Pearson Criminal Justice Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Agricultural History
Mostly farmingLarge FamiliesCivil War accelerated industrial rev.Communities spread out
Industry
Conformity driving force.Neighborhoods develop around factories.Merchants, schools, churches.
Urbanization
Easier for kids to do riskier things with a number of kids. (Peer Pressure0
1825 New York House of Refuge
All children in trouble there.Children had no rights.Housed status offenders, (truants, disobedient, runaways,)
1899 Training Schools
Psychological evaluation.
Medical Model
Delinquency or crime could be treated like and illness.1. Should be cure, what kind of treatment, right treatment2. Diagnosis type and duration of treatment = cure.3. Individualized treatments.
Maslo hierarchy of needs - model for diagnosis
1. Children should not be held accountable.2. Objective was to help youngster.3. Disposition based on analysis - everyone is different.4. System avoid punitive and adversarial and formalized trappings.Reforms:Shift from industrial schools to cottage system.
1974 Reform
1.Separate status offenders2. Juveniles not guaranteed trial by jury.
Justice Model
1. Juveniles know right from wrong.2. Should be held accountable (Just desserts) and punished for offenses.3. Uses victim compensation plans, restitution and community services as a way of making offenders pay for their offenses.
Restorative model
Who needs restorative action?1. Victim2. Community.3. Offender - restoring them to productive society enables them to pay taxes rather than use tax money for provision.
Hybrid Model
Includes parts of all 3, rehabilitation, Justice, restoration.
Rehabilitation Model
Concept of youth management similar to medical model where juvenile delinquents are believed to be suffering from social and psychological handicaps; provides experiences to build self-concept; experiences stress, educational and social remedies. Crime is like a disease and can be cured.
Due Process Model
Treatment model based upon one's constitutional right to:1. A fair trial.2. an opportunity to be heard.3. to be aware of matters that are pending. (disclosure)4. Presumption of innocence until guilt has been established beyond a reasonable doubt..5. Make in informed choice whether to acquiesce or contest.6. Provide the reasons for such a choice before a judicial officer.
Crime control model
Emphasizes containment of dangerous offenders and social protection. (Incapacitation)
Classical Theory
A criminological perspective emphasizing that people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behavior as a means of achieving their personal goals.
Classical School
Line of thought that assumes that people are rational beings who choose between good and evil.
Determination
Concept holding that persons do not have free will but rather are subject to the influence of various forces over which they have litle or no control.
Hedonism
Jeremy Bentham's term indicating that people avoid pain and pursue pleasure.
Biological Determination
View in criminology holding that criminal behavior has physiological basis; genes, foods and food additives, hormones, and inheritance are all believed to play a role in determining individual behavior; one's genertic makeup causes certain behaviors to become manifest, such as criminaltiy.
Cesare Lombroso
His school of thought linked crriminal behavior and abnormal, unusual physical characteristics.
Atavism
Positivist school of thought arguing that a biological condition renders a person incapable of living within the social constraints of a society, the idea that physical characteristics can distinguish criminals from the general population and are evolutionary throwbacks to animals or primitive people.
Positivism
Branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and that suggests that human behavior is a product of social biological, psychological, or economic factors.
Positive school of criminology
School of criminological thought emphasizing analysis of criminal behaviros through empirical indicators such as physical features compared with biochemical explanations. Postulates that human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological or economic forces. Also know as the "Italian School."
Mesomorphs
Body type described by Sheldon; persons are strong muscular, aggresive, tough.
Ectomorphs
Body type described by Sheldon; persons are thin, sensitive, delicate.
Endomorphs
Body type described by Sheldon; persons are fat, soft, plump, jolly.
Sociobiology
Scientific study of causal relation between genetic structure and social behavior.
XYY Theory
Explanation of criminal behavior suggesting that some criminals are born with an extra y chromosome, characterized as the "aggressive" chromosome compared with the passive x chromosome; an extra y chromosome produces greater agitation, greater aggressiveness, and criminal propensities.
Psychological Theories
Explantions linking criminal behavior with mental states or conditions, antisocial personality traits, and early psychological and moral deveolpment.
Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud's theory of personality formation through the id, ego, and superego at various stages of childhood. Maintains that early life experiences influence adult behavior.
Social Learning Theory
Applied to criminal behavior, theory stressing importance of learning through modeling others who are criminal; criminal behavior is a function of copying or learning criminal conduct from others.
Interstitial area
In concentric zone hypothesis, area nearest the center of a city undergoing change, such as urban renewal; characterized by high rates of crime.
Zone of transition
An area nearest center of city center undergoing rapid social change; believed to contain high rates of crime and delinquency.
Concentric Zone Hypothesis
Series of rings originating from a city center, such as Chicago, and emanating outward, forming various zones characterized by different socioeconomic conditions believed to contain areas of high delinquency and crime.
Subculture of Delinquency
A culture within a culture where the use of violence in certain social situations is commonplace and normative. Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti devised this concept to depict a set of norms apart from mainstream conventional society, in which the theme of violence is pervasive and dominant. Learned through socialization with others as an alternative lifestyle.
Anomie Theory
Robert Merton's theory, influenced by Emile Durkheim, alleging that person acquire desires for culturally approved goals to strive to achieve, but they adopt innovative sometimes deviant, means to achieve these goals, (e.g., somone may desire a nice home but lack or reject the institutionalized means to achieve this goal,) instead using bank robber, an innovative mean, to obtain money to realize the culturally approved goal. Implies normlessness.
Anomie
Condition of feelings of helplessness and normlessness.
Mode of Adaptation
A way that persons who occupy a particular social position adjust to cultural goals and the institutionalized means to reach those goals.
Conformity
Robert K Merton's mode of adaptation characterized by persons who accept institutionalized means to achieve culturally approved goals.
Innovation
Robert K. Merton's mode of adaptation where persons reject institutionalized means to achieve culturally approved goals; instead, they engage in illegal acts, considered innovative, to achieve their goals.
Ritualism
Mode of adaptation suggested by Robert K Merton where persons reject culturally approved goals but work toward lesser goals through institutionalized means.
Retreatism
Moded of adaptation suggested by Merton where persons reject culturally approved goals and institutionalized means and do little or nothing to achieve homelss persons, "bag ladies," vagrants, and others sometimes fit the retreatist profile.
Rebellion
Merton's suggested mode of adatation where they create their own goals and means to use and seek.
Labeling Theory
Explanation of deviant conduct attributed to Edwin Lemert whereby persons acquire self-definitions that are deviant or criminal, persons preceive themselves as deviant or criminal through labels appied to them by others; the more people are involved in the criminal justice system, the more they acquire self-definitions consistent with the criminal label.
Labeling
Process whereby persons acquire self-definitions that are deviant or criinal; process occurs through labels applied to them by others.
Primary Deviation
Part of labeling process whenever youths engage in occaisional pranks and not especially serious violations of the law.
Secondary deviation
Part of labeling theory which suggests that violations of the law become a part of one's normal behavior rather than just occaisional pranks.
Bonding Theory
Emile Durkheim's notion that deviate behavior is controlled to the degree that group members feel morally bound to one another, are committed to common goals, and share a collective conscience.
Social Control Theory
Explanation of criminal behavior which focuses upon control mechanisms techniques and strategies for regulation human behavior leading to conformity or obedience to society's rules, and which posits that deviance results when social controls are weakened or break down, so that individuals are not motivated to conform to them.
Streain Theory
A criminological theory positing that a gap between culturally approved goals and legitimate means of achieving them causes frustration which leads to criminal behavior.
Containment Theory
Explanation elaborated by Walter Reckless and others that positive self-image enables persons otherwise disposed toward criminal behavior to avoid criminal conduct and conform to societal values. Every person is a part of an external structure and has a protective internal structure providing defense, protection, and/or insulation against on'es peers, such as delinquents.
Neutralization Theory
Holds that delinquents experience guilt when involved in delinquent activities and that they respect leaders of the legitimate social order; their delinquency is episodic rather than chronic, and they adhere to conventional values while drifing into periods of illegal behavior. In order to drift, the delinquent must first neutralize legal and moral values.
Drift Theory
David Matza's term denoting a state of limbo in which youths move in and out of delinquency and in which their lifestyles embrace both conventional and deviant values.
Differntial association Theory
Edwin Sutherland's theory of deviance and criminality through associations with others who are deviant or criminal theory includes dimensions of frequency, duration, prioity, and intensity; persons become criminal or delinquent because of a preponderance of learned definitions that are favorable to violating the law over learned definitions unfavorable to it.
Cultural Transmission Theory
Explanation emphasizing transmission of criminal behavior through socialization. Views delinquency as socially leanred behavior transmitted from one generation to the next in disorganized urban areas.
Differential Reinforcement Theory
Explanation that combines elements of labeling theory and a psychological phenomenon known as conditioning; persons are rewarded for engaging in desirable behavior and punished for deviant conduct.
Looking Glass Self
Concept originated by Charles Horton Cooley where persons learn appropriate ways of behaving by paying attention to how others view and react to them.
Rehabilitation Model
Concept of youth managment similar to medical model, where juvenile delinquents are believed to be suffering from social and psychological handicaps; provides experiences to build self-concept; experiences stress educational and social remedies.
Treatment/Medical Model
This model considers criminal behavior as an illness to be treated; delinquency is also a disease subject to treatment.
Juvenile Mentoring Program (JUMP)
Federally funded program administered by the OJJDP, promotes bonding between an adult and a juvenile relating on a one-to-one basis over time; designed to improve shcool performance and decrease gang participation and delinquency.
Noninterventionist Model
Philosophy of juvenile delinquent treatment meaning the absence of any direct intervention and certain juveniles who have been taken into custody.
Judicious Nonintervention
Use of minimal intervention in a youth's behavior and environment to effect changes in behavior.
Radical Nonintervention
Similar to a "do-nothing" policy of delinquency nonintervention.
Due Process Model
Treatment model based upon one's constitutional right to a fair trial, to have an opportunity to be heard to be aware of matters that are pending to a presumption of innocence until guilt has been established beyond a reasonable doubt, to make an informed choice whether to acquiesce or contest, and to provide the reasons for such a choice before a judicial offier.
Just-Desserts/Justice Model
Stresses offender accountability as a means to punish youthful offenders, uses victim compensations plans, restitution and community services as ways of making offenders pay for for their offenses; philosophy which emphasizes punishment as a primary objective of sentencing, fixed sentences, abolition of parold, and an abandonment of the rehabilitative ideal, rehabilitation is a functional to the extent that offenders join rehabiltative programs voluntarily.
Crime Control Model
Criminal justice program that emphasizes containment of dangerous offenders and societal protection; a way of controlling delinquency by incapacitation juvenile offenders through some secure detention of through intensive supervision programs operated by community based agencies.
Consent Decrees
Formal agreements that involve children, their parents, and the juvenile court, where youths are placed under the court's supervision without an official finding of delinquency with judicial approval.
Support Our Students Program (SOS)
After-school intervention providing learning opportunities to children in high-crime areas.
CASASTART Program
Target high risk youths who are exposed to drugs and delinquent activity; decreases risk factors by greater community involvement.
Project Safe Neighborhoods
Is an initiative undertaken in many communities to reduce gun violence by banning possession of firearms by those with criminal records.
Operation Tide
A composite of federal, state, and local law enforcement officers dedicated to reducing violence attributable to guns and gangs.
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