Manhattan GMAT SC Flashcards

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Terms Definitions
Deadly Five
It, Its, They, Them, Their
Demonstrative Pronouns
This, That, These, and Those
There (means)
- In that place -
The antecedent is usually a noun (not an adjective) in a prepositional phrase
Reflexive Pronouns
Itself - Themselves
Used as Objects to refer directly to the Subject
e.g. "The panda groomed itself"
Reciprocal Pronouns
One Another - Each Other
Used to indicate interaction between parties
(NOT interchangable with Themselves)
Such - Other/Another
Combine with a noun to indicate an antecedent
e.g. "After THE LAND USE AGREEMENT surfaced, the commission decided to subject SUCH CONTRACTS to debate in the future"
Such - Other/Another (2)
Mean "additional of the same type" though not necessarily "exactly alike"
Indicates an indefinite copy or a single indefenite part of a collection.
Do So vs. Do It
Do So - Refer to an entire action (including its verbs, objects, and modifiers)
Do It - The pronoun IT must refer to an actual noun
IT - Placeholder - Infinitive Clauses
It is futile to resist temptation
The pronoun IT becomes the subject of the sentence.
Placeholder It - Postpone That - Clause
It gave us encouragement THAT we scored at all
Placeholder It - Postpone Infinitive or That-Clause Objects
She made IT possible for us TO ATTEND the movie
IT -
Do not be overly anxious to elliminate, by PLACEHOLDER rules it may be needed.
Avoiding Pronouns?
It may not be stylistically desired, however, it is an Option to ensure clarity
Avoiding Pronouns? (2)
Use generic Synonims that refer to an example (not the exact same)
Pronouns must agree in:
1. Number
2. Gender
3. Repeats
4. Proximity (too close may be bad)
5. Case
Pronoun Proximity
Pronouns normally refer to the closest antecedent, HOWEVER, there IS such a thing as TOO CLOSE.
Usually place the antecedent first then the pronoun
Modifiers - Exception to Touch Rule
1. "Mission Critical" Falls Between
Modifier that is often an OF-Phrase that defines the noun. The less important modifier refers to the noun plus the first modifier
Modifiers - Exception to Touch Rule
2. Very short Predicate falls between, shiflting a very long modifier back
A new CEO has been hired who will transform the company by decentralization.
Modifiers - Exception to Touch Rule
3. A short non-essential phrase intervenes and is set off by commas
Our syste of Presidential elections favor states, such as Delaware, that by population are over-represented in the Electoral College
Modifiers - Exception to Touch Rule
4. The modifier is part of a series of parallel modifiers, one of which touches the noun
Modifiers can/should be parallel when necessary. One of the parallel modifiers must "Touch" the noun.
Possesive Nuances
Of ... ...X's
The orca, a relative of the blue whale's, is found throughout the globe (WRONG)
Possesive Nuances
Of... ...X
The orca, a relative of the blue whale, is found throughout the globe (CORRECT)
Possesive Nuances
Uncommon, however it can be part of a CORRECT answer choice
Subgroup Modifiers
Some of Which ... ...Where
of Which Some... ...Were
Some of Which ... ...Where (CORRECT)
of Which Some... ...Were (WRONG)
Subgroup Modifiers
Some of Them....
Some of Them Which Were
Subgroup Modifiers
Some of Them.... (CORRECT)
Some of Them Which Were (WRONG)
Verb in Present Participle
Get their tense from the main verb in the sentence
Absolut Phrases
Composed of a noun + a noun modifier. These phrases do not need to modify what they touch, they modify the MAIN clause.
e.g. "His head held high, Owen walked out of the store"
The pronoun Which MUST refer to the noun before it!!!
Pronoun One
Although Singular can refer to both singular and plural antecedents.
Cousin Words
Aggravate (Worsen)
Aggravating (Irritating)
Cousin Words
Known As
Known To Be
Known As (named)
Known To Be (acknowledged as)
Cousin Words
Loss Of
Loss In
Loss Of (no longer in possession of)
Loss In (decline in value)
Cousin Words
Have a Mandate
Mandate (command)
Have a Mandate (have authority from voters)
Cousin Words
Native of
Native to
Native of (person from)
Native to (species originated in)
Cousin Words
Range of
Range of (variety of)
Ranging (varying)
Cousin Words
Rate of
Rates for
Rate of (speed or frequency)
Rates for (prices for)
Cousin Words
Raise (a bet or salary increase)
Rise (general increase)
Cousin Words
Such As
Such As (for example)
Like (Similar)
Cousin Words
Try To Do
Try Doing
Try To Do (seek to accomplish)
Try Doing (experiment with)
Helping Verbs
May, Will, Must, and Should
By swaping Helping Verbs the GMAT can change the meaning. ONLY change if the Original sentence is nonesencical
Legally Binding
If words change position in answer choices
by replacing words the meaning may change
Concision - Can the word be removed?
If the word can be removed without affecting the meaning of the sentence it can be removed
Redundancy and expressing Time Past:
Previously, Formerly, In the Past, Before Now
Redundancy and expressing Time Present:
Now, Currently, Presently, At Present
Redundancy and expressing Time Future:
Annual, Each Year, A Year
The word THAT
is used in introducing Parallel Subordinate Clauses
Run On Sentence:
Created by presenting two independent clauses separated only by a comma.
To prevent - Subordinate markers and/or other punctuation (;)
Can be used. Usually appears in negative constructions.
Y will happen unless X happens first
rquires the present tense following the word UNLESS
Rates Of - (Growth)
Rate For - (Price Charged)
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