Anatomy USMLE Step 1 First Aid Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Define anisocytosis.
varying cell sizes
Define poikilocytosis
varying cell shapes
From which cells do B cells arise?
stem cells in bone marrow
From which cells do plasmacells differentiate?
B cells
How can a Nissl stain be usedto differentiate microgliafrom oligodendroglia?
Microglia are not discernablein a Nissl stain whileoligodendroglia appear assmall dark nuclei with darkchromatin
In what type of CNS tissue(white or grey) areoligodendroglia predominant?
white matter
Into what cell type does amonocyte differentiate intissues?
Macrophages
Name 2 substances producedby an eosinophil.
histiminase and arylsulfatase
Name the three types ofleukocytic granulocytes.
basophils, eosinophils, andneutrophils
Name the two types ofmononuclear leukocytes.
lymphocytes and monocytes
What are 2 functions of T celllymphocytes?
- cellular immune response -regulation of B lymphocytesand macrophages
What are 2 morphologicalfeatures of microglia?
- small irregular nuclei and-relatively little cytoplasm
What are 3 examples ofperipheral lymphoid tissue?
- follicles of lymph nodes -white pulp of spleen -unencapsulated lymphoid tissue
What are 3 functions of amacrophage?
- pagocytosis of bacteria,cell debris, and senescent red cells - scavenges damaged cells and tissues -can function as an antigen presenting cell
What are 3 morphologicalcharacteristics of monocytes?
- Large - Kidney-shaped nucleus - Extensive 'frosted glass' cytoplasm
What are 4 characteristics ofthe plasma cell morphology?
- Off center nucleus - Clock face chromatin distribution - Abundant RER - Well developed Golgi apparatus
What are 4 morphologiccharacteristics oflymphocytes?
- Round - Small - Densely staining nucleus - Small amount of pale cytoplasm
What are 4 substancescontained within thelysosomes of neutrophils?
- hydrolytic enzymes - lysozyme - myeloperoxidase- lactoferrin
What are 4 types of cells intowhich T cells differentiate?
- cytotoxic T cells (MHC I, CD8) - helper T cells (MHCII, CD4) - suppressor T cells - delayed hypersensitivity T cells
What are the 5 importantcauses for eosinophilia inhumans?
Neoplastic, Asthma, Allergicprocess, Collagen vasculardisease, and Parasites(pneumonic NAACP)
What are the blood celldiffenentiation names of theACTIVE T CELL line beginningwith the pluripotenthematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Lymphoblast - T cell - Active T cell
What are the blood celldifferentiation names of theERYTHROCYTE cell linebeginning with pluripotenthematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Proerythroblast - Reticulocyte - Erythrocyte
What are the blood celldifferentiation names of theMONOCYTE cell linesbeginning with thepluripotent hematopoieticstem cell? (3)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Mono blast - Monocyte
What are the blood celldifferentiation names of theNEUTROPHIL, EOSINOPHIL,and BASOPHIL cell linesbeginning with themyeloblast stage? (6)
- Myeloblast - Promyelocyte- Myelocyte - Metamyelocyte- Stab cell - Neutrophil, eosinophil or basophil
What are the blood celldifferentiation names of thePLASMA CELL line beginningwith the pluripotenthematopoietic stem cell? (4)
- Pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell - Lymphoblast - B cell - Plasma cell
What are the blood celldifferentiation names of thePLATELET CELL line beginningwith the hematopoietic stemcell? (4)
- Pluripotento hematopoietic stem cell - Megakaryoblast - Megakaryocyte - Platelets
What are the components ofthe air-blood barrier?
- Type I pneumocyte - tight junction - endothelial cell
What are the steps ofmaturation of a B cell? (2 points)
- maturation in the marrow - migration to peripheral lymphoid tissue
What are the substancescontained within the denslybasophilic granules of thebasophil? (4)
- Heparin (anticoagulant) - histamine (vasodilator) - vasoactive amines - Slow reacting substance of anaphylaxis
What are two basicmorphological characteristicsof neutrophils?
- multilobed nucleus - large, spherical azurophilic primarygranules (lysosomes)
What are two importantfunctions of a neutrophil?
- acute inflammmatoryresponse of a cell - phagocytosis
What are two names for anincreased number of redcells?
Erythrocytosis andpolycythemia
What cell type closelyresembles a mast cell?
basophil
What cranial nerves arecommonly involved in anacoustic neuroma?
CN VII, VIII (association withinternal acoustic meatus)
What disease is characterizedby destruction ofoligodendroglia?
Multiple sclerosis
What does CD stand for?
cluster of differentiation
What drug prevents mast celldegranulation?
Cromolyn sodium
What immunoglobulin canbind to the membrane of amast cell?
IgE
What is a reticulocyte?
a baby (developing)erythrocyte
What is an important exampleof a Schwannoma?
Acoustic neuroma
What is another name forpulmonary sufractant?
DPPC(dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine)
What is percentage ofleukocytes in the blood existas basophils?
less than 1%
What is the 'gap' between themyelination segment of 2Schwann cells called?
Node of Ranvier
What is the advantage of thelarge surface area:volumeratio in erythrocytes?
easy gas exchange (Oxygenand Carbon dioxide)
What is the basic morphologicstructure of an erythrocyte?
Anucleate, biconcave
What is the basic morphologyof an eosinophil? (2 things)
- bilobate nucleus - packedwith large eosinophilicgranules of uniform size
What is the embryologicorigin of microglia?
mesoderm
What is the function ofInterferon gamma withrelation to macrophages?
macrophage activation
What is the function ofmicroglia?
phagocytosis in CNS
What is the function ofoligodendroglia?
myelination of multiple CNSaxons
What is the function ofpulmonary surfactant?
lowers alveolar surfacetension and preventsatelectasis
What is the function ofSchwann cells?
myelination of PNS (aSchwann cell myelinates onlyone PNS axon)
What is the importance of thelecithin:sphingomyelin ratio?
> 2.0 in fetal lung isindicative of fetal lungmaturity
What is the importance of thephysiologic chloride shift inerythrocytes?
Membranes contain thechloride bicarbonate antiportallowing the RBC to transportcarbon dioxide from the thelung periphery forelimination.
What is the last segment oflung tissue in which ciliatedcells are found?
respiratory bronchioles
What is the last segment oflung tissue in which gobletcells are found?
terminal broncioles(remember ciliated cellssweep away mucousproduced by goblet cells andtherefore run deeper)
What is the primary functionof a basophil?
Mediates allergic reactions
What is the primary functionof a leukocyte?
Defense against infections
What is the primary functionof a mast cell?
Mediates allergic reactions
What is the primary functionof a plasma cell?
production of large amountsof a specific antibody to aparticular antigen
What is the primary source ofenergy for erythrocytes?
glucose (90% anaerobicallydegraded to lactate, 10% byHMP shunt)
What is the process ofdegranulation in mast cells?
release of histamine, heparin,and eosinophil chemotacticfactors
What is the range ofconcentration for leukocytesin the blood?
4,000 - 10,000 cells permicroliter
What is the response of aneosiniphil to antigen antibodycomplexes?
high degree of phagocytosis
What is the response ofmicroglia to tissue dammage?
transformation into largeameboid phagocytic cells
What is the response tomicroglia infected with HIV?
fusion to form multinucleatedgiant cells in CNS
What is the survival time foran erythrocyte?
120 days
What pathognomonic changeis seen in neutrophils of aperson who is folate/vitaminB12 deficient?
hypersegmented polys
What percentage ofleukocytes exist aseosinophils in the blood?
1 - 6%
What percentage ofleukocytes exist asneutrophils in the blood?
40 - 75%
What percentage ofleukocytes in blood aremonocytes?
2 - 10%
What process occurs whentype I pneumocytes aredamaged?
Type II pneumocytes developinto type I
What substance ineosinophilic granules isprimarily responsible fordefense against helminthsand protozoan infections?
major basic protein
Where is the site ofmaturation of T lymphocytes?
Thymus
Which cell type constituitivelysecretes pulmonarysurfactant?
Type II pneumocyte
Which cell type lines thealveoli?
Type I pneumocyte
Which leukemia is the resultof plasma cell neoplasm?
Multiple myeloma
Which type of hypersensitivityreaction is a mast cellinvolved in?
Type I hypersensitivityreaction
Which type of immunity do Bcells exhibit?
humoral immunity
After arising from the floor ofthe primitive pharynx, wheredoes the thryoid diverticulumgo?
It descends down into theneck
After the first breath at birth,what causes closure of theductus arteriosus?
An increase in oxygen
After the first breath at birth,what causes the closure ofthe foramen ovale?
A decrease resistance inpulmonary vasculature causesincreased left atrial pressurevs. right atrial pressure
Although the diaphragmdescends duringdevelopment, it maintainsinnervation from ____?
C3-C5
An easy pneumonic toremember fetal erythropoiesisis?
Young Liver Synthesizes Blood
At what time in the course ofdevelopment is the fetusmost susceptible toteratogens?
Weeks 3-8
Deoxygenated blood from theSVC is expelled into thepulmonary artery and ________ to the lower body of thefetus.
ductus arteriosus
Do the cardiovascularstructures arise from neuralcrest (ectoderm), mesoderm,or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Do the chromaffin cells of theadrenal medulla arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the lungs arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Endoderm
Do the lymphatics arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Do the melanocytes arisefrom neural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the neural crest cells arisefrom mesoderm, ectoderm, orendoderm?
Ectoderm
Do the odontoblasts arisefrom neural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the parafollicular (C) cellsof the thyroid arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the Schwann cells arisefrom neural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Do the urogenital structuresarise from neural crest(ectoderm), mesoderm, orendoderm?
Mesoderm
Does blood arise from neuralcrest (ectoderm), mesoderm,or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Does bone arise from neuralcrest (ectoderm), mesoderm,or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Does muscle arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Does the thyroid arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Endoderm
Does the adrenal cortex arisefrom neural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Does the ANS arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the celiac ganglion arisefrom neural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the dorsal root ganglionarise from neural crest(ectoderm), mesoderm, orendoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the dura connectivetissue arise from neural crest(ectoderm), mesoderm, orendoderm?
Mesoderm
Does the gut tube epitheliumarise from neural crest(ectoderm), mesoderm, orendoderm?
Endoderm
Does the liver arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Endoderm
Does the pancreas arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Endoderm
Does the parathyroid arisefrom neural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Endoderm
Does the pia arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Neural Crest (Ectoderm)
Does the serous linings ofbody cavities arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Does the spleen arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Mesoderm
Does the thymus arise fromneural crest (ectoderm),mesoderm, or endoderm?
Endoderm
From what does theligamentum teres hepatisarise?
Umbilical vein
How does a bicornate uterusform?
Results from incompletefusion of theparamesonephric ducts
How does a cleft lip form?
Failure of fusion of themaxillary and medial nasalprocesses
How does a cleft palate form?
Failure of fusion of the lateralpalatine processes, the nasalseptum, and/or the medianpalatine process
How does a horseshoe kidneyform?
Inferior poles of both kidneysfuse, as they ascend from thepelvis during developmentthey get trapped under theinferior mesenteric artery,and remain low in theabdomen
How is meckel's diverticulumdifferent than anomphalomesenteric cyst?
Omphalomesenteric cyst is acystic dilatation of thevitelline duct
How long does fulldevelopment ofspermatogenesis take?
2 months
How many arteries and veinsdoes the umbilical cordcontain?
- 2 umbilical arteries (carriesdeoxygenated blood awayfrom fetus) - 1 umbilical vein(oxygenated blood to fetus)
Is a primary spermatocyte 2Nor 4N?
4N
Is a primary spermatocytehaploid or diploid?
Diploid, 4N
Is a secondary spermatocytehaploid or diploid?
Haploid, 2N
Is a secondary spermatocyteN or 2N?
2N
Is a speratogonium haploid ordiploid?
Diploid, 2N
Is a spermatid haploid ordiploid?
Haploid, N
Meiosis I is arrested in whichphase until ovulation?
Prophase
Meiosis II is arrested in whichphase until fertilization?
Metaphase (an egg MET asperm)
Most oxygenated bloodreaching the heart via IVC isdiverted through the ____ ____and pumped out the aorta tothe head.
foramen ovale
The right common cardinalvein and right anteriorcardinal vein give rise to whatadult heart structure?
Superior vena cava
The stapedius muscle of theear is formed by whichbranchial arch?
2nd
This type of bone formationconsists of ossification ofcartilaginous molds andforms long bones at primaryand secondary centers.
Endochondral
True or False, blood in theumbilical vein is 100%saturated with oxygen?
False, it is 80% saturated
True or False, there are twotypes of spermatogonia?
True, type A & type B
What are the 1st branchialarch derivatives innervatedby?
CN V2 and V3
What are the 2nd branchialarch derivatives innervatedby?
CN VII
What are the 3rd branchialarch derivatives innervatedby?
CN IX
What are the 4th and 6thbranchial arch derivativesinnervated by?
CN X
What are the cartilagederivatives (5) of the 4th and6th branchial arches?
- Thyroid - Cricoid - Arytenoids - Corniculate - Cuneiform
What are the five 2'sassociated with meckel'sdiverticulum?
- 2 inches long - 2 feet from the ileocecal valve - 2% of the population - Commonly presents in the first 2 years of life - May have 2 types of epithelia
What are the rule of 2's forthe 2nd week ofdevelopment?
- 2 germ layers: epiblast& hypoblast - 2 cavities: amniotic cavity & yolksac - 2 components to the placenta: cytotrophoblast& syncytiotrophoblast
What are the rule of 3's forthe 3rd week of development?
3 germ layers (gastrula):ectoderm, mesoderm,endoderm
What can a persistent cervicalsinus lead to?
A branchial cyst in the neck
What can be found in thecortex of the thymus?
It is dense with immature Tcells
What can be found in themedulla of the thymus?
It is pale with mature T cells,epithelial reticular cells, andHassall's corpuscles
What connects the thyroiddiverticulum to the tongue?
The thyroglossal duct
What devlopmentalcontributions does the 5thbranchial arch make?
None
What do the 2nd - 4thbranchial clefts form, whichare obliterated byproliferation of the 2nd archmesenchyme?
Temporary cervical sinuses
What does aberrantdevelopment of the 3rd and4th pouches cause?
DiGeorge's syndrome
What does the 1st aortic archgive rise to?
Part of the maxillary artery
What does the 2ndpharyngeal pouch developinto?
Epithelial lining of thepalantine tonsils
What does the 3rd aortic archgive rise to?
Common carotid artery andproximal part of the internalcarotid artery
What does the 4th pharyngealpouch develop into?
Superior parathyroids
What does the 5th aortic archgive rise to?
Nothing
What does the 5th pharyngealpouch develop into?
C cells of the thyroid
What does the 6th aortic archgive rise to?
The proximal part of thepulmonary arteries and (onleft only) ductus arteriosus
What does the ductusarteriosus give rise to?
Ligamentum arteriosum
What does the ductusvenosus shunt blood awayfrom?
Liver
What does the first branchialcleft develop into?
The external auditory meatus
What does the foramen ovalegive rise to?
Fossa ovalis
What does the left 4th aorticarch give rise to?
Aortic arch
What does the ligamentumvenosum come from?
Ductus venosus
What does the notochord giverise to?
Nucleus Pulposus
What does the primitive atriagive rise to?
Trabeculated left and rightatrium
What does the primitiveventricle give rise to?
Trabeculated parts of the leftand right ventricle
What does the right 4th aorticarch give rise to?
Proximal part of the rightsubclavian artery
What does the right horn ofthe sinus venosus give riseto?
Smooth part of the rightatrium
What does the spleen arisefrom?
Dorsal mesentery, but issupplied by the artery of theforegut
What does the thymus arisefrom?
Epithelium of the 3rdbranchial pouch
What does the thyroiddiverticulum arise from?
The floor of the primitivepharynx
What does the truncusarteriosus give rise to?
The ascending aorta andpulmonary trunk
What does the umbilicalarteries give rise to?
Medial umbilical ligaments
What ear muscle does the 1stbranchial arch form?
Tensor tympani
What effect does 13-cisretinoicacid have on thefetus?
Extremely high risk for birthdefects
What effect does ACEinhibitors have on the fetus?
Renal Damage
What effect does iodide haveon the fetus?
Congenital goiter orhypothyroidism
What effect does warfarin andx-rays have on the fetus?
Multiple anomalies
What effects does cocainehave on the fetus?
Abnormal fetal developmentand fetal addiction
What embryonic structure arethe smooth parts of the leftand right ventricle derivedfrom?
Bulbus cordis
What embryonic structuredoes the coronary sinus comefrom?
Left horn of the sinusvenosus
What embryonic structuredoes the median umbilicalligament come from?
Allantois (urachus)
What fetal landmark hasdeveloped within week 2 offertilization?
Bilaminar disk
What fetal landmark hasoccurred within week 1 offertilization?
Implantation
What fetal landmark hasoccurred within week 3 offertilization?
Gastrulation
What fetal landmarks (2) havedeveloped within week 3 offertilization?
Primitive streak and neuralplate begin to form
What five things arise fromneuroectoderm?
- Neurohypophysis - CNS neurons - Oligodendrocytes - Astrocytes - Pineal gland
What four structures make upthe diaphragm?
- Septum transversum - pleuroperitoneal folds - body wall - dorsal mesentery of esophagus
What four things arise fromsurface ectoderm?
- Adenohypophysis - Lens of eye - Epithelial linings - Epidermis
What four things doesMeckel's cartilage (from the1st arch) develop into?
- Mandible - Malleus - Incus- Sphenomandibular ligament
What four things doesReichert's cartilage (from the2nd arch) develop into?
- Stapes - Styloid process - Stylohyoid ligament- Lesser horn of hyoid
What four things does thedorsal pancreatic budbecome?
Body, tail, isthmus, andaccessory pancreatic duct
What four things does themesonephric (wolffian) ductdevelop into?
- Seminal vesicles -Epididymis - Ejaculatory duct- Ductus deferens
What induces the ectoderm toform the neuroectoderm(neural plate)?
Notochord
What is a hiatal hernia?
Abdominal contents herniateinto the thorax due toincomplete development ofthe diaphragm
What is a hypospadias?
Abnormal opening of penileurethra on inferior side ofpenis due to failure ofurethral folds to close
What is a single umbilicalartery associated with?
Congenital and chromosomalanomalies
What is a urachal cyst orsinus a remnant of?
The allantois
What is an abnormal openingof penile urethra on superiorside of penis due to faultypositioning of the genitaltubercle?
Epispadias
What is associated with anepispadias?
Exstrophy of the bladder
What is Meckel'sdiverticulum?
Persistence of the vitellineduct or yolk sac
What is oligohydramniosassociated with?
Bilateral renal agenesis orposterior urethral valves (inmales)
What is oligohydramnios?
What is polyhydramniosassociated with?
Esophageal/duodenal atresia,anencephaly
What is polyhydramnios?
> 1.5-2 L of amniotic fluid
What is Potter's syndrome?
Bilateral renal agenesis, thatresults in ologohydramnioscausing limb and facialdeformities and pulmonaryhypoplasia (Babies withPotter's can’t pee in utero)
What is the acrosome ofsperm derived from?
Golgi apparatus
What is the femalehomologue to the corpusspongiosum in the male?
Vestibular bulbs
What is the femalehomologue to the prostategland in the male?
Urethral and paraurethralglands (of Skene)
What is the femalehomologue to the scrotum inthe male?
Labia majora
What is the femalehomologue to the ventralshaft of the penis in themale?
Labia minora
What is the flagellum (tail)derived from?
One of the centrioles
What is the food supply ofsperm?
Fructose
What is the male homologueto the glans clitoris in thefemale?
Glans penis
What is the male homologueto the greater vestibularglands (of Bartholin) in thefemale?
Bulbourethral glands (ofCowper)
What is the most commoncongenital anomaly of the GItract?
Meckel's diverticulum
What is the most commonectopic thyroid tissue site?
The tongue
What is the normal remnantof the thyroglossal duct?
Foramen cecum
What is the postnatalderivative of the notochord?
The nucleus pulposus of theintervertebral disc
What is the site of T-cellmaturation?
Thymus
What part of the gut is thepancreas derived?
Foregut
What suppresses thedevelopment of theparamesonephric ducts inmales?
Mullerian inhibiting substance(secreted by the testes)
What teratogenic agentcauses limb defects ('flipper'limbs)?
Thalidomide
What three structures doesthe 3rd pharyngeal pouchdevelop into?
- Thymus - Left inferiorparathyroid - Right inferiorparathyroid
What three things does the1st pharyngeal pouch developinto?
- Middle ear cavity -Eustachian tube - Mastoid aircells
What three things does theparamesonephric (mullerian)duct develop into?
- Fallopian tube - Uterus -Part of the vagina
What three things does theventral pancreatic budbecome?
- Pancreatic head - uncinateprocess - main pancreaticduct
What two things occur duringweek 4 of fetal development?
Heart begins to beat, upperand lower limb buds begin toform
What type of bone formationis spontaneous withoutpreexisting cartilage?
Intramembranous
What type of twins wouldhave 1 placenta, 2 amnioticsacs, and 1 chorion?
Monozygotic twins
What type of twins wouldhave 2 amniotic sacs and 2placentas
Monozygotic or dizygotictwins
What will DiGeorge'ssyndrome lead to?
T cell deficiency &hypocalcemia
When do primary oocytesbegin meiosis I?
During fetal life
When do primary oocytescomplete meiosis I?
Just prior to ovulation
When does fetalerythropoiesis occur in thebone marrow?
Week 28 and onward
When does fetalerythropoiesis occur in theliver?
Weeks 6-30
When does fetalerythropoiesis occur in thespleen?
Weeks 9-28
When does organogenesisoccur in the fetus?
Weeks 3-8
Where does positive andnegative selection occur inthe thymus?
At the corticomedullaryjunction
Where does spermatogenesistake place?
Seminferous tubules
Where is the first place fetalerythropoiesis occurs andwhen does this take place?
Yolk sac (3-8 wk)
Which aortic arch does thestapedial artery and the hyoidartery come from?
2nd aortic arch
Which branchial arch are thegreater horn of hyoid and thestylopharyngeus musclederived from?
3rd branchial arch
Which branchial arch doesMeckel's cartilage developfrom?
1st arch
Which branchial arch formsthe anterior 2/3 of thetongue?
1st arch
Which branchial arch formsthe incus and malleus of theear?
1st arch
Which ear bone(s) does the2nd branchial arch form?
Stapes
Which embryonic tissue arebranchial clefts derived from?
Ectoderm
Which embryonic tissue arebranchial pouches derivedfrom?
Endoderm
Which is more common ahypospadias or epispadias?
Hypospadias
Which muscles (3) arederivatives of the 4thbranchial arch?
- Most pharyngealconstrictors - Cricothyroid -Levator veli palatini
Which muscles (4) arederivatives of the 2ndbranchial arch?
- Muscles of facial expression- Stapedius - Stylohyoid -Posterior belly of digastric
Which muscles (8) arederivatives of the 1stbranchial arch?
- Temporalis - Masseter -Lateral pterygoid - Medialpterygoid - Mylohyoid -Anterior belly of digastric -Tensor tympani - Tensor velipalatini
Which muscles are derivativesof the 6th branchial arch?
All intrinsic muscles of thelarynx, except thecricothyroid
Which pharyngeal arch doesReichert's cartilage developfrom?
2nd arch
Which teratogenic agentcauses vaginal clear celladenocarcinoma?
DES
Which two branchial archesform the posterior 1/3 of thetongue?
3rd and 4th arches
Which two embryonic tissuesare branchial arches derivedfrom?
Mesoderm and neural crests
Which week of fetaldevelopment have thegenitalia taken on male/female characteristics?
Week 10
A common football injurycaused by clipping from thelateral side will damage whatstructures (3 answers)?
--Medial collateral ligament--Medial meniscus --Anteriorcruciate ligament
A lumbar puncture isperformed at what landmark/
Iliac crest
A positive anterior drawersign indicates damage towhat structure?
Anterior cruciate ligament(ACL)
A pudendal nerve block isperformed at what landmark?
Ischial spine
Abnormal passive abductionof the knee indicates damageto what structure?
Medial collateral ligament(MCL)
Anterior' in ACL refers towhat attachment?
Tibial
At what level is a lumbarpuncture performed?
Between L3-L4 or L4-L5
Common peroneal nervedamage manifests whatdeficit?
Loss of dorsiflexion(FootDrop)
Common peroneal, Tibial,Femoral, and Obturatornerves arise from what spinalcord segments (4 answers)?
--'L4-S2 (common peroneal)--L4-S3 (tibial) --L2-L4(femoral) and (obturator)
Coronary artery occlusionusually occurs where?
Left anterior descendingartery (LAD)
Do the coronary arteries fillduring systole or diastole?
Diastole
Erection and sensation of thepenis is in what dermatomes?
S2-S4
Femoral nerve damagemanifests what deficit?
Loss of knee jerk
How does the course of theleft recurrent laryngeal nervediffer from that of the right?
The left wraps around thearch of the aorta and theligamentum arteriosum whilethe right wraps around thesubclavian artery.
How is the appendix located?
2/3 of the way from theumbilicus to the anteriorsuperior iliac spine
How many lobes are in theright and left lungs and whatare their names?
--Right has three(superior,middle,inferior) --Left has two (superior andinferior) and the lingula
Name five portal-systemicanastomoses.
1.Left gastric-azygous vv.2.Superior-Middle/Inferiorrectal vv. 3.Paraumbilicalinferiorepigastric4.Retroperitoneal-renal vv.5.Retroperitonealparavertebralvv.
Name the 4 ligaments of theuterus.
--Suspensory ligament ofovaries --Transverse cervical(cardinal) ligament --Roundligament of uterus --Broadligament
Name the hypothenarmuscles.
--Opponens digiti minimi --Abductor digiti minimi --Flexor digiti minimi
Name the retroperitonealstructures (9).
1.Duodenum(2nd-4th parts)2.Descending colon3.Ascending colon 4.Kidney& ureters 5.Pancreas6.Aorta 7.Inferior vena cava8.Adrenal glands 9.Rectum
Name the rotator cuffmuscles.
--Supraspinatus --Infraspinatus --teres minor--Subscapularis
Name the thenar muscles
--Opponens pollicis --Abductor pollicis brevis --Flexor pollicis brevis
Obturator nerve damagemanifests what deficit?
Loss of hip adduction
Pain from the diaphragm isusually referred where?
Shoulder
Name five portal-systemicanastomoses.
1.Left gastric-azygous vv.2.Superior-Middle/Inferiorrectal vv. 3.Paraumbilicalinferiorepigastric4.Retroperitoneal-renal vv.5.Retroperitonealparavertebralvv.
Name the 4 ligaments of theuterus.
--Suspensory ligament ofovaries --Transverse cervical(cardinal) ligament --Roundligament of uterus --Broadligament
Name the hypothenarmuscles.
--Opponens digiti minimi --Abductor digiti minimi --Flexor digiti minimi
Name the retroperitonealstructures (9).
1.Duodenum(2nd-4th parts)2.Descending colon3.Ascending colon 4.Kidney& ureters 5.Pancreas6.Aorta 7.Inferior vena cava8.Adrenal glands 9.Rectum
Name the rotator cuffmuscles.
--Supraspinatus --Infraspinatus --teres minor--Subscapularis
Name the thenar muscles
--Opponens pollicis --Abductor pollicis brevis --Flexor pollicis brevis
Obturator nerve damagemanifests what deficit?
Loss of hip adduction
Pain from the diaphragm isusually referred where?
Shoulder
Subarachnoid space extendsto what spinal level?
S2
The area of the body thatcontains the appendix isknown as what?
McBurney's point
The femoral triangle containswhat structures from lateralto medial?
--Femoral nerve --Femoralartery --Femoral vein --Femoral Canal (lymphatics)
The inguinal ligament existsin what dermatome?
L1
The kneecaps exist in whatdermatome?
L4
The male sexual response ofejaculation is mediated bywhat part of the nervoussystem?
Visceral and somatic nerves
The male sexual response ofemission is mediated by whatpart of the nervous system?
Sympathetic nervous system
The male sexual response oferection is mediated by whatpart of the nervous system?
Parasympathetic nervoussystem
The nipple exists in whatdermatome?
T4
The recurrent laryngeal nervearises from what cranial nerveand supplies what muscles?
1.CN X 2.All intrinsic musclesof the larynx except thecricothyroid muscle.
The SA and AV nodes areusually supplied by whatartery?
Right Coronary Artery (RCA)
The spinal cord ends at whatlevel in adults?
L1-L2
The umbilicus exists in whatdermatome?
T10
The xiphoid process exists inwhat dermatome?
T7
Tibial nerve damagemanifests what deficit?
Loss of plantar flexion
What are hernias?
Protrusions of peritoneumthrough an opening, usuallysites of weakness.
What are JG cells?
Modified smooth muscle ofafferent arteriole in thejuxtaglomerular apparatus ofthe kidney
What are the boundaries ofthe inguinal (Hesselbach)triangle?
--Inferior epigastric artery --Lateral border of the rectusabdominus --Inguinalligament
What are the layersencountered from theoutsided down to the brain?
--Skin --Connective tissue--Aponeurosis --Looseconnective tissue --Pericranium --Dura mater --Subdural space --Arachnoid--Subarachnoid space --Piamater --Brain
What are the manifestationsof portal hypertension?
--Esophageal varices --Hemorrhoids --Caputmedusae
What condition is usuallyassociated with portalhypertension?
Alcoholic cirrhosis
What defect may predisposean infant for a diaphragmatichernia?
Defective development of thepleuroperitoneal membrane
What gut regions andstructures does the celiacartery supply?
1.Foregut 2.--Stomach toduodenum --liver --gallbladder --pancreas
What gut regions andstructures does the IMAsupply?
1.Hindgut 2.--Distal 1/3 oftransverse colon to upperportion of rectum
What gut regions andstructures does the SMAsupply?
1.Midgut 2.--Duodenum toproximal 2/3 of transversecolon
What is a diaphragmatichernia?
Abdominal retroperitonealstructures enter the thorax
What is a femoral hernia?
entrance of abdominalcontents through the femoralcanal.
What is a hiatal hernia?
Stomach contents herniateupward through theesophageal hiatus of thediaphragm
What is the arterial bloodsupply difference above andbelow the pectinate line?
--Superior rectal a. (Above)--Inferior rectal a. (Below)
What is the course of a directinguinal hernia?
Through weak abdominalwall, into the inguinaltriangle, medial to the inferiorepigastric artery, through theexternal inguinal ring only.
What is the course of anindirect inguinal hernia?
Through the internal (deep)inguinal ring and the external(superficial) inguinal ringlateral to the inferiorepigastric artery and into thescrotum
What is the course of theureters?
Pass under uterine artery andunder the ductus deferens
What is the function ofMyenteric plexus?Submucosal plexus?
1.Coordinates motility alongentire gut wall 2.Regulateslocal secretions, blood flow,and absorption
What is the function of the JGcells?
--secrete renin anderythropoietin
What is the innervationdifference above and belowthe pectinate line?
--Visceral innervation(Above) --Somaticinnervation (Below)
What is the innervation of thediaphram?
Phrenic nerve (C3,4,5)
What is the macula densa?
Sodium sensor in part of thedistal convoluted distaltubule in the juxtaglomerularapparatus of the kidney
What is the Myenteric plexusalso known as? Submucosalplexus?
1. Auerbach's plexus 2.Meissner's plexus
What is the pectinate line ofthe rectum?
Where the hindgut meetsectoderm in the rectum
What is the relationship of thetwo pulmonary arteries in thelung hilus?
Right anterior Left superior
What is the usual pathologyabove the pectinate line ofthe rectum?
Internal hemorrhoids (notpainful) Adenocarcinoma
What is the usual pathologybelow the pectinate line ofthe rectum?
External hemorrhoids(painful) Squamous cellcarcinoma
What is the venous drainagedifference above and belowthe pectinate line?
--Superior rectal v. to IMV toportal system (Above) --Inferior rectal v. to internalpudendal v. to internal iliac v.to IVC (Below)
What layers of the gut wallcontribute to motility (4)?
--Muscularis mucosae --Inner circular muscle layer --Myenteric plexus --Outerlongitudinal muscle layer
What layers of the gut wallcontribute to support (3)?
--Serosa --Lamina propria --Submucosa
What muscle opens the jaw?
Lateral pterygoid
What nerve innervates mostof the 'glossus' muscles andwhich is the exception?
1.Vagus Nerve (CNX)2.Palatoglossus (innervatedby hypoglossal n.)
What nerve innervates mostof the 'palat' muscles andwhich is the exception?
1.Trigeminal Nerve,Mandibular branch 2.Tensorveli palatini (innervated byvagus n)
What nerve innervates themuscles that close and openthe jaw?
Trigeminal Nerve (V3)
What neurons do the GIenteric plexus contain?
Cell bodies ofparasympathetic terminaleffector neurons
What part of the heart doesthe LAD supply?
anterior interventricularseptum
What spinal cord levels arevertebral disk herniation mostlikely to occur?
Between L5 and S1
What structure is in thefemoral triangle but not inthe femoral sheath?
--Femoral nerve
What structures are in thecarotid sheath?
1.Internal Jugular Vein(lateral) --2.Common CarotidArtery (medial) --3.VagusNerve (posterior)
What structures are piercedwhen doing an LP?
1.Skin/superficial fascia2.Ligaments(supraspinatous,interspinous,ligamentum flavum)3.Epidural space 4.Duramater 5.Subdural space6.Arachnoid 7.Subarachnoidspace--CSF
What structures do the broadligament contain (4)?
--Round ligaments of theuterus --Ovaries --Uterinetubules --Uterine vessels
What structures make up thebronchopulmonary segment?
--Tertiary bronchus --Bronchial artery --Pulmonaryartery
What structures perforate thediaphragm at what vertebrallevels?
--IVC at T8 --esophagus,vagal trunks at T10 --aorta,thoracic duct, axygous vein atT12
What three muscles close thejaw?
--Masseter --Temporalis --Medial pterygoid
What usually provides theblood supply for the inferiorleft ventricle?
Posterior descending artery(PD) of the RCA
When do the JG cells secreterenin?
in response to decreasedrenal BP, decreased sodiumdelivery to distal tubule, andincreased sympathetic tone
When is damage to therecurrent laryngeal nervemost likely to happen andwhat are its results(2answers)?
1.Thyroid surgery2.Hoarseness
Where is the CSF found?
Subarachnoid space
Where is the Myenteric plexuslocated? Submucosal plexus?
1.Between the inner and outerlayers of smooth muscle in GItract wall 2.Between mucosaand inner layer of smoothmuscle in GI tract wall.
Which ligament contains theovarian vessels?
Suspensory ligament of theovary
Which ligament contains theuterine vessels?
Transverse cervical (cardinal)ligament
Which lung is the usual site ofan inhaled foreign body?
Right lung
Which lung provides a spacefor the heart to occupy?
Left lung (in the place of themiddle lobe)
Which meningeal layer is notpierced during an LP?
Pia mater
Who usually gets a directinguinal hernia? indirecthernia (and why)?
1.Older men 2.Infants (failureof processus vaginalis toclose)
What are the 3 layers ofperipheral nerves? (inner toouter)
1) Endoneurium 2)Perineurium 3) Epineurium
Where is type I collagenfound?(7)
1. bone 2. tendon 3. skin 4.dentin 5. fascia 6. cornea 7.late wound repair
Where is type II collagenfound? (3)
1. cartilage (including hyaline)2. vitreous body 3. nucleuspulposus.
What are the functions of themajor structures of the innerear bony labyrinth?
1. Cochlea- hearing 2.vestibule- linear acceleration3. semicircular canalsangularacceleration.
What are the major structuresof the inner ear bonylabyrinth?
1. Cochlea 2. vestibule 3.semicircular canals
What are the major structuresof the inner ear membranouslabyrinth?
1. Cochlear duct 2. utricle. 3.saccule 4. semicircularcanals.
Name two proteins involvedin the structure of maculaadherens.
1. Desmoplakin 2.Keratin
Name 6 functions of Golgiapparatus.
1. Distribution center of proteins andlipids from ER to plasma membrane,lysosomes, secretory vessicles 2.Modifies N-oligosaccharides onasparagine 3. Adds O-oligosaccharidesto Ser and Thr residues 4. Proteoglycanassembly from proteoglycan coreproteins 5. Sulfation of sugars inproteoglycans and of selected tyrosineon proteins6. Addition of mannose-6-phosphate to specificlysosomal proteins, whichtargets the protein to thelysosome
Name two proteins involvedin the structure of zonaadherens?
1. E-cadherins 2. actin filaments
Which cells are rich in smoothER?
1. liver hepatocytes, 2.steroid hormone-producingcells of adrenal cortex.
Describe the immuneresponse stimulated viaPeyer's patches.
1. M cells take up antigen. 2.stimulated B cells leave Peyer's patchand travel through lymph and blood tolamina propria of intestine. 3. Inlamina propria B cells differentiate intoIgA-secreting plasma cells. 4. IgAreceives protective secretorycomponent. 5. IgA is transportedacross epithelium to gut to deal withintraluminal Ag.
Which cells are rich in roughER?
1. Mucus-secreting gobletcells of small intestine, 2.antibody-secreting plasmacells.
What are the functions of thelymph node?
1. Nonspecific filtration bymacrophages. 2. storage/proliferation of B and T cells3. Ab production.
Where is type III collagenfound? (5)
1. skin 2.blood vessels3.uterus 4.fetal tissue5.granulation tissue
Name five types of epithelialcell junctions.
1. zona occludens 2.zonaadherens 3.macula adherens4.gap junction5.hemidesmosome
Describe microtubulearrangement of cilia.
9+2 arrangement ofmicrotubules.
Describe the outer structureof a Peyer's patch.
A Peyer's patch is 'covered' bysingle layer of cuboidalenterocytes, interspersed withspecialized M cells (no gobletcells).
What is a lymph node?Include information onstructural components.
A secondary lymphoid organ.Has many afferents, one ormore efferents. Withtrabeculae. Major histologicalregions = Follicle, Medulla,Paracortex
What is the primaryregulatory control of zonafasciculata secretion?
ACTH, hypothalamic CRH
What is the primaryregulatory control of zonareticularis secretion?
ACTH, hypothalamic CRH
What are/is the primarysecretory product of the zonaglomerulosa?
aldosterone
What do Brunner's glandssecrete?
alkaline mucus
What is the function of liversinusoids?
Allow macromolecules ofplasma full access to surfaceof liver cells through space ofDisse.
What is the function of a gapjunction?
Allows adjacent cells tocommunicate for electric andmetabolic functions.
What is produced by alphacells of the Islets ofLangerhans?
alpha cells produce glucagon
What three cell types arefound in Islets of Langerhans?
alpha, beta, and gamma cells
What type of cells are Nisslbodies found? In what partsof the cell?
Are found in neurons. Are notfound in axon or axonhillock.
IN what area of the spleen areB cells found?
B cells are found within thewhite pulp of the spleen.
What is type IV collagenfound? (1)
basement membrane or basallamina
What is produced by betacells of the Islets ofLangerhans?
beta cells produce insulin
What is the only GIsubmucosal gland?
Brunner's glands
Describe the histologicallayers of the adrenal glands(outside to in)
Capsule, Zona glomerulosa,Zona fasciculata, Zonareticularis, Medulla.
What are/is the primarysecretory product of theadrenal medulla?
Catecholamines (Epi, NE)
Memo to you.
Check out the picture in thebook.
Memo to you.
Check out the picture in thebook. p. 105
What do the medullary cordsconsist of?
Closely packed lymphocytesand plasma cells.
What is the most commontype of collagen?
Collagen Type I - 90%
What is the most abundantprotein in the human body?
Collagen.
Define Islets of Langerhans.
Collections of endocrine cells.
What is the function ofhemidesmosomes?
Connect cells to underlyingextracellular matrix.
What are/is the primarysecretory product of the zonafasciculata?
cortisol, sex hormones.
What is another name formacula adherens?
Desmosome
What is the effect of duodenalulcers on Brunner's glandhistology?
Duodenal ulcers causehypertrophy of Brunner'sglands.
How does dynein function incilia function?
Dynein causes the bending ofcilium by differential slidingof doublets.
What kind of protein isdynein?
Dynein is an ATPase.
Describe the role of dynein incilia structure.
Dynein links peripheral 9doublets of microtubules.
What makes endolymph?
Endolymph is made by thestria vascularis.
What is Endoneurium?
Endoneurium invests singlenerve fiber of the peripheralnerve.
What is Epineurium?
Epineurium (dense connectivetissue) surrounds entire never(fascicles and blood vessels)
What is type X collagenfound? (1)
epiphyseal plate
Plasma is filtered on the basisof what properties?
Filtration of plasma occursaccording to net charge andsize.
How is the glomerularbasement membrane formed?
From the fusion ofendothelial and podocytebasement membranes.
What is produced by gammacells of the Islets ofLangerhans?
gamma cells producesomatostatin.
What is the mnemonic toremember layers andproducts of adrenal cortex?
GFR (Glomerulosa,Fasciculata, Reticularis)corresponds to Salt (Na+),Sugar (glucocorticoids) andSex (androgens) The deeperyou go, the sweeter it gets.
What is the function of haircells?
Hair cells are the sensoryelements in both the cochlearand vestibular apparatus.
Name a protein involved inthe structure ofhemidesmosomes.
Integrin.
What is another name forzona adherens?
Intermediate junction.
Describe the histologicalstructure of sinusoids of theliver.
Irregular 'capillaries' withround pores 100-200 nm indiameter and no basementmembrane.
What is the function ofsmooth ER?
Is the site of steroid synthesisand detoxification of drugsand poisons
What is the function of roughER?
Is the site of synthesis ofsecretory (exported proteinsand of N-linkedoligosaccharide addition tomany proteins.
What part of pancreas are theIslets of Langerhansconcentrated?
Islets of Langerhans are mostnumerous in the tail ofpancreas.
What structural defect causesKartagener's syndrome? Whatis the consequence?
Kartagener's syndrome is dueto dynein arm defect. Resultsin immotile cilia.
Define Pacinian corpuscles.
Large, encapsulated sensoryreceptors found in deeperlayers of skin at ligaments,joint capsules, serousmembranes, mesenteries.
Where are Brunner's glandslocated?
Located in submucosa ofduodenum
Describe the histologicstructure of sinusoids of thespleen.
Long, vascular channels inred pulp. With fenestrated'barrel hoop' basementmembrane.
What is the histologic changein lymph nodes during anextreme cellular immuneresponse?
Lymph node paracortexbecomes enlarged duringextreme cellular immuneresponse.
What is the histologicpresentation of DiGeorge'ssyndrome?
Lymph node paracortex is notwell developed in patientswith DiGeorge's syndrome.
What kind of cells are foundnearby the sinusoids of thespleen?
Macrophages
What are the major structuresof the lymph node medulla?
Medulla consists of medullarycords and medullary sinuses.
What do medullary sinusescommunicate with?
Medullary sinusescommunicate with efferentlymphatics.
What do medullary sinusesconsist of?
Medullary sinuses containreticular cells andmacrophages.
What is the function ofMeissner's corpuscles?
Meissner's corpuscles areinvolved in lightdiscriminatory touch ofglabrous skin.
What is the histologic changein nephrotic syndrome? Whatis the consequence of thischange?
Negative charge is lost.Plasma protein is lost in urine
What is the glomerularbasement membrane coatedwith? (provides negativecharge to filter).
Negatively charged heparansulfate.
What is the most commontumor the adrenal medulla inchildren?
Neuroblastoma
What is the function ofPacinian corpuscles?
Pacinian corpuscles areinvolved in pressure, coarsetouch, vibration, and tension.
What do the Islets ofLangerhans arise from?
Pancreatic buds.
What specialized vascularstructure is found in thelymph node paracortex?What is the function of thisstructure?
Paracortex contains highendothelial venules (HEV). Tand B cells enter from theblood through the HEV.
What cells are found in thelymph node paracortex?
Paracortex houses T cells.
What is Perineurium?
Perineurium (permeabilitybarrier) surrounds a fascicleof nerve fibers.
What is the most commontumor the adrenal medulla inadults?
Pheochromocytoma
Compare the consequencesof pheochromocytoma vs.neuroblastoma on bloodpressure
Pheochromocytoma causesepisodic hypertensionNeuroblastoma does NOTcause episodic hypertension
What is the space of Disse?
Pores in liver sinusoidsallowing plasmamacromolecules access toliver cell surfaces.
What is the primaryregulatory control of adrenalmedulla secretion?
Preganglionic sympatheticfibers
What is the function of zonaoccludens?
Prevents diffusion acrossintracellular space.
Describe the appearance andstatus of primary vs.secondary follicles.
Primary follicles are denseand dormant. Secondaryfollicles have pale centralgerminal centers and areactive.
Describe the location of thelymph node paracortex.
Region of cortex betweenfollicles and medulla.
What is the primaryregulatory control of zonaglomerulosa secretion?
Renin-angiotensin
What is the glomerularbasement membraneresponsible for?
Responsible for the actualfiltration of plasma.
What is another name fortype III collagen?
reticulin
What are Nissl bodies?
rough ER
Where in the inner ear are theampullae found? What is thefunction of this structure?
Semicircular canals containampullae Functions indetecting angularacceleration.
What are/is the primarysecretory product of the zonareticularis?
sex hormones (e.g.androgens)
What is the function of lymphnode follicles?
Site of B-cell localization andproliferation.
Define macula adherens.
Small, discrete sites ofattachment of epithelial cells.
Define Meissner's corpuscles.
Small, encapsulated sensoryreceptors found in dermis ofpalm, soles and digits of skin.
What is an M cell? What is it'sfunction.
Specialized cell interspersedbetween the cuboidalenterocytes covering a Peyer'spatch. M cells take upantigens.
Name the layers of epidermisfrom surface to base.
stratum Corneum, stratumLucidum, stratumGranulosum, stratumSpinosum, stratum Basalis.
What is the location of zonaadherens?
Surrounds the perimeter justbelow zona occludens.
What is the function of Nisslbodies?
Synthesize enzymes (e.g.ChAT) and peptideneurotransmitters.
In what area of the spleen areT cells found?
T cells are found in the PALSand the red pulp of thespleen.
Which part of the cochleapicks up high frequencysound? Which picks up lowfrequency?
The base of the cochlea picksup high frequency sound theapex picks up low frequencysound
What is the bony labyrinthfilled with? Describe itscomposition.
The bony labyrinth is filledwith perilymph. Perilymph isNa+ rich, similar to ECF
What is the cause of I celldisease? What is theconsequence?
The failure of addition ofmannose-6-phosphate tolysosome proteins. Theseenzymes are secreted outsidethe cell instead of beingtargeted to the lysosome.
What is the membranouslabyrinth filled with? Describeits composition.
The membranous labyrinth isfilled with endolymph.Endolymph is K+ rich, similarto ICF.
What layer of the peripheralnerve must be rejoined inmicrosurgery for limbreattachment?
The perineurium must berejoined in microsurgery forlimb reattachment.
Where in the inner ear are themaculae found? What is thefunction of this structure?
The utricle and sacculecontain maculae Functions indetecting linear acceleration.
How is the function of gapjunctions accomplished?
Through a connection withcentral channels.
What is another name forzona occludens?
Tight junction.
What are mnemonics forremembering locations fortype I, II and IV collagen?
Type ONE: bONE Type TWO:carTWOlage Type FOUR:under the FLOOR (basementmembrane)
What is a Peyer's patch?
Unencapsulated lymphoidtissue found in lamina propriaand submucosa of smallintestine.
What type of infection mayinduce an extreme cellularimmune response? Whathappens to the lymph nodeduring such an immuneresponse?
Viral response is an example.The paracortex enlarges.
According to theHomunculus man, place thefollowing in order (frommedial to lateral). hand, foot,tongue, face, trunk
foot, trunk, hand, face,tongue
Can Bell's palsy occuridiopathically?
true
Can fasiculations bepresent in a LMN lesion?
true
Is the anterior nucleusof the thalamus part of thelimbic system?
true
Is the cingulate gyruspart of the limbic system?
true
Is the Entrorhinalcortex part of the limbicsystem?
true
Is the hippocampalformation part of the limbicsystem?
true
Is the mammillarybody part of the limbicsystem?Is the mammillarybody part of the limbicsystem?
true
Is the septal area partof the limbic system?
true
Thoracic outletsyndrome results in atrophyof the interosseous muscles?
true
Thoracic outletsyndrome results in atrophyof the thenar and hypothenareminences?
true
Thoracic outletsyndrome results indisappearance of the radialpulse upon moving the headto the opposite side?
true
Thoracic outletsyndrome results in sensorydeficits on the medial side ofthe forearm and hand?
true
A lesion of the globuspallidus causes what disease?
Wilson's disease
A lesion of the mammillarybodies (bilateraly) produceswhat?
Wernicke-Korsakoff'sencephalopathy(confabulations, anterogradeamnesia)
A lesion of the optic chiasmproduces?
bitemporal hemianopsia
A lesion of the right dorsaloptic radiation (parietallesion) produces?
left lower quadrantic anopsia(a temporal lesion)
A lesion of the right Meyer'sloop (temporal lobe)produces?
left upper quadrantic anopsia(a temporal lesion)
A lesion of the right opticnerve produces?
right anopsia
A lesion of the right optictract produces?
left homonymoushemianopsia
A lesion of the right visualfibers just prior to the visualcortex produces?
left hemianopsia with macularsparing
A lesion of the Striatum cancause which 2 diseases?
Huntington's and Wilson'sdisease
A positive Babinski is anindicator for a (UMN or LMN)lesion?
UMN lesion
A rupture of the middlemenigeal artery causes whattype of hematoma? (epiduralor subdural)
epidural hematoma
A rupture of the superiorcerebral veins causes whattype of hematoma? (epiduralor subdural)
subdural hematoma
An aneurysm of the anteriorcommunicating artery maycause what type of defects?
visual defects
An aneurysm of what arterymay cause CN III palsy?
posterior communicatingartery
Are D1 neurons in the basalganglia inhibitory orexcitatory?
Excitatory
Are D2 neurons in the basalganglia inhibitory orexcitatory?
Inhibitory
Beginning with anteriorcommunicating arterydescribe the path around thecircle of Willis.
ant. comm. - ACA - ICA -post. comm. - PCA - PCA -post. comm. - ICA - ACA -ant. comm.
Bell's Palsy is seen as acomplication in what 5things?
AIDS, Lyme disease,Sarcoidosis, Tumors,Diabetes (ALexander Bell withSTD)
Brodmann's area 17 is?
principal visual cortex
Brodmann's area 22 is?
Wernicke's area (associativeauditory cortex)
Brodmann's area 3,1,2 is?
principal sensory area
Brodmann's area 4 is?
principal motor area
Brodmann's area 41, 42 is?
primary auditory cortex
Brodmann's area 44, 45 is?
Broca's area (motor speech)
Brodmann's area 6 is?
premotor area
Brodmann's area 8 is?
frontal eye movement andpupilary change area
CN I has what function?
smell
CN I passes through what'hole'?
cribriform plate
CN II has what function?
sight
CN II passes through what'hole'?
optic canal
CN III has what 4 functions?
eye movement, pupilconstriction, accommodation,eyelid opening
CN III inervates what 5muscles.
medial rectus, superiorrectus, inferior rectus, inferioroblique, levator palpebraesuperioris
CN III passes through what'hole'?
superior orbital fissure
CN IV has what function?
eye movement
CN IV inervates what muscle.
superior oblique
CN IV passes through what'hole'?
superior orbital fissure
CN IX passes through what'hole'?
jugular foramen
CN V has what 2 functions?
mastication, facial sensation
CN V1 passes through what'hole'?
superior orbital fissure
CN V2 passes through what'hole'?
foramen rotundum
CN V3 passes through what'hole'?
foramen ovale
CN VI has what function?
eye movement
CN VI inervates what muscle?
lateral rectus
CN VI passes through what'hole'?
superior orbital fissure
CN VII has what 4 functions?
facial movement, anterior 2/3taste, lacrimation, salivation(SL, SM glands)
CN VII passes through what'hole'?
internal auditory meatus
CN VIII has what 2 functions?
hearing, balance
CN VIII passes through what'hole'?
internal auditory meatus
CN X has what 5 functions?
taste, swallowing, palateelevation, talking,thoracoabdominal viscera
CN X passes through what'hole'?
jugular foramen
CN XI has what 2 functions?
head turning, shouldershrugging
CN XI passes through what'hole'?
jugular foramen (descending)-- foramen magnum(ascending)
CN XII has what function?
tounge movements
CN XII passes through what'hole'?
hypoglossal canal
Complete the muscle spindlereflex arc by placing thefollowing in order: alphamotor, Ia afferent, musclestretch, extrafusalcontraction, intrafusalstretch.
muscle stretch - intrafusalstretch - Ia afferent - alphamotor - extrafusalcontraction
Extrafusal fibers areinnervated by what motorneuron?
alpha motor neuron
From which 3 spinal rootsdoes long thoracic nervearises?
C5, C6, C7
General sensory/motordysfunction and aphasia arecaused by stroke of the? (ant.circle or post. circle)
anterior circle
Give 3 characteristics of aLMN lesion.
atrophy, flaccid paralysis,absent deep tendon reflexes
Give 3 charateristics ofinternuclear ophthalmoplegia(INO)
medial rectus palsy on lateralgaze, nystagmus in abductedeye, normal convergence.
Give 4 characteristics of anUMN lesion.
spastic paralysis, increaseddeep tendon reflexes, +Babinski, minor to no atrophy
Golgi tendon organs sendtheir signal via what nerve?
group Ib afferents
Horner's Syndrome is presentif the lesion in Brown-Sequard is above what level?
T1
How are the fibers of thecorticospinal tract laminated?(legs/arms medial or lateral?)
arms- medial, legs-lateral
How are the fibers of thedorsal column laminated?(legs/arms medial or lateral?)
legs-medial, arms-lateral
How are the fibers of thespinothalmic tract laminated?(sacral/cervical medial orlateral?)
cervical-medial, sacral-lateral
How do glucose and aminoacids cross the blood-brainbarrier?
carrier-mediated transportmechanism
How does the hypothalamuscontrol the adenohypophysis?
via releasing factors (ie. TRH,CRF, GnRF, etc.)
Huntington's patientstypically have what type ofmovements?
Chorea
If the radial nerve is lesioned,what 2 reflexes are lost?
triceps reflex andbrachioradialis reflex
If you break your humerusmid-shaft, which nerve wouldlikely injure?
radial nerve
If you break your medialepicondyle of the humerus,which nerve would likelyinjure?
ulnar nerve
If you break yoursupracondyle of the humerus,which nerve would likelyinjure?
median nerve
If you break your surgicalneck of the humerus, whichnerve would likely injure?
axillary nerve
In a lesion of the radial nerve,what muscle is associatedwith wrist drop?
extensor carpi radialis longus
Intrafusal fibers areencapsulated and make upmuscle spindles that sendtheir signal via what nerve?
group Ia afferents
Intrafusal fibers areinnervated by what motorneuron?
gamma motor neuron
Is Bell's palsy an UMN or aLMN lesion?
LMN
Is the Babinski reflex (positiveor negative) when the big toedorsiflexes and the other toesfan-out?
positive (pathologic)
Name 2 locations for lesionsin Syringomyelia?
ventral white commissure andventral horns
Name 3 locations for lesionsin Vit.B12 neuropathy(Friedreich's ataxia)?
dorsal columns, lateralcorticospinal tracts, andspinocerebellar tracts
Name 7 functions of thehypothalamus?
Thirst/waterbalance,Adenohypophysis control,Neurohypophysis control,Hunger/satiety, Autonomicregulation, Temperatureregulation, Sexual emotions.TAN HATS
Name the 4 foramina that arein the posterior cranial fossa?
internal auditory meatus,jugular foramen, hypoglossalcanal, and foramen magnum.
Name the 5 foramina that arein the middle cranial fossa?
optic canal, superior orbitalfissure, foramen rotundum,foramen ovale, and foramenspinosum.
Name the 5 functions of theLimbic system?
Feeding, Fighting, Feeling,Flight, sex (F--K) [thefamous 5 F's]
Name the 5 segments of thebrachial plexus in order fromproximal to distal.
roots - trunks - divisions -cords - branches
Name the type of movementwith slow writhingmovements (esp. the fingers)?
Athetosis
Name the type of movementwith sudden, jerky,purposeless movements?
Chorea
Name the type of movementwith sudden, wild flailing ofone arm?
Hemiballismus
Neurons from the globuspallidus have what action onthe ventral anterior nucleus?
Inhibitory
Neurons from the striatumhave what action on theglobus pallidus?
Inhibitory
Place the following in order(from light entering the eye toreflex). Pretectal nuclei,pupillary constrictor muscle,retina, ciliary ganglion,Edinger-Westphal nuclei, CNII, CN III.
retina, CN II, pretectal nuclei,Edinger-Westphal nuclei, CNIII, ciliary ganglion, pupillaryconstrictor muscle
Stimulation from theparaventricular nucleus causethe release of what hormone?
oxytocin
Stimulation from thesupraoptic nucleus cause therelease of what hormone?
ADH (vasopressin)
The Blood-Brain Barrier isformed by what 3 structures?
choriod plexus epithelium,intracerebral capillaryendothelium, astrocytes.(First Aid says Arachnoid butthe brains say that’s a typo)
The central retinal artery is abranch off what larger artery?
ophthalmic artery
The embryologic defect ofhaving a cervical rib cancompress what 2 structures?
subclavian artery and inferiortrunk of the brachial plexus
The fasciculus cuneatuscontains fibers from theupper or lower body?
upper extremities
The fasciculus graciliscontains fibers from theupper or lower body?
lower extremities
The hippocampal formation isconnected to the mammillarybody and septal area via whatstructure?
fornix
The hippocampus has inputfrom what two areas?
entorhinal cortex, septal area
The hippocampus has outputto what two areas?
mammillary body, septal area
The infraorbital nerve is abranch off what larger nerve?
CN V2
The Nucleus Ambiguus hasfibers from what 3 CNs?
CN IX, X, XII
The Nucleus Solitarius hasfibers from what 3 CNs?
CN VII, IX, X
Traction or tear of thesuperior trunk of the brachialplexus causes whatsyndrome?
Erb-Duchenne palsy (waiter'stip)
Vertigo, ataxia, visual deficits,and coma are caused bystroke of the? (ant. circle orpost. circle)
posterior circle
Visual fibers from the lateralgeniculate body terminate onthe upper and lower banks ofwhat fissure?
Calcarine fissure
What 1 nerve root is assoc.with the achilles reflex?
S1
What 1 nerve root is assoc.with the biceps reflex?
C5
What 1 nerve root is assoc.with the patella reflex?
L4
What 1 nerve root is assoc.with the triceps reflex?
C7
What 2 areas have sensationdeficit in a lesion of themedian nerve?
lateral palm/thumb and theradial 2 1/2 fingers
What 2 areas have sensationdeficit in a lesion of the ulnarnerve?
medial palm and the ulnar 11/2 fingers
What 2 cutaneus nerves arelost in a lesion of the radialnerve?
posterior brachial cutaneousand posterior antebrachialcutaneous
What 2 spinal roots make upthe inferior trunk of thebrachial plexus?
C8, T1
What 2 spinal roots make upthe superior trunk of thebrachial plexus?
C5, C6
What 2 structures passthrough the internal auditorymeatus?
CN VII, VIII
What 2 symptoms are seenwith a lesion of themusculocutaneus nerve?
difficulty flexing the arm,variable sensory loss
What 2 symptoms are seenwith a lesion of the ulnarnerve?
weak intrinsic muscles of thehand, Pope's blessing
What 3 blood barriers doesthe body have?
blood-brain, blood-gas,blood-testis
What 3 muscles are lost in alesion of themusculocutaneous nerve?
coracobrachialis, bicepsbrachii, and brachialis
What 3 muscles are lost in alesion of the radial nerve?
triceps brachii,brachioradialis, and extensorcarpi radialis longus
What 3 structures passthrough the foramenmagnum?
spinal roots of CN XI(ascending), brainstem,vertebral arteries
What 3 structures passthrough the optic canal?
CN II, ophthalmic artery,central retinal vein
What 4 'muscles' does theradial nerve innervate?
Brachioradialis, Extensors ofthe wrist and fingers,Supinator, Triceps. (BEST)
What 4 areas is theredecreased output inParkinson's?
substantia nigra parscompacta, globus pallidus,ventral anterior nucleus,cortex
What 4 movements arelimpaired in a lesion of theulnar nerve?
wrist flextion, wristaddduction, thumbadduction, and adductiont ofthe 2 ulnar fingers
What 4 movements arelimpaired in a lesion of theulnar nerve?
wrist flextion, wristaddduction, thumbadduction, and adductiont ofthe 2 ulnar fingers
What 4 movements are lost ina lesion of the median nerve?
forearm pronation, wristflexion, finger flexion, andseveral thumb movements
What 4 structures passthrough the jugular foramen?
CN IX, X, XI(descending),jugular vein
What 4 things do the lateralstriate arteries supply?
internal capsule, caudate,putamen, globus pallidus
What 5 spinal nerves thatmake up the brachial plexus?
C5, C6, C7, C8, T1
What 5 structures passthrough the supperior orbitalfissure?
CN III, IV, V1, VI, ophthalmicvein
What 5 types of cells make upthe suportive cells of theCNS/PNS?
Astrocytes, Microglia,Oligodendroglia, Schwanncells, Ependymal cells.
What are 2 characteristics ofTabes Dorsalis?
impaired proprioception andlocomotor ataxia
What are 3 clinical findings ofthe arm in Erb-Duchennepalsy?
arm hangs by the side,medially rotated, forearm ispronated
What are the 2 classic causesof Erb-Duchenne palsy?
blow to the shoulder andtrauma during birth
What are the 3 classicsymptoms of Horner'ssyndrome?
ptosis, miosis, anhydrosis
What are the 4 classicfindings of Brown-Sequardsyndrome?
ipsi motor paralysis(spastic),ipsi loss of dorsal column,contra loss of spinothalamic,ipsi loss of ALL sensation atthe level of the lesion
What are the input and outputof the anterior nucleus of thethalamus?
input - mammillary body,output - cingulate gyrus
What are the input and outputof the cingulate gyrus?
input - anterior nucleus ofthe thalamus, output -entorhinal cortex
What are the input and outputof the entorhinal cortex?
input - cingulate gyrus,output - hippocampalformation
What are the input and outputof the mammillary body?
input - hippocampalformation, output - anteriornucleus of the thalamus
What are the input and outputof the septal area?
input - hippocampalformation, output -hippocampal formation
What artery do the lateralstriate branch off of?
internal carotid artery
What artery does the anteriorinferior cerebellar arterybranch off of?
basilar artery
What artery does the anteriorspinal artery branch off of?
vertebral artery
What artery does theposterior inferior cerebellarartery branch off of?
vertebral artery
What artery does the superiorcerebellar artery branch offof?
basilar artery
What artery supplies Broca'sand Wernicke's speech areas?
middle cerebral artery
What artery supplies themedial surface of the brain(foot-leg area)?
anterior cerebral artery
What bone do all theforamina of the middlecranial fossa pass through?
sphenoid bone
What CN arises dorsally?
CN IV trochlear
What CN is the afferent limbof the pupillary light reflex?
CN II
What CN is the efferent limbof the pupillary light reflex?
CN III
What CNs lie medially at thebrain stem?
CN III, VI, XIII (3 - 6 - 12)
What CNS/ PNS supportivecell has the followingfunctions: central myelinproduction?
Oligodendroglia
What CNS/ PNS supportivecell has the followingfunctions: inner lining of theventricles?
Ependymal cells
What CNS/ PNS supportivecell has the followingfunctions: peripheral myelinproduction?
Schwann cells
What CNS/ PNS supportivecell has the followingfunctions: phagocytosis?
Microglia
What CNS/ PNS supportivecell has the followingfunctions: physical support,repair, K+ metabolism?
Astrocytes
What disease does TabesDorsalis result from?
tertiary syphilis
What disorder results from alesion in the mediallongitudinal fasciculus (MLF).
Internuclear ophthalmoplegia(INO)
What embryologic defect isthoracic outlet syndromecaused by
by having a cervical rib.
What happens if a swinginglight test is performed on aMarcus Gann pupil (afferentpupil defect)?
results in pupil dialation ofthe defective eye as the lightis swung from the normal eyeto the defective eye
What happens if youilluminate one pupil in anormal patient?
both eyes constrict(consensual reflex)
What hypo/hyper-kineticdisorder is marked bydecreased serum ceruloplasmand Keyser-Fleischer rings inthe eyes.
Wilson's disease
What is a Argyll Robertsonpupil?
the eyes DO NOT constrict tolight, but DO accommodateto near objects
What is affected in a centralVII lesion (lesion above thefacial nucleus - UMN)?
paralysis of the contralaterallower quadrant
What is affected in aperipheral VII lesion (lesion ator below the facial nucleus -LMN)?
paralysis of the ipsilateralface both upper and lower.
What is the common name fora peripheral VII lesion?
Bell's palsy
What is the consequencewhen your CNS stimulates thegamma motor neuron and theintrafusal fibers contract?
increased sensitivity of thereflex arc
What is the direct pathwayfrom the striatum to thecortex?
The striatum to thesubstantia nigra parsreticularis /medial globuspallidus to the thalamus tothe cortex (excitatory path)
What is the embryologictissue origin of Microglia(ecto/meso/edo)?
Mesoderm
What is the indirect pathwayfrom the striatum to thecortex?
The striatum to the lateralglobus pallidus to thesubthalamic nucleus to thesubstantia nigra/medialglobus pallidus to thethalamus to the cortex(inhibitory pathway but stillincreases the thalamic drive)
What is the lesion in Brown-Sequard syndrome?
hemisection of the spinalcord
What is the most commoncircle of Willis aneurysm?
anterior communicatingartery
What is the name for thesmall muscle fiber type thatregulates muscle length?
Intrafusal fibers
What lesion produces coma?
reticular activating system
What lesion producesconduction aphasia, poorrepetition w/ poorcomprehension, and fluentspeech?
Arcuate fasiculus
What lesion produces Kluver-Bucy syndrome (hyperorality,hypersexuality, disinhibitedbehavior)?
Amygdala (bilateral)
What lesion produces motor(expressive) aphasia withgood comprehension?
Broca's area (motor speech)
What lesion producespersonality changes anddeficits in concentration,orientation, judgement?
frontal lobe - these arefrontal release signs
What lesion produces sensory(fluent/receptive) aphasiawith poor comprehension?
Wernicke's area (associativeauditory cortex)
What lesion produces spatialneglect syndrome?
right parietal lobe --contralateral neglect.
What lobe of the brain is theBroca's area in?
frontal
What lobe of the brain is thefrontal eye movement andpupillary change area in?
frontal
What lobe of the brain is thepremotor area in?
frontal
What lobe of the brain is theprimary auditory cortex areain?
temporal
What lobe of the brain is theprincipal motor area in?
frontal
What lobe of the brain is theprincipal sensory area in?
parietal
What lobe of the brain is theprincipal visual cortex areain?
occipital
What lobe of the brain is theWernicke's area in?
temporal
What midbrain structure isimportant in mitigatingvoluntary movements andmaking postural adjustments?
Basal Ganglia
What mineral causes thepathology of Wilson's disease
copper
What muscle depresses andextorts the eye?
inferior rectus
What muscle elevates andintorts the eye?
superior rectus
What muscle extorts,elevates, and adducts theeye?
inferior oblique
What muscle fiber type makesup the muscle bulk andprovides the force forcontraction?
Extrafusal fibers
What muscle intorts,depresses, and abducts theeye?
superior oblique
What muscle sensor sensestension and providesinhibitory feedback to alphamotor neurons?
golgi tendon organs
What muscular disorder is amedial longitudinal fasciculussyndrome associated with?
Multiple Sclerosis (MLF=MS)
What nerve is known as thegreat extensor nerve?
radial nerve
What neurotransmitter isdecrease in Parkinson'sdisease
dopamine
What nucleus if typicallylesioned in hemiballismus?
contralateral subthalamicnucleus
What nucleus of thehypothalamus controlscircadian rhythms?
suprachiasmatic nucleus
What nucleus of thehypothalamus controlshunger?
lateral nucleus
What nucleus of thehypothalamus controlssatiety?
ventromedial nucleus
What nucleus of thehypothalamus controls sexualemotions?
septate nucleus
What nucleus of thehypothalamus controls thirstand water balance?
supraoptic nucleus
What part of thehypothalamus (ant./post.)controls autonomicregulation?
anterior hypothalamus
What part of thehypothalamus (ant./post.)controls cooling when hot?
anterior hypothalamus
What part of thehypothalamus (ant./post.)controls heat conservationwhen cold?
posterior hypothalamus
What part of the ventralspinal cord is spared withcomplete occlusion of theventral artery?
dorsal columns
What passes through thecavernous sinus? (nerves andartery
CN III, IV, V1, V2, VI, postganglionicSNS and theInternal carotid artery
What reflex is lost in a lesionof the musculocutaneousnerve?
biceps reflex
What structure passesthrough the foramen ovale?
CN V3
What structure passesthrough the foramenrotundum?
CN V2
What structure passesthrough the foramenspinosum?
middle meningeal artery
What structure passesthrough the hypoglossalcanal?
CN XII
What symptom is seen with alesion of the axillary nerve?
Deltoid paralysis
What symptom is seen with alesion of the median nerve?
decreased thumb function
What syndrome is seen with alesion of the long thoracicnerve?
Winged scapula
What syndrome is seen with alesion of the lower trunk ofthe brachial plexus?
Claw hand
What syndrome is seen with alesion of the posterior cord ofthe brachial plexus?
Wrist drop
What syndrome is seen with alesion of the radial nerve?
Saturday night palsy
What syndrome is seen with alesion of the upper trunk ofthe brachial plexus?
Waiter's tip (Erb-Duchennepalsy)
What two bones do all theforamina of the posteriorcranial fossa pass through?
temporal and occipital bones
What two hypothalamic nucleidoes the posterior pituitary(neurohypophysis) receiveneuronal projections from?
supraoptic nucleus andparaventricular nucleus.
What type of fibers do thecorticospinal tracts carry?
motor
What type of fibers do thedorsal columns carry?
sensory - pressure, vibration,touch, proprioception
What type of fibers do thespinothalmic tracts carry?
sensory - pain andtemperature
What type of function doesCN I have? (sensory, motor, orboth)
sensory
What type of function doesCN II have? (sensory, motor,or both)
sensory
What type of function doesCN III have? (sensory, motor,or both)
motor
What type of function doesCN IV have? (sensory, motor,or both)
motor
What type of function doesCN IX have? (sensory, motor,or both)
both
What type of function doesCN V have? (sensory, motor,or both)
both
What type of function doesCN VI have? (sensory, motor,or both)
motor
What type of function doesCN VII have? (sensory, motor,or both)
both
What type of function doesCN VIII have? (sensory, motor,or both)
sensory
What type of function doesCN X have? (sensory, motor,or both)
both
What type of function doesCN XI have? (sensory, motor,or both)
motor
What type of function doesCN XII have? (sensory, motor,or both)
motor
What type of lesion is seen inAmyotrophic LateralSclerosis?
combo of UMN and LMNlesions with no sensorydeficit
What type of lesion is seen inMultiple Sclerosis?
random asymmetric lesions inmostly white matter of thecervical region
What type of lesion is seen inPoliomyelitis and is it geneticor acquired?
acquired LMN lesion causingflaccid paralysis
What type of lesion is seen inWerdnig-Hoffmann diseaseand is it genetic or acquired?
genetic LMN lesion causingflaccid paralysis (aka. Floppyinfant disease)
What type of molecule cancross the blood-brain barriermost easily? (lipid/nonlipid,polar/nonpolar)
Lipid-soluable/nonpolarmolecules
What vagal nuclei controlsmotor innervation to thepharynx, larynx, and upperesophagus?
Nucleus Ambiguus(Motor=aMbiguus)
What vagal nuclei controlsvisceral sensory in formationlike taste and gut distention?
Nucleus Solitarius(Sensory=Solitarius)
What vagal nuclei sendsparasympathetic fibers to theheart, lungs, and upper GI?
dorsal motor nucleus of CN X
What would happentemperature regulation if youlesioned your posteriorhypothalamus?
lose the ability to conserveheat
What would happentemperature regulation if youlesioned your ventromedialnucleus of the hypothalamus?
have hyperphagia andbecome obese
When is a positive Babinski anormal reflex?
during the first year of life
Where is the lesion in apatient with hemiballismus?
Subthalamic nucleus
Where is the lesion inParkinson's?
Substantia nigra parscompacta
Which CN is the only nervethat does not abut the wall inthe cavernous sinus?
CN VI (abducens)
Which CNs pass through themiddle cranial fossa?
CN II - VI
Which CNs pass through theposterior cranial fossa?
CN VII - XII
Which division of the facialmotor nucleus has duelinnervation? (upper or lower)
upper division
Which thalamic nucleus has avisual function?
Lateral Geniculate Nucleus(LGB)
Which thalamic nucleus hasan auditory function?
Medial Geniculate Nucleus(MGB)
Which thalamic nucleus haspre-motor function?
Ventral Anterior Nucleus (VA)
Which thalamic nucleus hasthe function of body senses(proprioception, pressure,pain, touch, vibration)?
Ventral Posterior LateralNucleus (VPL)
Which thalamic nucleus hasthe function of facialsensation and pain?
Ventral Posterior MedialNucleus (VPM)
Which thalamic nucleus is theprimary motor cortex?
Ventral Lateral Nucleus (VL)
Which way does the headdeviate in a unilateral lesion(LMN) of CN XI? (toward oraway)
toward the lesion -- note:First-Aid is wrong in thebook)
Which way does the jawdeviate in a unilateral lesion(LMN) of CN V? (toward oraway)
toward the lesion
Which way does the patienttend to fall in a unilaterallesion (LMN) of thecerebellum? (toward or away)
toward the lesion
Which way does the tonguedeviate in a unilateral lesion(LMN) of CN XII? (toward oraway)
toward the lesion
Which way does the uvuladeviate in a unilateral lesion(LMN) of CN X? (toward oraway)
away from the lesion
Why does the arm hang bythe side in Erb-Duchennepalsy?
paralysis of shoulderabductors
Why is L-dopa use forparkinsonism instead ofdopamine?
L-dopa crosses the bloodbrainbarrier while dopaminedoes not.
Why is the arm mediallyrotated in Erb-Duchennepalsy?
paralysis of the lateralrotators
Why is the forearm pronatedin Erb-Duchenne palsy?
loss of the biceps brachii
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