Hyams AP Human Geography 1st Semester Final Prep Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Human Geography encompasses several subfields and has an environmental component.
(True or False)
True
Medical Geography is not part of human geography. It belongs to physical geography.
(True or False)
False
Movement is not an important theme in the study of geography.
(True or False)
False
The only thing maps can tell us is the absolute location of places.
(True or False)
False
The relative location of a place can change constantly but only for the better.
(True or False)
False
A map of worldwide precipitation can show us areas prone to drought and floods.
(True or False)
True
All regions have clear and concise boundaries.
(True or False)
False
A country is divided into separate regions. No region overlaps another and each is equal in importance.
(True or False)
False
Culture hearths first appeared in the Eastern Hemisphere.
(True or False)
True
Most information spread from culture hearths by hierarchical diffusion.
(True or False)
False
Culture regions can become political battlegrounds and even physical battlegrounds because of people's emotional attachments to the land and traditions.
(True or False)
True
This text focuses on human geography. What is the other half of geography called?
Physical Geography
When geographers look at the way places and things are laid out on the cultural landscape, they are taking a : what?
Spatial Perspective
Which of the following is not true regarding remote sensing:
Began with air photography
Does not involve satellites
Involves Aircraft
Reveals environmental changes.
Does not involve satellites
Of the following, which CANNOT be shown on a map?
Housing styles
River flow direction
Diffusion of Disease
Relative location
Housing Styles
What event markedly changed Chicago's relative location (which already had good centrality)? This change linked Chicago to eastern states and utilized the Great Lakes.
The Opening of St. Lawrence Seaway
Symbols on maps represent many different things. Arrows can show:
Direction of immigration
Numbers of People
Intensity of traffic on routes
All of the above
All of the above
The spread of various aspects of culture, such as language, knowledge, skills, religion, etc., from one place to another is called?
Diffusion
How do Geographers define and delimit a region?
Establishing criteria
A city s an example of a __?__ region.
Functional
Features placed on the land change its natural look. Geographers call this cultural:
Landscape
The birth place of civilization is called a/an:
Cultural Hearth
When an idea or invention spreads outward from its source area and also remains strong in its source area, it is said to have spread by:
Transculturation
The idea that human cultural behavior is controlled by the environment in which we live is called:
Environmental Determinism
The influence of the natural environment on humanity declines:
With increasing Technology
Broad generalizations about the impact of the environment on humans are:
Rarely Sustained
1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale?
Fractional Scale
Situation identifies a place by its:
Location relative to other objects
Site identifies a place by its:
Unique physical characteristics
The concept that the distribution of one phenomenon is scientifically related to the location of other phenomena is:
Spatial Association
German Philosopher Imanuel Kant compared geographers' concern for ____ to historians' concern for ______.
Space; Time
Geographers ask question like:
Where and Why
MDC stands for:
More Developed Country
LDC stands for
Less Developed Country
MDC and LDC are important for understanding:
Economic Diffusion and Uneven Development.
GPS stands for:
Global Positioning System
GIS stands for:
Geographic Information System
What geographic factors influenced the use of landfill in New York City's environmental modification?
Site
The use of polders and dikes in the Netherlands are examples of:
Adaptation, Environmental modification, and Human Environment Interaction.
What is a map?
A two-dimensional or flat-scale model of Earth's surface, or a portion of it.
What is a place?
A specific point on Earth distinguished by a particular character.
What is a region?
An area of Earth distinguished by a distinctive combination of cultural and physical features.
What is scale?
The relationship between the portion of Earth being studied and Earth as a whole.
What is space?
the physical gap or interval between two objects.
What are connections?
Relationships among people and objects across the barrier of space.
What is cartography?
The are of mapmaking
What is map scale?
The relationship of a feature's size on a map to its actual size on Earth.
What is projection?
The scientific method of transferring locations on Earth's surface to a flat map.
What is the geographic information system?
A computer that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data.
What is a global positioning system?
A system that determines accurately the precise position of something on Earth.
What is location?
The position that something occupies on Earth's surface.
What is a Toponym?
The name given to a place on Earth.
What may places named for?
People, Religions, or Relative Locations.
What is site?
The physical character of a place.
What are some important site characteristics?
Climate, water sources, topography, soil, vegetation, latitude, and elevation.
What is situation?
the location of a place relative to other places.
What is a meridian?
An arc drawn between the North and South poles.
What is a parallel?
A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator and at right angles to the meridians.
What is longitude?
The numbering system by which the location of a meridian is identified on Earth's surface.
What is the Prime Meridian?
The meridian that passes through the 0 degrees longitude.
What is latitude?
The numbering system to indicate the location of a parallel.
What is Greenwich mean time?
The master reference time for all points on Earth.
What is the International Date Line?
The line that if you pass it, the date changes.
What is cultural landscape?
A combination of cultural features such as language and religion, economic features such as agriculture and industry, and physical features such as climate and vegetation in one place.
What are regional studies?
A contemporary cultural landscape approach to geography.
What is a formal region?
An area within which everyone shares in common one or more distinctive characteristic.
What is a functional region?
An area organized around a focal point.
What is a vernacular region?
A place that people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
What is a mental map?
An internal representation of a portion of Earth's surface.
What is culture? (1)
The combination of customary beliefs, material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of people.
What is agriculture?
The growing of living material at a larger scale than in a test tube or a petri dish.
What is language?(1)
A system of signs, sounds, gestures, and marks that have meaning understood within a cultural group.
What is religion?(1)
The principal system of attitudes, beliefs, and practices through which people worship in a formal, organized way.
What is ethnicity?
The combination of a group's language, religion, and other cultural values, as well as its physical traits.
What is cultural ecology?
The geographic study of human-environment relationships.
What is environmental determinism?
an approach to geography concentrating on how the physical environment is affected by social development.
What is possibilism?
An approach to geography that argues that the physical environment may limit some human actions, but people have the ability to adjust their environment.
What are resources?
Substances that are useful to people, economically and technologically feasible to access, and is socially acceptable to use.
What are the 5 main climate regions?
Tropical Climates
Dry Climate
Warm Mid-Latitude Climates
Cold Mid-Latitude Climates
Polar Climates
What are the four main biomes?
Forest Biome
Grassland Biome
Savanna Biome
Desert Biome
What is a biome?
A form of plant community
What is geomorphology?
The study of Earth's Landforms.
What is a polder?
A piece of land that is created by draining water from an area
What is Globalization?
a force or process that involves the entire world and results in making something worldwide in scope.
What is a transnational corporation?
A corporation that conducts research, operates factories, sells products in many countries, not just where its headquarters and principal shareholders are located.
What is distribution?
the arrangement of features in space.
What is density?
The frequency with which something occurs in space.
What is arithmetic density?
The total number of objects in an area.
What is physiological density?
The number of persons per unit of area suitable for agriculture.
What is agricultural density?
The number of farmers per unit area of farmland
What is concentration?
The extent of a feature's spread over space.
What is pattern?
The geometric arrangement of objects in space.
What is space-time compression?
the reduction in the time it takes for something to reach another place.
What is distance decay?
The trailing-off phenomenon that occurs when two groups are far away from each other, they are less likely to interact than groups closer together.
What is a hearth?
The place from which an innovation originates
What is diffusion?
The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time.
What is relocation diffusion?
the spread of an idea through physical movement of people from one place to another.
What is expansion diffusion?
The spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process.
What is hierarchical diffusion?
The spread of an idea from persons or nodes of authority or power to other persons or places.
What is contagious diffusion?
The rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout a population.
What is stimulus diffusion?
The spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself apparently fails to diffuse.
What is uneven development?
The increasing gap in economic conditions between regions in the core and periphery that results from globalization of the economy.
In the poorer countries, people tend to cluster in the urban areas because there is little farmland.
(True or False)
False
Population distribution dot-maps are used primarily to show where people live.
(True or False)
True
Physiologic density maps more accurately show population densities because they are based on urban land clusters.
(True or False)
False
In China, farmers far outnumber people living in cities.
(True or False)
True
The country of Bangladesh has a population of nearly 133 million million people living in an area about the size of Iowa.
(True or False)
True
In contrast to East and South Asia, Europe's population centers are not closely related to terrain and environment. Instead they are related exclusively to the coal fields.
(True or False)
True
In the United States the largest urban agglomeration is located along the Pacific coast.
(True or False)
False
Southeast asia does not have large contiguous urban areas because it is made up of islands.
(True or False)
True
Because of the world's falling population growth rate, there is no longer fear of a population explosion.
(True or False)
False
Population growth rates are rising in the muslim countries of North Africa and Southwest Asia.
(True or False)
True
Not all of the countries with low birth rates are wealthy.
(True or False)
True
Thomas Malthus though the world's population growth would be slowed by disease.
(True or False)
False
By 2030, people in Germany over age 65 will account for close to half the adult population.
(True or False)
True
Population geography is the spatial component of demography.
(True or False)
True
Japan's population is protected to begin expanding rapidly in 2010.
(True or False)
False
Crude Death rates decline more rapidly than birth rates.
(True or False).
True
Most countries in the world are ate the same stage of the demographic transition model.
(True or False)
True
Demography is the study of:
Population
Which country has the highest arithmetic density of population?
Japan
Bangladesh
India
Netherlands
Bangladesh
Physiologic density of a country relates the total population of a country to the:
Acres of farmland available
About ______ of the world's population lives in East Asia.
One-fifth
One of the greatest concentration of population, according to your text, is:
On the Ganges River plain in Northern India.
In Germany _________ percent of the people live in cities.
85
In the United States, the largest urban complex, called a megalopolis, lies:
From Boston to Baltimore
the population of Sub-Saharan Africa is nearly:
650 million
Geographically, the spatial distribution of population in Australia and South america is:
Peripheral avoiding arid interior of Australia and the rugged terrains of South America.
Today, Russia is experiencing a _____ population growth rate.
Negative
Africa's rate of natural increase in population is still high but its population faces the grim prospect of:
The AIDs epidemic
The continents with the lowest birth rates are:
Europe and Antarctica
The total fertility rate of a country measures the total number of:
Children born to women of childbearing age
Crude Death Rates are highest in:
Tropical Africa
Which of the following did NOT have an effect on keeping population growth rates down before 1820?
The Little Ice Age
Wars
Plagues
Advances in Medicine
Advances in Medicine
The actual demographic transition is represented by which two of the four stages of the demographic transition?
Stages 2 and 3
It is thought by some that perhaps today's developing countries will ______ of the demographic transition model.
Not go through all four stages
As a tool for development, the demographic transition model is most useful in what place?
The United States
One important feature of the world's population with the most significant future implications is that:
The most rapid growth is occurring in the less developed countries.
The world's population is clustered in four regions. Which of the following is not one of those four regions?
East Asia
Southeast Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
Western Europe
Latin America
Latin America
Physiological density is the number of:
Persons per area suitable for agriculture
India and the United Kingdom have approximately the same arithmetic density. From this we can conclude that the two countries have the same:
Number of people per area of land
The medical revolution has been characterized by:
The Diffusion of medical practices
The highest natural increase rates are found in countries in which stage of the demographic transition?
Stage 2
The percentage of people who are too young or too old to work in a society is the:
Dependency rate
The country with the narrowest population pyramid is:
Denmark
Thomas Malthus concluded that:
The world's rate of population increase was higher than the development of food supplies
What is the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people alive in society?
The crude birth rate (CBR)
What is the total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society?
Crude Death Rate (CDR)
What is the percentage by which a population grows in a year?
Natural Increase Rate (NIR)
The rate of natural increase affects the _________, which is the number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. At the early twenty-first century rate of 1.3 percent per year, world populations would double in
Doubling Time
What is the number of children a women will have throughout her childbearing years?
Total Fertility Rate (TFR)
What is ecumene?
The portion of Earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement.
What is arithmetic density?
The total number of people divided by total land area.
What is physiological density?
The number of people supported by a unit area of arable land.
What is agricultural density?
The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount of arable land.
What is the crude births rate?
The total number of live births in a year for every 1,000 people live in the society.
What is crude death rate?
The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000 people alive in the society.
What is natural increase rate?
The percentage by which a population grows in a year. It is computed by subtracting the crude birth rate from the crude death rate.
What is doubling time?
The number of years needed to double a population
What is total fertility rate?
The average umber of children a woman will have throughout her childbearing years
What is infant mortality rate?
The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age compared with total live births.
What is life expectancy?
The average number of years a newborn infant can expect to live at current mortality levels
What is the agricultural revolution?
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering
What is the industrial revolution?
A conjunction of major improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods and delivering them to market
What is the medical revolution?
In the lat twentieth century, medical technology invented in Europe and North America diffused to the less developed countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
What is zero population growth (ZPG)?
A condition when a country has reached stage 4 of the demographic transition and the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate.
What is a population pyramid?
A bar graph that displays a country's population by age and gender groups.
What is a dependency ratio?
A ratio of the number of people that are too young or too old to work, compared to the number of people in their productive years
What is the epidemiologic transition?
A classification system that focuses on distinctive causes of death at each stage of the demographic transition.
What is epidemiology?
The branch of medical science concerned with the incidence, distribution, and control of diseases that affect large numbers of people.
What is a pandemic?
A disease that occurs over a wide geographic area and affects a very high proportion of the population.
What are the four stages of the demographic transition?
Low Growth
High Growth
Moderate Growth
Low Growth
What is the sex ratio?
The number of males per hundred females in the population
What do Neo-Malthusians think?
They think that the gap between population growth and resources is wider in some countries than even Malthus anticipated.
What do Marxists think?
They think that poverty, hunger, and other social welfare problems associated with lack of economic development are a result of unjust social and economic institutions, not population growth.
The term internal migration is how geographers describe the migration of black families that moved from the South to the North in the United States.
(True or False)
True
Economic conditions have not been a major reason for emigration.
(True or False)
False
The decision to migrate usually results from a combination of push and pull factors.
(True or False)
True
Because of distance decay, many migrants move in what is called step migration.
(True or False)
True
Both voluntary and forced migration generate a return, or counter, migration.
(True or False)
False
Even before cuba became a communist state, thousands of Cuban citizens annually applied for residency in the United States.
(True or False)
True
During Afghanistan's war with the former Soviet Union, there were no international refugee because the Soviets surrounded the country.
(True or False)
False
In forecasting the future, experts believe the refugee problem will lessen and probably disappear.
(True or False)
False
Efforts by countries in to restrict all types of immigration are a relatively new development.
(True or False)
False
China's one-child policy has caused no long-range problems for its population development.
False
The country of Saudi Arabia is at the heart of the Muslim world and experiences regular visits by Muslims during Hajj(or Pilgrimage to Mecca).
(True or False)
True
At the beginning of the twenty-first century the world's population "bomb" is defused.
(True or False)
False
The Great Wall of China was was built to control immigration.
(True or False)
True
Many countries have passed immigration laws restricting persons of different ethnic backgrounds.
(True or False)
True
Because of higher dependency rates some countries in Stage 4 or 5 in population growth encourage immigration to increase their work force.
(True or False)
True
Today, over half of the World's population lives in cities.
(True or False)
True
Cleveland, Ohio and Pittsburg, Pennsylvania are examples of cities in the Rust Belt.
(True or False)
True
Delhi, India has been deemed by the World Health Organization as the least polluted city in South Asia because of its progressive development plans.
(True or False)
False
Which country has the most mobile population?
England
United States
France
Ireland
United States
Emigration occurs when a person:
Moves from their home country
During the 1990s, legal migration from Mexico exceeded:
2.5 million
In the last few centuries which of the following source areas has had the most voluntary emigrants?
Africa
South Asia
Europe
The Caribbean
Europe
For 50 beginning in 1788, tens of thousands of convicts were shipped from Britain to:
Australia
During the forced migration of Africans in the sixteenth century, slaves were first brought to:
The Caribbean
Which group of people suffered the worst as refugees after the Gulf War in 1991?
Iranians
Kurds
Palestinians
Saudis
Kurds
In 1997, which Western Hemisphere country had serious refugee problem that was drug related?
Colombia
Mexico
Haiti
Cuba
Colombia
During the last decade of the twentieth century and the first years of the twenty-first, the world's largest refugee crisis prevailed in:
Sub-Saharan Africa
When women have access to education and paid employment, birth rates in a country or region:
Go Down
Which of the following is NOT true about Japan's efforts to increase productivity in an aging population?
Government is giving benefits to families encouraging them to have more children
Couples are discouraged because of the high cost of raising children
The importation of foreign workers
The first immigration laws in the United States were passed in:
1882
Today, some countries are pushing expansive population policies because:
Their populations are aging and declining
Demographers predict that this country, sometime during the first half of the twenty-first century, will surpass china as the world's most populous country.
India
This county's one-child policy of the past has resulted in a major social impact where, in the future males will greatly outnumber females within the population.
China
Refugees migrate primarily because of which type of push factor?
Political
Which of the following events would be considered a migration pull factor?
Communist takeover of a government
Failed Harvest
Flooding of a river
Opening of a new factory
The bubonic plague
Opening of a new factory
Millions of West Africans who migrated to Nigeria during the 1970s, when the country's economy expanded were expelled during the 1980s, when the country's economy declined. This is an example of:
A pull factor changing to a push factor
Millions of Europeans were forced to emigrate from their farms because of:
Forced consolidation of farms
Norwegians were most likely to immigrate to the United States:
During the 1880s and 1890s
Most Asians are currently migrating to the United States through the process of:
Chain Migration
Counter Urbanization is:
The increased migration to rural areas and small towns.
NAFTA stands for _______ and ultimately:
North American Free Trade Agreement; decreased trade barriers like tariffs between the US, Canada, and Mexico.
Immigrants comprise _____ of the population in the United States. Although it contains the largest number of immigrants, the United States has a smaller percentage of immigrants than many other countries, especially less populous ones.
10%
In contrast to folk culture, popular culture is typical of:
Large heterogeneous groups.
Which of the following characteristics is more typical of a popular culture than a folk culture?
It diffused slowly from its point of origin.
It has an anonymous origin.
It is likely to be derived from physical conditions.
It results in a more uniform lan
It results in a more uniform landscape.
One significant impact of popular culture is to:
Modify the physical environment.
The choice of clothing in Western countries is strongly influenced by:
Occupation, knowledge of fashion elsewhere, and level of income.
The main effect of modern communications on social customs has been to:
Increase the similarity of social customs in different locations.
Typically, popular culture:
Reflects the characteristics of a distinctive physical environment.
Diffuses rapidly to many locations.
Originates in a number of locations at the same time.
All of the above
Diffuses rapidly to many locations
The frequent repition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of a group of people is a:
Custom.
A taboo against pork is a characteristic of:
Judaism and Islam.
Popular culture and folk culture can both result in a higher level of:
Consumption of animal products, demand for raw materials, and extinction of animal species.
Folk songs are distinguished from popular songs because they:
Tell a story about daily activities.
Popular customs most frequently originate in:
More developed countries
An example of a folk custom used to diffuse information about agriculture is:
Association fooball
Himalayan art
Vietnamese songs
Armed forces radio
Vietnamese songs
Many less developed countries fear the loss of folk culture because:
Western perspectives may become more dominant
The use of a horse and buggy by the Amish in the united states is an example of:
Folk culture
As they have more contact with popular culture, women in less developed countries are more likely to:
Gain more opportunities outside the home.
A restriction on behavior imposed by as social custom is a:
Taboo
Popular customs are more likely than folk customs to:
Rapidly diffus through modern cimmunization systems.
The spatial distribution of soccer during the twentieth century is an example of
Popular culture
Rapid diffusion of popular culture:
Depends on modern communication systems
Which concept is the contemporary geographer likely to reject?
The physical environment causes people to adopt social customs.
People in similar environments adopt different social customs
People in different environments adopt similar social customs
Peop
The physical environment causes people to adopt social customs.
Geographers are concerned with the distribution of which of the following aspects of television service?
Method of government control
Number of receivers per capita
Year service was adopted
All of the above
All of the above
The distribution of the subjects of art in the Himalayas shows how folk cultures:
Are influenced by distinctive vegetation, climate, and religion.
Folk cultures are spread primarily by:
Relocation diffusion
A repetitive act performed by an individual is a
Habit
The adoption of a popular custom depends primarily on the amount of disposable income. (true or false)
True
A major factor in the diffusion of British football was the presence of British citizens in other countries. (true or false)
True
More precise geographic information is given on the label of a good bottle of wine than on a poor bottle.(true or false)
True
The highest concentration of golf courses within the United States is in the sunbelt.(true or false)
False
Although folk cultures hav the same process of origin as popular culture, they have a more limited process of diffusion.(true or false)
False
Leaders of many developing countries fear that the spread of American popular culture will destroy traditional social behavior. (true or false)
True
Two social groups living in close proximity will retain unique social customs if there is limited interaction between them.(true or false)
True
In general, folk culture is more likely to cause greater uniformity on the landscape than popular culture.(true or false)
False
House types in the eastern united states can be traced to three source areas: Michigan, Chesapeake bay and Ohio.(true or false)
False
Adoption of western popular culture seldom results in the elimination of traditional folk culture.(true or false)
False
Hotels, fast food restaurants, and other franchises encourage a uniform appearance on the landscape to promote customer recognition.(true or false)
True
The physical environmen commonly plays an important role in the development of unique folk customs.(true or false)
True
Food taboos usually derive from unique elements of the physical environment.(true or false)
False
The origin of popular music is a good example of how folk culture originates.(true or false)
False
Different house types in relatively developed countries make different arrangements for sacred space.(true or false)
False
Today all of the world's languages are being preserved and will coninue to be spoken (t/f)
False
Linguiats estimate between 200 and 300 languagesbare being spoken in he world today.(t/f)
False
In today's world, because of migration, most developed countries do NOT have a standard language.(t/f)
False
Thanks to the English colonial masters, India has only about 100 different languages.(t/f)
False
Native American languages do NOT remain strong in the united states.(t/f)
True
In Europe, the basque languge is spoken in a very small area.(t/f)
True
India has hundreds of languages, most of which are spoken by few people. (t/f)
True
Close to 1000 languages in Africa are unwritten.(t/f)
True
An isogloss is a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.(t/f)
True
Speakers of three major dialects of the Chinese language can easily understand each other.(t/f)
False
The languages of Greek, Latin, and sanskrit, are related.(t/f)
True
Occuring only in the past, language replacement occured when invaders took over a small weaker group.(t/f)
False
Having written a language allows that language to become stabilized.(t/f)
True
Because many early printed texts were religious they changed the way people spoke.(t/f)
True
When early larg political systems collapsed, language divergence took place.(t/f)
True
Language can either bring people together or cause conflict.(t/f)
True
In countries where people speak many languages, creating an official language can lead to many problems.(t/f)
True
A lingua Franca is a combination of French and another language.(t/f)
False
During the colonial period, Pidgin english developed in the Caribbean region when English was mixed with African languages, and only spoken by the common people.(t/f)
True
Pidgin and Creole languages are important unifiers in a linguistically divided region or country.(t/f)
True
India has two official languages.(t/f)
False
Britain has place names that go back to the time of the Romans.(t/f)
True
In some cultures, religion is a dominating factor.(t/f)
True
Relgions have never been clearly evident in the cultural landscape.(t/f)
False
Religion has condemned women to an inferior status in many societies.(t/f)
True
In today's world, Christian religions are the most widely dispersed.(t/f)
True
The main division in Islam is between Sunni and Shiite.(t/f)
True
Buddhism and Shintoism arose in Japan.(t/f)
False
Hinduism is considered a cultural religion in India.(t/f)
True
Animistic religions are centered on the belief that animals possess spirits.(t/f)
False
Monotheistic religions worship a single deity.(t/f)
True
The world's great faiths arose in east Asia.(t/f)
False
The caste system is part of the Hindu religion.(t/f)
True
Hinduism is a very low-key religion, and leaves very little visual evidence on the cultural landscape.(t/f)
False
Because of the takeover of China by communists, Confucianism no longer has much influence on the people.(t/f)
False
Today, judaism is divided into many branches.(t/f)
True
When the Roman Empire became a christian state and later divided, emperor constantine established the eastern orthodox church in constantinople.(t/f)
True
Christianity marks the cultural landscape with it's use of large plots of land for cemeteries.(t/f)
True
Islam diffusion is a classical example of expansion diffusion.(t/f)
True
A group who speak a language but have no written form of it, are said to be:
Preliterate
All language have at least one thing in common, they:
Change over time
Afica has more than ______?______ spoken languages.
1000
Latin was spread over Europe by the:
Romans
The language family in sub-saharan Africa with the most spoken is:
Niger-Congo
The language spoken by more Chinese than any other is:
Mandarin
In tracing languages backward many factors must be taken into consideration, such as:
Language convergence
The replacement of language by invading forces
Linguistic islands
All of the above
All of the above
In which of the following world regions did the las diffusion of the older languages take place?
The Indian ocean
The pacific and Americas
The south Atlantic
Central Asia
The Pacific and americas
The current language map of the americas is dominated by:
Indo-European languages
The world's linguistic mosaic has been influenced by three critical components. Which of the following is not NOT one of these?
Transportation
Writing
Technology
Political organization
Transportation
The developmen of the printing press in the late Middle Ages had an enormous influence on the development of the standard form of basic languages through the availability of printed texts. What was the subject of many of those early texts?
Religion
Thw growing hispanic population has begun to redefine the ______ states of the united states.
Southwestern
Which of the following languages has become the one most often used at the primary medium of international communication in business?
French
English
German
Spanish
English
The lingua Franca of east Africa is:
Swahili
Of the following countries, which has a division between English and French speakers tha may someday lead to a permanent division?
Belgium
France
Canada
Netherlands
Canada
Which European country has four regions where the people each speak a different language?
Germany
Netherlands
Greece
Switzerland
Switzerland
Which west African country has so many languages and lesser tongues that the government adopted english as it's official language? With this country's large population, the largest in Africa, there needs to be an official language.
Liberia
Mali
Ghana
Nige
Nigeria
Place names can reveal much about a culture area even after that culture has gone. The study of place names is called:
Toppling
When African colonies became independent countries, one of the first things they did was:
Change their place names
Which part of India is not a major area od the Hindu faith? It is predominantly muslim.
Northeast
South
Northwest
Southwest
Northwest
The largest division of Christianity in terms of number of adherents is:
Roman catholic
The largest number of adherents to the Christian faith are found in:
Europe
The historic roots of Buddhism are found in:
Northern India
Which of the following is the third largest world religion?
Judaism
Hinduism
Islam
Christianity
Hinduism
Ethnic Religions tend to be spatially concentrated. The principle exception is:
Judaism
Islam has diffused widely and is considered a world religion, but is mainly found in:
Afica and Asia
The frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes are divisions of the
cerebrum
Hinduism evolved in what is today the country of:
Pakistan
The oldest global religion to arise west of the Indus River which is in Pakistan was:
Judaism
A literary tradition is:
The written form of a language
A group of languages that share a common ancestor before recorded history is a:
Language Family
When people who speak a given language migrate to a different location and become isolated from other members of their tribe:
Isolation usually results in the differentiation of one language into two.
A creolized language is:
A mix of indigenous and colonial languages
The Flemings and Walloons speak languages belonging to different:
Language families
With respect to the relationship between culture, religion, and the physical environment:
Religious ideas may be responsible for some of the changes people make in the physical environment.
A large and fundamental division within a religion is a:
Branch
A Universalizing Religion:
Appeals to people living in a wide variety of locations
The world's largest universalizing religion is:
Christianity
The world's largest ethnic religion is:
Hinduism
Judaism is classified as an ethnic rather than a universalizing religion, primarily because:
Its rituals derive from the agricultural cycles in Israel
Which is not a characteristic of hierarchical religion?
It has a well defined hierarchical structure
It encourages each congregation to be self-sufficient
It organizes territory into local administrative units
It fosters interaction among different congre
It encourages each congregation to be self-sufficient
Islam arose in which of the following present-day countries?
Saudi Arabia
Iran
Jordan
Egypt
Saudi Arabia
When we look at a map of Africa displaying religion locations there is an obvious division where _____ dominate the north.
Muslims
IN the late 1990s, Ethiopia lost territory with the succession of a predominately Muslim region. The new state is called:
Eritrea
Which Wester European country listed below has both Catholic and Protestant adherents living together with little or no religious or ethnic conflict?
Germany
Switzerland
Poland
Ireland
Switzerland
In Ireland, the majority of the people are protestant. (True or False)
False
Fundamentalism and extremism are closely related. (True or False)
True
In the 1990s, the Taliban in Afghanistan led the strictest fundamentalist regime in the world. (True or False)
True
By studying the development and changes in languages we learn much about the development of humans and their culture. (True or False)
True
Historically, languages spread primarily by three means - commerce, religion, and conquest. (True or False)
True
What is migration?
A permanent move to a new location.
What is emigration?
Migration FROM a location.
What is immigration?
Migration TO a location.
What is mobility?
A more general term covering all types of movements that recur on a regular basis.
What is a push factor?
A factor that induces people to move out of their present location.
What is a pull factor?
A factor that induces people to move into a new location.
What are refugees?
People who have been forced to migrate from their home and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political instability.
What is a floodplain?
The area subject to flooding during a specific number of years, based on historical trends.
What is an intervening obstacle?
An environmental or cultural feature that hinders migration
What is international migration?
Permanent movement from one country to another.
What is internal migration?
Permanent movement within the same country.
What is interregional migration?
Movement from one region of a country to another.
What is intraregional migration?
Movement within one region.
What is voluntary migration?
Migration in which the migrant has chosen to move for improvement.
What is forced migration?
Migration in which the migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors.
What is the migration transition?
A transition which consists of changes in a society comparable to those in the demographic transition.
What is chain migration?
The migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
What are quotas?
The maximum limits on the number of people who can immigrate to the U.S. from each country in a one-year period.
What is brain drain?
A large-scale emigration of talented people.
What are guest workers?
Citizens of poor countries who obtain jobs in Western Europe an the Middle East.
What is counterurbanization?
Net migration from rural areas.
What is a habit?
A repetitive act that a particular individual performs.
What is a custom?
A repetitive act of a group, performed to the extent that it becomes a characteristic of the group.
What is folk culture?
Culture traditionally practiced primarily by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas.
What is popular culture?
Culture found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits despite differences in personal characteristics.
What is a taboo?
A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom.
What is language?(5)
A system of communication through speech, a collection of sounds that a group of people understands to have the same meaning.
What is literary tradition?
A system of written communication for a language.
What is an official language?
The language that a country's government uses for laws, reports, and public objects, such as road signs, money, and stamps.
What is a dialect?
A regional variation of a language distinguished by distinctive vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation.
What is a standard language?
A dialect of a language that is well established and widely recognized as the most acceptable for government, business, education, and mass communication.
What is British Received Pronunciation (BRP)?
The most well-known form of british speech, it is associated with upper-class Britons.
What is an isogloss?
The boundary of where a word is used.
What is a language family?
A collection of languages related through a common ancestor that existed several thousand years ago.
What is a language group?
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.
What is vulgar latin?
The latin that people in the provinces learned was not the standard literary form but a spoken form.
What is a creolized language?
A language that results from the mixing of the colonizer's language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated.
What are ideograms?
A form of writing where the symbols represent ideas or concepts.
What are extinct languages?
Languages that were once in use but are no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world.
What is a lingua franca?
A language of international communication
What is a pidgin language?
A simplified form of a lingua franca.
What is ebonics?
A dialect of english that african americans use that partially preserves the dialect of the slaves.
What is a universalizing religion?
A religion that attempts to be global, to appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those of one culture or location.
What is an ethnic religion?
A religion that appeals primarily to one group of people living in one place.
What is a branch?
A large and fundamental division within a religion.
What is a denomination?
A division of a branch that unites a number of local congregations in a single legal and administrative body.
What is a sect?
A relatively small group that has broken away from an established denomination.
What are the five pillars of Islam?
1)There is no god worthy of worship except the one God, the source of all creation, and Muhammad is the messenger of God.
2)Five times daily, a Muslim prays, facing the city of Mecca, as a direct link to God.
3)A Muslim gives generously to charity, as an act of purification and growth.
4)A Muslim fasts during the month of Ramadan, as an act of self-purification.
5)If physically and financially able, a Muslim makes a pilgrimage to Mecca.
What are the four noble truths?
1)All living beings must endure suffering.
2)Suffering, which is caused by a desire to live, leads to reincarnation (repeated rebirth in new bodies or forms of life).
3)The goal of all existence is to escape from suffering and the endless cycle of reincarnation into Nirvana (a state of complete redemption), which is achieved through mental and moral self-purification.
4)Nirvana is attained through an Eightfold Path, which includes rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation.
What is monotheism?
Belief in only one God.
What is polytheism?
Belief in more than one God.
What are missionaries?
INdividuals who help to transmit a universalizing religion through relocation diffusion.
What is a pilgrimage?
A journey for religious purposes to a place considered sacred.
What is cosmogony?
A set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe.
What is fundamentalism?
A literal interpretation and a strict and intense adherence to basic principles of a religion.
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