BOARDS Ocular Anatomy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Abnormal distance between the medial canthus of the eyelids
whitening of eyelashes
turning inward of eyelashes
which nerve opens the eye?
Which nerve closes the eye
What is the main retractor of the eyelid?
Superior palpebral levator muscle. Widens upper eyelid by 15mm
What is the minor retractor of the upper eyelid? And what is its innervation?
Muscle of Muller (widens palpebral fissure by 2-3mm)innervated by SNS - Alpha 2 receptors
what glands does the tarsal plate enclose?
MG = sebaceous glands are located posterior to the eyelashes
PALPEBRAL CONJUNCTIVA:stratified epithelial layer
- outer protective layer that extends into the fornices and onto the bulbar conjunctiva - contains globet cells
loose vascularize CT composed of superficial lymphoid layer and deeper fibrous layer
PALPEBRAL CONJUNCTIVA:submucosa layer (outer lymphoid layer)
very immunologically active layer. contains IgA, macrophages, mast cells, PMNs, and eosinophils
PALPEBRAL CONJUNCTIVA:submucosa layer - deeper fibrous layer
contains accessory lacrimal glands, nerves, bvs. becomes continuous with the dense CT of the tarsal plate
lateral lymphatics drain into the ______
Parotid (preauricular lymph nodes)
Medial lymphatics drain into the _____
submandibular lymph nodes
lymphatic vessels are found in the ____
dimensions of the canaliculi
10mm tube longvertically 2mmthen 8mm medially before joins as one canaliculus into the lacrimal sac
valve of hasner
located at end of nasolacrimal duct. Prevents backflo of nasal fluids into the lacrimal drainage system
Foramens and Openings of the Orbit.What is in the...Optic Canal
Optic Nerve and Opht. A.
Foramens and Openings of the OrbitWhat is in the...Carotid canal
internal carotid A.Sypathetic plexus
Foramens and Openings of the OrbitWhat is in the...Supraorbital foramen
Supraorbital N. (part of VI) and vessels
Foramens and Openings of the OrbitWhat is in the...Infraorbital Formaen
infraorbital N. (part of V2) and vessels
Foramens and Openings of the OrbitWhat is in the...Mandibular Foramen
inferior alveolar N. and vessel
Foramens and Openings of the OrbitWhat is in the...Stylomastoid foramen
Facial Nerve
What comprises the lateral wall of the orbit?
Greater wing and the Zygomatic bone
Where is the optic canal located?
Lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
Bones that comprise the floor of the orbit are the most common type of orbital wall fractures. What are these bones?
"My Pal gets his Z's on the Floor"MaxillaryPalatineZygomatic
BONES OF THE ORBITWhat are the contents of the Roof?
- Made of frontal bone and lesser wing of the sphenoid- Frontal bone makes up the majority of the roof- lacrimal gland- levator muscle slightly above the superior rectus muscle
BONES OF THE ORBITWhat are the contents of the Floor?
- Maxillary, Palatine, Zygomatic bones- maxillary bone comprises of the majority of the orbital florr- infraorbital nerve runs along the infraorbital groove of the floor
BONES OF THE ORBITWhat are the contents of the Medial Wall?
- Ethmoid, Lacrimal, Maxilla, Body of the sphenoid
BONES OF THE ORBITWhat are the content of the Lateral Wall?
-Zygomatic bone, Greater Wing of the Sphenoid,
Lamina Papyracea
term synonymous for the orbital plate of the ethmoid bone
radius of curvature of central cornea for 1) anterior surface 2) posterior surface
Bowmans layer contains Type ___ Collagen Fibrils
type 1
Stroma consists of ___% of cornea. It is composed of Three Important things. name them.
90%/Keartocytes, Collagen Fibrils, Ground Substance
hydrophilic, negatively charged carbohydrates that attract water to create precise spacing between the lamellae.
CONJUNCTIVABulbar conjunctiva1) stratified epithelial layer2) submocosa
Two Layers:stratified epithelial layer - continuous witht he corneal epithelial. Superficial cells have microvilli and globet cells and their cytoplasm contains melanin granules2) submucosa: CT stromal layer, like corneal stroma
Conjunctival Blood Supply
Peripheral arcades: supply palpebral and fornicel portionsAnterior ciliary arteries: supply bulbar conjunctiva
Conjunctival sensory innervation
LPCA: innervates bulbar conj.V1 and V2: innervated palp conj.
Conjunctival sensory innervation
LPCA: innervates bulbar conj.V1 and V2: innervated palp conj.
Scleral innervation
Blue Sclera
could signify disease such as CT disorder like Osteogenesis Imperfecta or Ehler's Danlos syndrome
Blue Sclera
could signify disease such as CT disorder like Osteogenesis Imperfecta or Ehler's Danlos syndrome
Sclera1)thinnest area2)weakest area3)thickest area
1)0.30mm - under recti tendons - clinically relevant in strab SX to avoid inadvertent globe penetration2)lamina cubrosa posteriorly3)1.0mm - at posterior pole
Histological and Anatomical changes at the Limbus Name 2 things
1)Limbal epi contians 10 cell layers compared to the 5 layers of corneal epi2) Bowmans and Descemets layers terminate. Descemets becomes Schwalbe's line. Conjunctival stroma, episclera, and Tenon's capsule begin
The TM has 2 divisions: Name them
1)Corneoscleral meshwork: division that lies closer tot he anterior chamber. Has sheets that run from the cornea to the scleral spr2)Juxtacanalicular (JXT) or Cribiform layer: the outer TM division that lies closest to Schlems canal. JXT offers the most resistance to AQ flow
Route of AQ flow via Schelmm's canal
Corneoscleral meshwork --> JXT --> SC --> external collecter channels --> Deep scleral venous plexus--> intrascleral veins --> low pressure EPISCELRAL VEINS --> Anterior Ciliary Veins --> Muscular Veins --> Sup/Inf Ophthalmic Veins
Aqueous flow via the Uveascleral Meshwork
-small amount of AQ flow (5-35%)AQ --> Uveoscleral meshwork --> connective tissue spaces surround the ciliary muscle bundles --> suprachoroidal space --> anterior ciliary veins and vortex veins and suprachoroidal collector channels
Layers of sclera
EpiscleraStromaLamina Fusca
Which layer of the sclera contains capillary network and is susceptible to inflammation of CB or iris
Which layer of sclera has interwoven collagen fibrils (interwoven randomly and irregularly)?
Which layer of the sclera contains thin, dark accumulation of melanocytes?
Lamina fusca = inner layer of sclera
CBDivide CB into two parts
1) Pars Plicata2) Pars Plana
CBPars Plicata
anterior 1/3the non-pigmented CB epithelium is responsible for secretion of AQ
CBPars Plana
posterior 2/3responsible for producing the lens zonular fibers
Valleys of Kuhnt
region between ciliary processes in the pars plicata region
Major arterial circle of the iris formed by...
anastamoses between LPCA and Anterior Ciliary Artery
Where does AQ humor come from?
The blood stream - via fenestrated capillaries of the Major Arterial Circle of the Iris
Continue the next steps in this anatomy from IRIS --> CB --> RETINA1) Anterior Iris Epithelium2) Posterior Iris Epithelium
1) Anterior Iris Epithelium --> Pigmented CB epithelium --> RPE2) Posterior Iris Epithelium --> Unpigmented CB epithelium --> ora serrata --> sensory retina
nerve is responsible for ant 2/3 taste
Facial nerve
nerve that is responsible for post 1/3 taste
In a CN X palsy, the uvula deviates ____ from the side of lesion. In a CN XII palsy, the tongue will deviation ______ the side of the lesion
posterior lacrimal crest
the orbital septum is attaches medially to the posterior lacrimal crest. The lacrimal sac is anterior to this attachment. This means that the orbital septurm does NOT proctect the lacrimal sac from infection
Complete the blank:
Ptosis caused by ______ affects _____ (LPS/Muller's) muscle
1) Horners
2) Graves
3) 3rd Nerve Palsy
1) Mullers - due to alpha 2 SNS innervation
2) Mullers - same reasoning
3) LPS - because is a subnuclei of 3rd nerve nuclues
CN _____ opens the eye
CN ____ closes the eye
inflammation (can be due to viral or infection) of the lacrimal gland. - Will see bump on upper lateral eyelid, where the lacrimal gland is located!- Common complaint: reduced tearing on the ipsilateral side- Usually as a result of nasolacrimal duct obstruction
Corneal blood supply. Name the 3
cornea is avascular. Get its supply from:1) diffusion from the aqueous humor2) limbal conj and episcleral cappillary networks3) palpebral conjunctiva
There are NO CORNEAL NERVES in which corneal layers?
Descemets or the Endothelium
Corneal innervation
VI, anterior ciliary nerves, LPCN, SPCN. Enter mid-stroma and then pierces thru Bowmans and enter the epi where they become highly sensitive "naked" nerves bc they lose their meylin sheath pas the stroma
Lens capsule is thickest at ____ and thinnest at ______
anterior midperipheral.posterior pole
If there was Increased IOP, which area of the sclera would most likely be damaged?
lamina cubrosa
Layers from posterior to anterior of eye
sclera, epislera, tenon's capsule, conjunctival stroma, conjunctival epithelium
Palisades of Vogt
located in the limbus. Comprised of limbal epithelium and stroma and project onto the cornea. Corneal stem cells (destined to become basal cells) originate from pallisades of vogt
Where is the iris thickest? thinnest?
Collarette region/ iris room
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