Anatomy and physiology test one at CCM Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Homeostasis
Body’s ability to maintain relatively stable internally while externally the world changes
Cell
Basic Structure and unit of life
Plasma Membrane
Separates intracellular fluid from extra cellular fluid, made of a double layer of lipids and phosphates, Gives Cell ability to live in water environment with out being influenced by it
Function of Membrane Protein
Transport, Enzymatic (accelerate) Activities
Passive Membrane Transport
Movement of things from one side of the cell membrane to the other without the use of energy
Simple Diffusion (Type)
Type: Passive Membrane Transport
Facilitated Diffusion (Type)
Type: Passive Membrane Transport
Carriers
An integral part of membrane protein that are specifically for polar molecules
Osmosis (Type)
Type: Passive Membrane Transport
Diffusion (Type)
Type: Passive Membrane Transport
Filtration (Type)
Type: Passive Membrane Transport
Isotonic
Solution with same solute concentration as that of cytosol (fluid with in the cell)
Hypertonic
Solution with greater solute concentration then that of cytosol
Hypotonic
Solution with lesser solute concentration that that of cytosol
ATP
Adenosine Triphosphate
Active Membrane Transport
Uses ATP to move solutes across membrane, Requires carrier protein
Vesicular Transport (Type)
Type: Active Membrane Transport
Exocytosis (Type)
Type: Active Membrane Transport
Endocytosis (Type)
Type: Active Membrane Transport
Transcytosis (Type)
Type: Active Membrane Transport
Phagocytosis (Type)
Type: Active Membrane Transport
Membrane Potential
Electrical charge of molecule given by the concentration of ions
Cytoplasm
Material between plasma membrane and nucleus made up of cytosol and cytoplasmic organelles
Cytosol
Fluid made up of largely water with dissolved protein, salts, sugars and other solute
Cytoplasmic Organelles
Specialized cellular components
Mitochondria (Description)
Description: Double Membrane, Contains its own DNA and RNA (maternally inherited)
Ribosome (Description)
Description: Granules that contain protein and rRNA
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Description)
Description: Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes, external surface has attached ribosome
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Description)
Description: Interconnected tubes and parallel membranes
Golgi Apparatus (Description)
Description: Stacked and flattened membranous sacs
Lysosomes (Description)
Description: Bags that contain digestive enzymes
Peroxisomes (Description)
Description: Bags that contain oxidizing and catalyzing enzymes
Cytoskeleton (Description)
Description: outer skeleton of cell
Microtubules (Description)
Description: Located within cytoskeleton, made of protein
Microfilaments (Description)
Description: Located within cytoskeleton
Centrioles (Description)
Description: barrel shaped organelles made of microtubules
Cilia (Description)
Description: whip like cellular extension made of microtubules found in trachea and fallopian tubes
Nucleus (Description)
Description: Typically circular in shape, surrounded by nuclear envelope and chromatin
Nuclear Envelope (Description)
Description: Double layer membrane that forms outer structure of nucleus
Chromatin (Description)
Description: Fluid like material between nuclear envelope and nucleolus
Organic Molecules
Contain carbon
Proteins (Description)
Description: Amino acid chains as determined by DNA
Nucleic Acid (Description)
Description: made up of phosphate group, sugar and base
DNA (Description)
Description: Double Helix Design, is a type of nucleic acid
DNA Base Pairs
Thiamine pairs with Adenine, Guanine pairs with Cytosine
DNA Replication
Occurs just before the cell divides, exact copy of the DNA is produced
Protein Synthesis
Process, which occurs in ribosome’s, by which cell produces protein
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid
RNA Base Pairs
Guanine and Cytosine, Adenine and Uracil
rRNA (Defined)
Defined: Ribisomal RNA
mRNA (Defined)
Defined: Messenger RNA
tRNA (Defined)
Defined: Transfer RNA
Transcription
Occurs when mRNA molecule is made from a portion of DNA using appropriate base pairs
Translation
Occurs when sequence of bases of mRNA directs sequence of amino acids to produce a specific protein
Triplet Code
Three bases that create one specific amino acid
Codone
Three base unit of mRNA created from DNA
Anticodone
Three base unit of tRNA created from mRNA, identical to DNA except when U replaced T
Mitosis
Process of cell division involving prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telephase, interphase and cytokenesis
Prophase
1st Phase of Mitosis, Chromatin separates and are delivered to cellular poles creating chromosomes
Metaphase
2nd Phase of Mitosis, Chromosomes align at equator of cell
Anaphase
3rd Phase of Mitosis Chromosomes split and move towards daughter cells
Telephase
4th Phase of Mitosis, Information for new nuclear membrane is formed
Interphase
Normal cell function occurs, cell rest from reproduction
Cytokinesis
Cytoplasm splits
Epidermis (Region)
Region: Outermost superficial
Dermis (Region)
Region: Middle
Hypodermis (superficial fascia) (Region)
Region: Deepest
Keratinoctyes (Location)
Cell of epidermis
Melanocytes (Location)
Cell of epidermis
Langerhans’s Cells (Location)
Cell of epidermis
Merkel Cells (Location)
Cell of epidermis
Stratum Basale (Description/Location)
Single row of keratinocytes
Stratum Spinosum (Description/Location)
Contains system of intermediate filaments attached to desmosomes, located between basale and granulosum
Stratum Granulosum (Description/Location)
Thin, three to five cell layers, in which drastic changes in keratinocytes appearance occur, Between corneum or lucidum where applicable and spinosum layers
Stratum Lucidum (Description/Location)
Thin transparent band superficial to stratum granulosum, Contains few rows of dead keratinocytes
Stratum Corneum (Description/Location)
Outermost layer of keratinized cells, ¾ of epidermal thickness
Dermis
Second layer of skin containing connective tissue, has two layers papillary and reticular
Papillary Layer
Contains areolar connective tissue with collagen (for stretch) and elastic (for strength) fibers, Superior surface contains some nerve endings
Reticular Layer
80% of dermal thickness, Collagen fibers for strength, Elastin fibers add stretch-recoil properties
Hypodermis
Deepest region of skin, Composed of mostly adipose tissue, which can move to where energy is needed and some areolar connective tissue
Melanin
Yellow to reddish-brown to black pigment responsible for dark skin colors
Carotene
Yellow to orange pigment, most obvious in palms and soles of feet
Hemoglobin
Reddish pigment responsible for the pinkish hue of the skin
Eccrine sweat glands
Found in palms, soles of feet and forehead
Apocrine sweat glands
Found in axillary and anogenital areas (armpits and groin)
Ceruminous glands
Modified apocrine glands in external ear canal that secrete cerumen (earwax)
Mammary glands
Specialized sweat glands that secrete milk
Sebaceous Glands
Simple alveolar glasnds found all over body (except where sweat glands exsist)
Hair Function
Helping maintain warmth, alerting body to presence of bugs, guarding scalp against physical truama, heat loss and sunlight
Arrector pili
Muscle, when hair gets stimulated muscle contracts, making hair ‘stand on end’
Function of Integumentary System
Protection, body tempature regulation, cutaenous sensation, metabolic functions, blood reservoir, excretion
Parts of the Integumentary System
Skin, glands of skin, hair, nails
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Least malignant and most common skin cancer, Non Invasive, slow growing and rare to metastasize
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Arises from keratinocytes of stratum spinosum, grows rapidly if not removed, good prognosis if caught in time
Melanoma
Highly metastatic, resistant to chemotherapy therefore is the most dangerous type of skin cancer
First Degree Burn
Only epidermis is damaged
Second Degree Burn
Epidermis and upper regions of dermis are damaged
Third Degree Burn
Entire thickness of skin is damaged
Gland
One or more cells that make and secrets aqueous fluids
Endocrine gland
Secretes product in blood
Exocrine gland
Secretes product on top of skin
Simple Diffusion (Defined)
Defined: Diffused directly through membrane without the use of energy depending on gradient
Facilitated Diffusion (Defined)
Defined: Transportation of glucose, amino acids and ions through the use of either protein channels or binding to carrier proteins
Osmosis (Defined)
Defined: Movement of water from low to high concentration
Diffusion (Defined)
Defined: Movement of molecules from high to low concentration
Filtration (Defined)
Defined: Passage of water and solute through membrane by hypostatic pressure
ATP (Job)
Provides energy to cell
Vesicular Transport (Defined)
Defined: movement of large molecules (marcromolecules) across membrane
Exocytosis (Defined)
Defined: Moving items from cells interior to exterior
Endocytosis (Defined)
Defined: Moving items from cells exterior to interior
Transcytosis (Defined)
Defined: Moving items into, across and then out of cell
Phagocytosis (Defined)
Defined: Pseudopods (false feet) surrounds solids and brings them into cell interior
Mitochondria (Job)
Job: Provides most of cells ATP via aerobic cellular respiration
Ribosome (Job)
Job: Site of protein synthesis
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Job)
Job: Deals with protein synthesis
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Job)
Job: Catalyzes reactions, Deals with delivery of substances (hormones, fats, carbohydrates)
Golgi Apparatus (Job)
Job: functions in modifying, concentration and packaging proteins (shipping and handling)
Lysosomes (Job)
Job: Digests ingested bacteria, viruses and toxins and items that have been phagocytized
Peroxisomes (Job)
Job: neutralizes and detoxifies harmful or toxic substances
Cytoskeleton (Job)
Job: provides structure of cell, containing microtubules and microfilaments
Microtubules (Job)
Job: helps shape cell and involved in the distribution of microplasm
Microfilaments (Job)
Job: endocytosis and exocytosis
Centrioles (Job)
Job: Involved in cell division and form the bases of cilia and flagella
Cilia (Job)
Job: move substances from one direction to another on cell surface
Nucleus (Job)
Job: Location of RNA and DNA production, Gene containing control center
Nuclear Envelope (Job)
Job: Provides barrier between chromatin and cytoplasm
Chromatin (Job)
Job: Packages DNA
Proteins (Job)
Job: Enzymes to speed reactions, Transport Carries, Antibodies
Nucleic Acid (Job)
Job: genetic information and cell structure
DNA (Contains)
Contains: Phosphate, Sugar (dioxyribose) and Base
Protein Synthesis
Happens when gene activity leads the production of a specific protein
rRNA (Job)
Job: Found in Ribsomes, interacts with both mRNA and tRNA during protein sythesis
mRNA (Job)
Job: carries information from nucleus to cytoplasm or ribosome
tRNA (Job)
Job: gets amino acids and delivers them to ribosome’s for creation of new chain of amino acids
Epidermis (Cell Type)
Cell Type: keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Dermis (Cell Type)
Cell Type: Connective Tissue
Hypodermis (superficial fascia) (Cell Type)
Cell Type: another type of connective tissue
Keratinoctyes (Job)
Produce keratin protein
Melanocytes (Job)
Produce brown pigment melanin responsible for color
Langerhans’s Cells (Job)
Epidermal macrophages that help activate the immune system
Merkel Cells (Job)
Function as tough receptors in association with sensory nerve endings
Stratum Basale (Job)
Deepest epidermal layer firmly attached to dermis
Stratum Spinosum (Job)
Makes skin more resistant to friction
Stratum Granulosum (Job)
Between corneum and granulosum layers
Stratum Lucidum (Job)
Contains few rows of dead keratinocytespresent only where there is a lot of abrasion
Stratum Corneum (Job)
Functions in: waterproofing, protection from abrasion and penetration, rendering body insensitive to physical assault
Sebum
Oily secreation created by sebaceous glands
Melanoma (diagnosis)
ABCD’s: Asymmetrical, Border is Irregular, Color is black, brown or tan, and Diameter is larger than 6mm
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