Chapter 28-Global Conflagration; WWII Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Axis
In World War II the alliance of Germany and Italy in 1936 which later included Japan and other nations
Grand Alliance
A European coalition, consisting (at various times) of Austria, Bavaria, Brandenburg, England, the Holy Roman Empire, the Palatinate of the Rhine, Portugal, Savoy, Saxony, Spain, Sweden, and the United Provinces
Appeasement
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability
Phony war
A phase in early World War II marked by few military operations in Continental Europe, in the months following the German invasion of Poland and preceding the Battle of France. Although the great powers of Europe had declared war on one another, neither side had yet committed to launching a significant attack, and there was relatively little fighting on the ground
Blitzkrieg
Quick and decisive short battles to deliver a knock out blow to an enemy state before it could fully mobilize
Collaborators
During WWII, they helped the Nazis hunt down Jews
Zyklon B
Hydrogen cyanide crystals used to gas prisoners
Stalingrad
Site of critical World War II Soviet victory that reversed Germany's advance to the East. In late 1942, Russian forces surrounded the Germans, and on Feb. 2, 1943, the German Sixth Army surrendered. First major defeat for the Germans in World War II.
Pearl Harbor
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Potsdam Conference
The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at Potsdam, outside Berlin, in July, 1945. Truman, Churchill, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe but their failure to reach meaningful agreements soon led to the onset of the Cold War.
Chester Nimitz
United States admiral of the Pacific fleet during World War II who used aircraft carriers to destroy the Japanese navy (1885-1966)
Nagasaki
Japanese city in which the second atomic bomb was dropped (August 9, 1945).
Atom bomb
Powerful weapon created from the splitting of atoms. It was used by Harrry S. Truman on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to end WWII
Neville Chamberlain
British statesman who as Prime Minister pursued a policy of appeasement toward fascist Germany (1869-1940)
Pact of Steel
1939 alliance between Italy and Germany
Battle of Britain
The prolonged bombardment of British cities by the German Luftwaffe during World War II and the aerial combat that accompanied it
Vichy
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans.
Josip Broz
Yugoslav statesman who led the resistance to German occupation during World War II and established a communist state after the war (1892-1980)
Auschwitz
Nazi extermination camp in Poland, the largest center of mass murder during the Holocaust. Close to a million Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and others were killed there.
Great Patriotic War
Russian (soviet) name for World War II.
Teheran Conference
December, 1943 - A meeting between FDR, Churchill and Stalin in Iran to discuss coordination of military efforts against Germany, they repeated the pledge made in the earlier Moscow Conference to create the United Nations after the war's conclusion to help ensure international peace.
Douglas MacArthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II; he accepted the surrender of Japan (1880-1964)
Midway
naval battle of World War II (June 1942); land and carrier-based American planes decisively defeated a Japanese fleet on its way to invade the Midway Islands
Big Three
Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin - leaders of the allies.
Munich Conference
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
Non-Aggression Pact of 1939
Agreement between Joseph Stalin and Hitler to divide Eastern Europe
Winston Churchill
Prime minister of Great Britain from 1940-1945 and again 1951-1955.
Charles de Gaulle
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Final Solution
Nazi Germany's plan and execution of the systematic genocide of European Jews during World War II, resulting in the final and most deadly phase of the Holocaust. Heinrich Himmler was the chief architect of the plan
Warsaw ghetto
An area of Warsaw sealed off by the Nazis to confine the Jewish population, forcing them into poor, unsanitary conditions
Tripartite Pact
Signed between the Axis powers in 1940 (Italy, Germany and Japan) where they pledged to help the others in the event of an attack by the US
Yalta Conference
FDR, Churchill and Stalin met at Yalta. Russia agreed to declare war on Japan after the surrender of Germany and in return FDR and Churchill promised the USSR concession in Manchuria and the territories that it had lost in the Russo-Japanese War
Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere
An appeal to Asians who wanted to rid thier land of European rule
Hiroshima
City in Japan, the first to be destroyed by an atomic bomb, on August 6, 1945. The bombing hastened the end of World War II
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