends to follow a distinct pattern across the life cycle
criminal career
the longitudinal sequence of crimes committed by an individual offender
life course
pathways through the age-differentiated life span; the course of a person's life over time
human agency
the active role that people take in their lives; the fact that people are not merely subject to social and structural constraints but actively make choices and decisions based on the alternatives that they see before them
social capital
the degree of positive relationships with others and with social institutions that individuals build up over the course of their lives
continuity in crime, or continual involvement in offending
the cessation of criminal activity or the termination of a period of involvement in offending behavior
Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development
a longitudinal (life course) study of crime and delinquency tracking a cohort of 411 boys born in London in 1953
cohort analysis
a social scientific technique that studies over time a population with common characteristics. Cohort analysis usually begins at birth and traces the development of cohort members until they reach a certain age
evolutionary ecology
an approach to understanding crime that draws attention tot he ways people develop over the course of their lives
interactional theory
a theoretical approach to exploring crime and delinquency that blends social control and social learning perspectives
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN)
an intensive study of Chicago neighborhoods employing longitudinal evaluations to examine the changing circumstances of people's lives in an effort to identify personal characteristics that may lead toward or away from antisocial behavior
consensus model
an analytical perspective on social organization that holds that most members of society agree about what is right and what is wrong and that the various elements of society work together in unison toward a common vision of the greater good
pluralist perspective
an analytical approach to social organization that holds that a multiplicity of values and beliefs exists in any complex society but that most social actors agree on the usefulness of law as a formal means of dispute resolution
conflict perspective
an analytical perspective on social organization that holds that conflict is a fundamental aspect of social life itself and can never be fully resolved
In Marxist theory, the working class
In Marxist theory, the class of people who own the means of production
social class
distinctions made between individuals on the basis of important defining social characteristics
radical criminology
a perspective that holds that the causes of crime are rooted in social conditions that empower the wealthy and the politically well organized but disenfranchise the less fortunate
Marxist criminology
A perspective on crime and crime causation based on the writings of Karl Marx
structural Marxism
A perspective that holds that the structural institutions of society influence the behavior of individuals and groups by virtue of the type of relationships created
instrumental Marxism
A perspective that holds that those in power intentionally create laws and social institutions that serve their own interests and that keep others from becoming powerful
critical criminology
A perspective that holds that crime is the natural product of a capitalist system
left-realist criminology
An approach to the subject matter of criminology based on ideas inherent in the perspective of left realism
left realism
A conflict perspective that insists on a pragmatic assessment of crime and its associated problems
feminist criminology
A self-conscious corrective model intended to redirect the thinking of mainstream criminologists to include gender awareness
The traditions of male dominance
A single-sex perspective, as in the case of criminologists who study only the criminality of males
radical feminism
A perspective that holds that any significant change in the social status of women can be accomplished only through substantial changes in social institutions such as the family, law, and medicine
liberal feminism
A perspective that holds that the concerns of women can be incorporated within existing social institutions through conventional means and without the need to drastically restructure society
socialist feminism
A perspective that examines social roles and the gender-based division of labor within the family, seeing both as a significant source of women's subordination within society
power- control theory
A perspective that holds that the distribution of crime and delinquency within society is to some degree founded upon the consequences that power relationships within the wider society hold for domestic settings and for the everyday relationships among men, women, and children within the context of family life
gender gap
The observed differences between male and female rates of criminal offending in a given society, such as the United States
postmodern criminology
a brand of criminology that developed following WWII and that builds on the tenets inherent in postmodern social though
deconstructionist theory
A postmodern perspective that challenges existing criminological theories in order to debunk them and that works toward replacing traditional ideas with concepts seen as more appropriate to the postmodern era
peacemaking criminology
a perspective that holds that crime control agencies and the citizens they serve should work together to alleviate social problems and human suffering and thus reduce crime
peace model
An approach to crime control that focuses on effective ways for developing a shared consensus on critical issues that could seriously affect the quality of life
participatory justice
a relatively informal type of criminal justice case processing that makes use of local community resources rather than requiring traditional forms of official intervention
restorative justice
A postmodern perspective that stresses 'remedies and restoration rather than prision, punishment and victim neglect'
convict criminality
A new radical paradigm consisting of writings on the subject matter of criminology by convicted felons and ex-inmates who have acquired academic credentials, or who are associated with credentialled others
crime typology
a classification of crimes along a particular dimension, such as legal categories, offender motivation, victim behavior, or the characteristics of individual offenders
primary homicide
murder involving family members, friends, and acquaintances
expressive crime
a criminal offense that results from acts of interpersonal hostility, such as jealousy, revenge, romantic triangles, and quarrels
nonprimary homicide
murder that involves victims and offenders who have no prior relationship and that usually occurs during the course of another crime, such as robbery
instrumental crime
A goal-directed offense that involves some degree of planning by the offender
exposure-reduction theory
A theory of intimate homicide that claims that a decline in domesticity, accompanied by an improvement in the economic status of women and a growth in domestic violence resources, explains observed decreases in intimate-partner homicide
sibling offense
An offense or incident that culminates in homicide. The offense or incident may be a crime, such as robbery, or an incident that meets a less stringent criminal definition, such as a lover's quarrel involving assault or battery
victim precipitation
contributions made by the victim to the criminal event, especially those that led to its initiation
selective disinhibition
A loss of self-control due to the characteristics of the social setting, drugs or alcohol, or a combination of both
serial murder
Criminal homicide that involves the killing of several victims in three or more separate events
mass murder
The illegal killing of four or more victims at one location within one event
Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP)
The program of the FBI focusing on serial murder investigation and the apprehension of serial killers
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)
A federal law enacted as a component of the 1994 Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement ACt and intended to address concerns about violence against women. The law focused on improving the interstate enforcement of protection orders, providing effective training for court personnel involved with women's issues, improving the training and collaboration of police and prosecurtors with victim service providers, strengthening law enforcement efferts to reduce violence against women, and increasing services to victims of violence
National Violence against Women (NVAW) survey
A national survey of the extent and nature of violence against women conducted between November 1995 and May 1996 and funded through grants from the National Institute of Justice and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control
rape myth
A false assumption about rape such as "When a woman says no, she really means yes." Rape myths characterize much of the discourse surrounding sexual violence
rape shield law
A statute providing for the protection of rape victims by ensuring that defendants do not introduce irrelevant facts about the victim's sexual history into evidence
acquaintance rape
Rape characterized by a prior social, though not necessarily intimate or familial, relationship between the victim and the perpetrator
spousal rape
The rape of one spouse by the other. The term usually refers to the rape of a woman by her husband
Child sexual abuse (CSA)
A term encompassing a variety of criminal and civil offenses in which an adult engages in sexual activity with a minor, exploits a minor for purposes of sexual gratification, or exploits a minor sexually for purposes of profit
personal robbery
Robbery that occurs on the highway or street or in a public place and robbery that occurs in residences
institutional robbery
robbery that occurs in commercial settings, such as convenience stores, gas stations, and banks
intimate-partner assault
A gender-neutral term used to characterize assaultive behavior that takes place between individuals involved in an intimate relationship
separation assault
Violence inflicted by partners on significant others who attempt to leave an intimate relationship
workplace violence
The crimes of murder, rape, robbery and assault committed against persons who are at work or on duty
A course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated visual or physical proximity; nonconsensual communication; verbal, written, or implied threates; or a combination thereof that would cause a reasonable person fear
An array of high-tech related activities in which an offender may engage to harass or 'follow' individuals, including e-mail and the Internet
professional criminal
A criminal offender who makes a living from criminal pursuits, is recognized by other offenders as professional, and engages in offending that is planned and calculated
persistent thief
one who continues in common-law property crimes despite no better than an ordinary level of success
offense specialization
A preference for engaging in a certain type of offense to the exclusion of others
occasional offender
A criminal offender whose offending patterns are guided primarily by opportunity
An opportunistic car theft, often committed by a teenager seeking fun or thrills
a professional car thief involved regularly in calculated, steal-to-order car thefts
gateway offense
An offense, usually fairly minor in nature, that leads to more serious offenses. Shoplifting, for example, may be a gateway offense to more serious property crimes
a frequent shoplifter
an amateur shoplifter
An individual or a group involved in the buying, selling, and distribution of stolen goods
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