Block 3 PATH Exam -- Intro to Hematopoiesis & Iron Metabolism Lectures (# 1- Flashcards

Hemoglobin
Terms Definitions
Bones in which active hematopoiesis occurs
VERTEBRA, STERNUM, PELVISRibs, skull, scapulaProximal long bones
EPO(Erythropoietin)
Source -- kidneyINCREASES RBC productionUsed in anemia of RF, chronic disease, malignancy
G-CSF and GM-CSF
Sources -- monocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cellsNote: Production is increased by inflammation (IL-1 [from monocytes])INCREASE granulocyte release from BMINCREASE BM production of all cell lineagesUsed in neutropenias, BM transplantation
IL-3
Source -- activated T lymphocytesCauses proliferation of ALL hematopoietic precursorsSYNERGISTIC with G-CSF, GM-CSF, SCF
SCF(Stem Cell Factor)
Sources -- fibroblasts, BM stomral cellsEnhances stem cell survivalMitogenicSYNERGISTIC with IL-6, IL-3, G(M)-CSFUsed in BM failure
IL-5
Source -- marrow stromal cellsEosinophil growth factor
IL-1
Source -- stimulated monocytesStimulates production of IL-2 and other cytokines (G-CSF)
Tumor Necrosis Factor
Stimulates production of GM-CSF, M-CSF, and IL-1
Retinoic acid
Promotes granulocyte differentiation
Cytokines induced by inflammation and infection
GM-CSF, IL-3, IL-6
Growth factors produced by Acute Myelogenous Leukemias
GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSFProduced in an AUTOCRINE fashion
Erythroblast(Pronormoblast)
Earliest identifiable erythroid cellFine chromatin, nucleoliBasophilic cytoplasmFound in the BM
Orthocromic Normoblast
Pink cytoplasmNucleus is extruded following this stageFound in the BM
Reticulocyte
Larger than mature RBCsSlightly bluish-grey color (persistent RNA)Polychromasia -- the reaction to stain (methylene blue)
Erythropoietin
Regulator of erythrocyte productionProduction of this is mediated by TISSUE O2 LEVELS
2,3 DPG
Modulates the oxygen affinity of HgbInc. 2,3 DPG results in Inc. O2 release
Anisocytosis
Variation in RBC size (RDW)
Poikilocytosis
Variation in RBC shape
Schistocytes
Fragmented RBCsSplit or broken by physical means3 main causes: DIC, TTP, HUS
Target Cells
Concentrated Hgb in the centerSeen in thalassemia, liver disease, and post-splenectomy
Spherocytes
Spherical RBCs, WITHOUT central pallor
Ovalocyte
Egg-shaped RBCs
Elliptocytes
Oblong RBCs, with nearly parallel sides
Acanthocyte
SPIKY RBC WITHOUT central pallorCommonly seen in liver disease
Burr Cell
RBC with knobby surface bumpsUsually, these are artifactCan be seen in Anemia of Renal Failure
Acute Intermittent Porphyria
Defect in PORPHOBILINOGEN DEAMINASESigns -- ab pain, NEUROLOGIC defects
Variegate Porphyria
Defect in protoporphyrinogen oxidaseSame symptoms as AIP, plus light sensitivity
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
PARTIAL defect in URO-DECARBOXYLASESigns -- dermal photosensitivityCan be triggered by estrogen and alcohol
Protoporphyria
Due to decreased Heme Synthetase (ferrochelatase)Dermal photosensitivity is increased
Thalassemia
Hgb synthesis disorderDecr. globin chain synthesisOften entails chronic hemolytic anemia
Spectrins
Proteins that link to form "scaffolding" for RBCs
Ankyrins
Proteins that bind RBC membrane to "scaffolding"
Normal HCT values
Women -- .35 - .47Men -- .40 - .52
Normal Hgb values
Women -- 120 - 160Men -- 130 - 180
Normal MCV values
80 - 100 fl for both men and women
3 major patterns of anemia
Hemolytic (Inc. R-cytes, Decr. M:E)Hypoproliferative (Decr. R-cytes, Incr. M:E)Ineff. Erythropoiesis (Decr. R-cytes, Decr. M:E)
Hemosiderin
Storage form of ironCommonly seen in MACROPHAGES
Heme Oxygenase
Separates iron from heme @ enterocyte membrane
FerroportinHephaestin
Transport iron across BASOLATERAL membraneHand iron off to transferrin
Divalent Metal Transporter 1
Protein that transports ferric iron across apical membrane
Hepcidin
Primary regulator for the absorption and release of ironManufactured in the liverHigh plasma iron --> Incr. hepcidin --> Decr. release of ironLow plasma iron --> Decr. hepcidin --> Incr. release of iron
Ceruloplasmin
Important in mobilizing iron from macrophagesIron oxidized and incorporated into ferric transferrin
Sequence of iron depletion in anemia
BM --> RBCs --> other tissues
Type of anemia that Iron Def. Anemia is
MicrocyticHypochromic
Serum Iron (SI)
All iron bound to transferrin
Total Iron Binding Capacity
Approximates amount of transferrin% Saturation = SI divided by TIBC
Soluble transferrin receptor
Reflects the total body mass of cellular transferrin receptor
Type of Anemia that anemia of inflammation is
NormocyticNormochromic
Type of anemia that Anemia of RF is
NormocyticNormochromic
Type of anemia that Sideroblastic Anemia ia
MicrocyticHypochromicNote: has "ringed sideroblasts"
/ 50
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online