Anesthesia Drugs (in cart) Flashcards

Heart block
Terms Definitions
Ondansetron
(Zofran)
Purpose: antiemetic
Packaged: 4mg/2ml
Dose: 4 mg
Mechanism:reduces the activity of the vagus nerve, ( activates vomiting center in the medulla oblongata,) blocks serotonin receptors in chemoreceptor trigger zone
Clearance: Cytochrome p450
Metoclopramide
(reglan)
Purpose: Antiemetic
Packaged: 10 mg/2ml
Dose: 10 mg
Mechanism: + peristalsis of jejunum and duodenum
Clearance: renal
Etomidate
(amidate)
Purpose: induction (onset <1 min duration 3-5 min)Packaged: 20mg/2ml
Dose: 0.2-0.6 mg/kg
Mechanism: unknown
Clearance: Liver to urine
Ketorolac
Purpose: Pain, fever, inflamation
Packaged: 60mg/2ml
Dose: 60 mg IV
Mechanism: NSAID non-selective competitive blocking of the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX).
Esmolol
Purpose: prevent Tachycardia
Packaged: 100 mg/10ml
Dose: titrate
Mechanism: Beta 1 blocker (blocks epi norepi) beta 1/2= 9 min
Diphenhydramine
Purpose: antihistamine, antiemetic, sedative(anticolinergic), hypnotic,and for anaphylaxis, and topical anesthetic
Packaged: 50mg/ml
Dose:25-50 mg
Mechanism:blocks H1 receptor sites, inhibits reuptake of serotonin.
Clearance:Extensively hepatic; smaller degrees in pulmonary and renal systems; significant first-pass effect, excreted in urine
beta 1/2: 2-8 hours; Elderly: 13.5 hours
Solumedrol
Purpose: supress inflamation,
Packaged: 125 mg
Dose: up to 30 mg/kg for emergencies
Mechanism: glucocorticoid : g protein that acts on transcription elements
Alpha t1/2 18-40 hours
Cefazolin
Purpose: Antibiotic
Packaged: 1 gm
Dose: 1-2 gm
Mechanism: inhibits peptidoglycan crosslinking in bacterial cell walls
Furosamide
(Lasix)
Purpose: loop diuretic
Packaged:
Dose: 20- 80 mg
Mechanism: inhibition of Na-K-2Cl symporter in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle
*push over 1-2 min*
Digoxin
Purpose: Antiarrythmias
Packaged:
Dose:125 to 500 mcg is a common loading dose. Daily maintenance doses also range from 125-500 mcg depending on weight, createnine clearance, disease state etc.)
Mechanism: Binds to Alpha subunit in na atpase pumps which leads to an increase in Ca+ in myocytes, it slows the conduction of the heart, Parasympathetic, and vagal activation
Clearance Beta 1/2 =36 hours, Renal elimination.
Verapamil
Purpose: hypertension, Angina
Packaged:
Dose: 180- 480 mg
Mechanism: Ca++ channel blocker specific for arterial, conductile and contractile tissues does not alter serum calcium concentrations.
Clearnace:
Metoprolol
Purpose: Beta blocker
Packaged: 1 mg/ml
Dose:100-400 mg
Mechanism:B1 blocker: Decreases Heart Rate, Contractility and Cardiac Output, therefore decreasing blood pressure
Clearance: cytochrome p450
Phenylephrine
Purpose: increases blood pressure
Packaged: 10 mg/ml
Dose: titrate with 100 mcg doses
Mechanism:a 1 agonist ( not ino or chronotropic)
Clearance: Hepatic (monoamine oxidase)
B 1/2 2.5-3 hours
Succinylcholine
Purpose: Muscle relaxants
Packaged: 20 mg/ml
Dose:150-200 mg
Mechanism: Depolarizing muscle relaxant
Clearance: Plasma pseudocholinesterase (remember dibucain number)
in 3-30 minutes
Rocuronium
Purpose: Non depolarizing muscle relaxant
Packaged: 10 mg/ml
Dose: 50 mg
Mechanism:
Clearance: mostly liver, slightly by kidneys and undergoes no metabolism,
pancuronium
Purpose:
Packaged:
Dose: ED 95: 60 µg/kg
Mechanism:competitive acetylcholine antagonist nicotinic acetylcholine receptors
Vecuronium
Purpose: Nondepolarizing muscle relaxant
Packaged: dry 10 mg
Dose: 0.8-.12 mg/kg, redose with 1 mg incraments.
Mechanism: (anticolinergic nicotinic competative binding)
Clearance:
Vecuronium
lasts 25-40 minutes
Neostigmine
Purpose: paralytic reversal
Packaged:
Dose: 0.025-0.075 mcg/kg
Mechanism: binds to active site of cholinesterase, thus Ach builds up.
Clearance:
Neostigmine
indirectly stimulates both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, thus must be given with glycopyrolate,
Glycopyrrolate
Purpose: Muscarinic specific blocker,
Packaged: 0.02 mg/ml (5 ml vial)
Dose: give one less ml than neostigmine
Mechanism: blocking the muscarinic receptors of parasympathetic nervous system, increases heart rate, decreases secretions
Glycopyrrolate
antisaligague,
Atropine
Purpose: treats bradycardia, secretions, organophosphate poisoning
Packaged:
Dose: 0.5-1 mg bolus: up to 0.04 mg/kg
Mechanism: It is a competitive antagonist for the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.
Atropine
(atropine principally blocks vagal nerve parasympathetic bradycardia)
Atropine is also useful in treating second-degree heart block Mobitz Type 1 (Wenckebach block), and also third-degree heart block with a high Purkinje or AV-nodal escape rhythm. It is usually not effective in second-degree heart block Mobitz type 2, and in third-degree heart block with a low Purkinje or ventricular escape rhythm.
Atropine is contraindicated in ischemia-induced conduction block, because the drug increases oxygen demand of the AV nodal tissue, thereby aggravating ischemia and the resulting heart block.
Xylocain
(lidocain)
Purpose: Local anesthetic, and antiarrythmic
Packaged: 20 mg/ ml (5 ml syringe)
Dose: max 300 mg (500 with epi)
Mechanism: voltage gated channel antagonist (more info?)
Xylocain
topical, peripheral nerve block, epidural, spinal, iv regional (bier).
Lidocain
Purpose:
Packaged:
Dose:
Mechanism:
Epi 1:1000
Purpose:
Packaged:
Dose:
Mechanism:
Clearance:
Labetalol
Purpose: antihypertensive
Packaged:
Dose:
Mechanism: alpha 1 adrenergic (=less bradycardia and negative inotropic effects vs. beta alone) and beta adrenergic blocking properties cause vasodilation.
Clearance:
Albuterol
Purpose: bronchodilation
Packaged: inhailer
Dose: 3-6 puffs (more specific?)
Mechanism: short-acting β2-adrenergic receptor agonist
Clearance:
Calcium Chloride
Purpose:
Packaged:
Dose:
Mechanism:
Dexamethasone
Purpose: Antiinflamatory, antinausea
Packaged: 4 mg/ml
Dose: 8 mg typical
Mechanism: ?
Enalapril
Purpose: antihypertensive
Packaged:
Dose: (??????????)
Mechanism: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. As a prodrug, enalapril is metabolised in vivo to the active form enalaprilat by various esterases.
Enalapril
ACE in kidneys converts angiotensin 1 to angiotensin II which is a potent vasoconstrictor (increases blood pressure) also releases aldosterone for adrenals (na retention) and ADH from posterior pituitary (dipsinogen and h2o absorbtion)
Naloxone
Purpose: treatment of opioid induced respiratory depression
Packaged: 0.4 mg/ml (10 ml)
Dose: 0.1 mg Iv 1 3 min until desired effect, if 10 mg reched probably not opioid.
Mechanism:Naloxone is a μ-
(major) κ- and δ- (minor) opioid receptor competitive antagonist.
Protamine Sulphate
Purpose: Reverses Heparin action
Dose: 10mg/1000 u heparin
Packaged: 10mg/ml (5 ml)
Mechanism:Protamine sulphate binds with heparin, removing the anticoagulant properties
Clearance: Broken down by reticuloendothelial system (monocytes and macrophages)
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Term:
Definition:
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