Biopharmaceautic, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Biopharmaceautics
It is the understanding of how meds are produced and formulated. Design the drug to deliver medication so it has an optimal clinical effect
Pharmacokinetics
How meds are affected by the body- absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination
Pharmacodynamics
Therapeutic and adverse effects the meds exert on the body. What it does to body
ADME
Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, Elimination
For absorption to occur Drug must
Drug must disintegrate and then dissolve
Where are oral drugs absorbed?
Small intestine
1st pass metabolism
Drugs that are metabolized or partially metabolized in the liver before absorbed into blood stream
There are 2 types of oral meds
Immediate release and sustained or controlled release
Controlled or sustained release should not be chewed or crushed because
They lose their slow acting affect. Now have a faster immediate effect.
Example of drug that comes in immediate and sustained release
Verapamil
What are ex. Of meds that can be sprinkled on food and maintain their slow acting release?
Omeprazole and Lansoprozole. The pellets in the capsule are coated so that they can hold up to stomach acid and will not react til they reach the small intestine
Injectable admin routes
IV, ID, subcutaneous (in fat tissue), IM Intraarticular
Name admin routes that don’t go thru 1st pass metabolism in liver
IV, rectal, buccal , sublingual
What is the advantage of a med that does not go thru 1st pass metabolism
Increase in the bioavailabilty of the drug
Rectal agents are convenient for
Nausea and vomitting
Absorbed Systemically, means:
Absorbed through-out the body
Systemically
Through-out body
Insulin is a suspension, but you don’t shake it because…
Shaking insulin with denature the protein and cause it to breakdown
What type of insulin is the only one used for IV
Regular insulin, which is a clear solution. Insulin glargine (lantus) is a clear insulin solution. Most long acting insulins are suspensions.
Short acting insulins or rapid acting are Solutions or suspensions?
Clear solutions.
Name a common sublingual medication
nitrogycerin
What is a transdermal medication
It is a patch that releases medication through the skin.
A patch should be applied to
dry, hairless, intact skin
Give some examples of local agents
topical creams, ointments and intraocular medications.
Absorption of a drug
Amount of drug that enters the systemic circulation through the walls of the small intestine.
Systemic circulation is another name for
bloodstream
Bioavailabilty
% of administered drug that reaches the systemic circulation
Bioavailabilty of a drug depends on what three things?
Dissolution of drug, dosage form,and route of administration ( oral undergoes 1st pass and so less of drug is absorbed)
Why choose IV route over oral?
Because meds that are taken orally are partially metabolized in the liver, so less of the active ingredient is available.
What is the site of action?
It is the tissue organs site where the med is to exert its intended pharmacologic response.
What does it mean when a medication is considered tied up?
It is a Medication that is bound to plasma protein, and is therefore inactive.
What is medication that is free?
It is Medication that is not bound to plasma protein, and is therefore free to travel to target tissue
Name the protein which acidic and neutral meds bind to
albumin
What is therapeutic level
Level at which most patients receive the desired effect with minimal side effects.
What is volume of distribution
It describes the distribution characteristics of a medication throughout the body.
Meds with a high Vd are?
Those that have a high concentration through-out the body but a low concentration in the blood or systemic circulation. So, less is available in the drug to work.
Meds with a low Vd are?
Those that have a low concentration through-out the body but a high concentration in the blood or systemic circulation. more of the med is in the blood and is available to be transported to the target site.
Name some drugs that need a loading dose,
phenytoin, digoxin, some antibiotics
Why do some drugs need a loading dose?
because they have a high Vd, and therefore less is available in the blood to travel to the target site to get the desireable drug response
What is metabolism of a drug and in what main organs does it occur
breakdown, kidney and liver and small intestine.
describe the three possible ways of metabolism for a drug.
drug can be metabolized, can inhibit of metabolism of other drugs, can enhance the metabolism of other drugs
knowing the metabollic profile of a drug can help to...
determine if a drug interaction will occur.
what is an enzyme inducer?
a med that enhances metabolism of other meds
name an enzyme inducer
Phenytoin (anti-epileptic)
What is an enzyme inhibitor?
a med that inhibits metabolism of another drug, such as erythromycin, antifungal meds and cyclosporine
What is an active metabolite?
It is a meds that is metabolized to another substance
that is also active and can exert a therapeutic or toxic effect.
Physical, chemical characteristics, study of dosage form, and study of route of administration and its effect on rate and drug absorption refers to
Biopharmaceuatics
Absortion, volume of distribution, metabolism, elimination all describe what?
Pharmacokinetics
Which organ is the major metabolic organ?
Liver
Which organ is the major elimination organ?
Kidney
Fluxetine is an active metabolite that is metalbolized to norfluxetine. What is the difference between the two drugs?
Norfluxotine also functions as an anti-depressant, but it is longer acting.
What is the name of the substance that is used as a marker for kidney function?
Creatinine
What is the value for normal creatinine clearance
120ml/min
The study of the relationship between the concentration of a drug and the response obtained in the patient is a definition for
Pharmacodynamics
list some examples of pharmacodynamic responses
increase in bone mass, decrease in blood pressure, decrease in blood glucose, decrease in choloesterol
A receptor is a protein. true or false
true. and the receptor that is embeded in a cell membrane and facilitates communication.
Medications that augment of enhance a signal that is normally communicate in the cell are called
agonists.
Meds that block the transmission of a signal are called?
antagonists
What happens to the endogenous substance when a medication binds to its receptor?
The substance is blocked from binding to the site
What is the 1st process of a solid dose form as it undergoes pharmacologic effect?
disintegration
Which dosage form needs to be shaken?
suspension
which pharmacokinetic process is most impaired with renal disease
elimination
which pharmacokinetic process is most impaired with hepato diseases
metabolism
Which route of administration(refers to biopharmaceuatics) ensures complete absorption into the systemic circulation (bloodstream)
intravaneous
Which product fomulations may be crushed without impacted the rate at which the dose works on the system?
immediate release
If a patient has kidney disease, what should be doubled checked before administering drug?
route of med, dose of med, fomulation of med or number of concomitant meds
dose of med
What does an enzyme inducer do
It enhances the metabolism of other medications
What does a med have to bind to, to have a clinical effect?
a receptor
Studying the effect of a medication at a target site is?
pharmacodynamics
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