Idioms Manhattan Flashcards

wrong answers
Terms Definitions
ability
I value my ABILITY TO sing

I CAN SING is preferred to I HAVE THE ABILITY TO SING
act
The bay ACTED AS a funnel for the tide (= functioned as)

My friend ACTED LIKE a fool (=behaved in a similar manner)

ACT AS vs. ACT LIKE
They way to resolve this issue is to ask whether the author intends

metaphorical (=bildlich, im übertragenen Sinn) comparison (=ACT LIKE)

or

actual function (ACT AS)

If "actual function" is possible, use AS
affect vs. effect
The new rules will AFFECT our performance

SUSPECT:
The new rules will have an effect on our performance (wordier)

WRONG:
The new rules will cause an effect on our performance
AFTER vs. FOLLOWING
AFTER the gold rush, the mining town collapsed

SUSPECT:
Following the gold rush, the minin town collapsed (ambiguous)
aggravate
His behavior AGGRAVATED the problem (=made worse)

Pollution can AGGRAVATE asthma

Military intervention will only AGGRAVATE the conflict even further

WRONG:
His behavior was aggravating to the problem (=was annoying to)
agree
They AGREE THAT electrons EXIST

Electrons are particles THAT physicists AGREE EXIST (!)

SUSPECT:
There is agreement among them that electrons exist

SUSPECT:
They agree electrons exist (AGREE THAT is preferred)

SUSPECT:
Electrons are particles that physicists agree on as existing

WRONG:
Electrons are particles physicists agree that exist

WRONG:
Electrons are particles physicists agree to exist
aid
She AIDS her neighbor.

She provides AID TO victims.

AID FOR victims is availabe.

Her AID IN walking the dog was appreciated.

WRONG:
Her aid to walk the dog was appreciated.
aim
We adopted new procedures AIMED AT reducing theft.

We adopted new procedures WITH THE AIM OF reducing theft.

SUSPECT:
We adopted new policies, the aim of which was to reduce theft.

WRONG:
We adopted new policies with the aim to reduce theft (!!!)
aim (at doing sth) | aim (at / for sth)
to try or plan to achieve sth

e.g. The government is aiming at a 50% reduction in unemployment
e.g. They’re aiming at training everybody by the end of the year
e.g. We should aim for a bigger share of the market
e.g. He has always aimed high (= tried to achieve a lot)
e.g. [v to inf] They are aiming to reduce unemployment by 50%
e.g. We aim to be there around six
be aimed at
to have sth as an aim

e.g. These measures are aimed at preventing violent crime
aim (sth) (at sb/sth) | aim (for sb/sth)
to point or direct a weapon, a shot, a kick, etc. at sb/sth

e.g. I was aiming at the tree but hit the car by mistake
e.g. Aim for the middle of the target
e.g. The gun was aimed at her head
[usually passive] aim sth at sb
to say or do sth that is intended to influence or affect a particular person or group

e.g. The book is aimed at very young children
e.g. My criticism wasn’t aimed at you
allow
The holiday ALLOWS her TO watch the movie today (=permits)

She was ALLOWED TO watch the movie.

The demolition of the old building ALLOWS FOR new construction (=permits the existence of)

WRONG:
The holiday allows that homework be done (--> leave out "that")

WRONG:
The holiday allowed her the watching of the movie.
allow for sb/sth
to consider or include sb/sth when calculating sth

e.g. It will take about an hour to get there, allowing for traffic delays
e.g. All these factors must be allowed for

= mitberücksichtigen
= einberechnen
and
We are concerned about the forests AND the oceans.

We are concerned about the forests, the oceans, (!) AND the mountains.

We work all night, (!) AND we sleep all day.
anxiety
His ANXIETY ABOUT his company's future is ill-founded.

His ANXIETY THAT his company may be sold is ill-founded.

WRONG:
His anxiety about his company may be sold is ill-founded.
appear
Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks (show up as)

He APPEARS confused (=seems)

The dinosaurs APPEAR TO have been relatively smart.

It APPEARS THAT the dinosaurs were smart.

WRONG:
He appears as confused.

WRONG:
The dinsosaurs appeared as smart.
apply
The rules APPLY TO all of us.

WRONG:
All of us are subject to the applicability of the rules.
as
AS I walked, I became more nervous (=during)

AS I had already paid, I was unconcerned (=because, since)

AS we did last year, we will win this year (=in the same way)

JUST AS we did last year, we will win this year (=in the same way)

AS the president of the company, she works hard (=in the role of)

AS a child, I delivered newspapers (=in the stage of being)

My first job was an apprenticeship AS a sketch artist.

AS PART OF the arrangement, he received severance.

SUSPECT:
As a (!) part of the arrangement, he received severance

WRONG:
They worked as a sketch artist (--> needs to agree in number).

WRONG:
While being a child, I delivered newspapers.

WRONG:
AS being a child, I delivered newspapers.

WRONG:
While in childhood, I delivered newspapers.
as...as
Cheese is AS great AS people say.

Cheese is NOT AS great AS people say.

We have AS MANY apples AS need to be cooked.

We have THREE TIMES AS MANY pears AS you.

We have AT LEAST AS MANY apple AS you.

We have ten apples, ABOUT AS MANY AS we picked yesterday.

His knowledge springs AS MUCH from experience AS from schooling.

His knowledge springs NOT SO MUCH from experience AS from schooling.

He wins frequently, AS MUCH because he plays SO hard AS because he cheats.

SUSPECT:
Cheese is not so great as people say.

WRONG:
Cheese is so great as people say. (right= as great as)

WRONG:
We have so many apples as you (right=as many as)

WRONG:
We have as many or more apples than you (right=as many or more as)

WRONG:
His knowledge springs not from experience as from schooling (right=not so much as)
as long as
I will leave, AS LONG AS it IS safe.

I will leave, SO LONG AS it IS safe.

I will leave, PROVIDED THAT is IS safe.
as...so
AS you practice, SO shall you play. (=in the same way or manner)

JUST AS you practice, SO shall you play. (=in the same way or manner)

JUST AS you practice piano regularly, you should study regularly. (=in the same way; the situations are analogous)

WRONG:
Just like you practice, so shall you play.
ask
I ASKED FOR his aid.

He ASKED her TO go to the store.

He ASKED THAT she GO (!!!!!!!) to the store (--> subjunctive)
attribute
We ATTRIBUTE the uprising TO popular discontent.
average
Tech COMPANIES are as likely as the AVERAGE COMPANY to fail.

WRONG:
Tech companies are as likely as the industry average to fail.
aware
AWARE OF the danger, he fled.

AWARE THAT danger was near, he fled.

WRONG:
With an awareness that danger was near, he fled.

With an awareness of the danger, he fled.
ban (=offizielles Verbot)
They passed a BAN PROHIBITING us FROM CARRYING bottles

WRONG:
They passed a ban that we cannot carry bottles.
based on
The verdict (=Urteil) was BASED ON the evidence.

The jury reached a verdict BASED ON the evidence.

WRONG:
Based on the evidence, the jury reached a verdict. (--> the jury was not itself based on the evidence)
being
BEING infected does not make you sick.

The judges (=Richter) saw the horses BEING led to the stables (=Pferdeställe).

NOTE:
The word BEING is often (not always) wordy or awkward. However, having caught on to the "BEING is wrong" shortcut, the GMAT problem writers have created a few problems that force you to choose BEING. BEING appears in many more wrong answers than right ones. But BEING can be used correctly as a gerund or as a participle. In the end, you should pick a BEING answer only if you are 100% sure that the other answer choices are wrong for a clear grammatical reason.
because
BECAUSE the sun shines, plants grow.

Plants grow BECAUSE the sun shines.

BECAUSE OF the sun, plants grow.

BY shining, the sun makes plants grow.

Plants grow, FOR the sun shines. (grammatically correct but very formal)

SUSPECT:
Plants grow because of the sun, which shines.

SUSPECT:
The growth of plants is explained by the fact that the sun shines (correct but wordy)

WRONG:
Plants grow because of the sun shining.

WRONG:
Plants grow as a result of the sun shining.
begin
The movement BEGAN AS a protest. (= was born as)

The movement BEGAN WITH a protest. (= protest was the first part)

The protest BEGAN a movement (= caused)
believe
She BELIEVES THAT Gary IS right.

She BELIEVES Gary TO BE right.

IT IS BELIEVED THAT Gary IS right.

Gary IS BELIEVED TO BE right.
between
A battle ensued BETWEEN the reactionaries AND the radicals.

A skirmish ensued AMONG the combatants. (--> more than 2 parties)

WRONG:
A battle ensued among the reactionaries and the radicals.
borders
WITHIN the BORDERS of a country.

WRONG:
In the borders of a country.

WRONG:
Inside the borders of a country.
both ... and
She was interested BOTH in plants AND in animals.

She was intersted in BOTH plants AND animals.

--> compare the positioning of "in"

WRONG:
She was interested both in plants and animals.

WRONG:
She was interested both in plants as wall as in animals.

WRONG:
She was interested both in plants but also in animals.
but
I study hard BUT take breaks.

I study hard, BUT I take breaks.

ALTHOUGH I take frequent naps, I study effectively.

DESPITE taking frequent naps, I study effectively.

I take frequent naps, YET I study effectively.

SUSPECT:
Despite the fact that I take frequent naps, I study effectively.

Although a frequent napper, I study effectively. (--> "although" should generally be followed by a clause)

WRONG:
I study effectively although taking frequent naps.

WRONG:
Although I take frequent naps, yet I study effectively.
can
The manager CAN RUN the plant.

The plant CAN CAUSE damage.

SUSPECT:
The manager is able to run the plant.

SUSPECT:
The manager is capable of running the plant.

SUSPECT:
The manager has the ability to run the plant.

Note: All of these suspect forms are grammatically correct but wordier than CAN.
chance
I have ONE CHANCE IN A THOUSAND OF WINNING tonight.

WRONG:
I have one chance in a thousand for winning tonight.

WRONG:
I have one in a thousand chances to win tonight.

WRONG:
I have one chance in a thousand that I will win tonight.

WRONG:
I have one chance in a thousand for me to win tonight.
claim
They CLAIM THAT they can read minds.

They CLAIM TO BE ABLE to read minds.

SUSPECT:
They claim they can read minds. (better with "that")

WRONG:
They claim being able to read minds.
comparable
Costs are rising, but incomes have not increased COMPARABLY.

SUSPECT:
Costs are rising, but incomes have not increased to a comparable extent.
compared / comparison
IN COMPARISON WITH (or TO) horses, zebras are vicious.

A zebra can be COMPARED TO a horse in many ways.

COMPARED WITH a horse, however, a zebra is very hard to tame.

NOTE: The GMAT ignores the traditional distinction between COMPARED TO (emphasizing similarities) and COMPARED WITH (emphasizing differencies).

SUSPECT:
As compared with (or to) horses, zebras are vicious.

WRONG:
When compared to horses, zebras are vicious.

WRONG:
Zebras are more vicious compared to horses.
confidence
We have CONFIDENCE THAT the market will recover.

SUSPECT:
We have CONFIDENCE IN the market's ability to recover.

WRONG:
We have CONFIDENCE IN the market to recover.
conceive
He CONCEIVES OF architecture AS a dialogue.

SUSPECT:
His conception of architecture is as a dialogue.

WRONG:
He conceives of architecture to be a dialogue.
conceive (of) sth (as sth)
(formal) to form an idea, a plan, etc. in your mind; to imagine sth
= sich etwas vorstellen
= etwas als etwas auffassen

e.g. He conceived the idea of transforming the old power station into an arts centre

e.g. God is often conceived of as male

e.g. I cannot conceive (= I do not believe) (that) he would wish to harm us

e.g. I cannot conceive what it must be like

e.g. He conceives of architecture as a dialogue.
connection
There is a strong CONNECTION BETWEEN his grades AND his effort.

WRONG:
There is a strong connection of his grades and his effort.
consider
I CONSIDER her a friend. (without as)

I CONSIDER her intelligent. (without as)

I CONSIDER illegal the law passed last week bay the new regime.

The law IS CONSIDERED illegal.

SUSPECT:
The judge considers the law tto be illegal.

WRONG:
The judge considers the law as illegal (or as being illegal)

WRONG:
The judge considers the law should be illegal.

WRONG:
The judge considers the law as if it were illegal.
contend
They CONTEND THAT they can decipher the code.

WRONG:
They contend they can decipher the code.

WRONG:
They contend the code to be decipherable.
continue
The danger will CONTINUE TO grow.

SUSPECT:
The danger will continue growing. (correct but apparently not used)

WRONG:
The danger will continue its growth.

WRONG:
The danger will continue growth.

WRONG:
The danger will continue its growing.
contrast
IN CONTRAST WITH the zoo, the park charges no admission.

IN CONTRAST TO the zoo, the park charges no admission.

UNLIKE the zoo, the park charges no admission.

WRONG:
As contrasted with the zoo, the park charges no admission.

WRONG:
In contrast to the zoo charging admission, the park does not.
convince
She was CONVINCED THAT she had been robbed.

SUSPECT:
She was of the conviction that she had been robbed.
cost
Pollution COSTS us billions IN increased medical bills.

SUSPECT:
The cost of pollution to us is billions in increased medical bills.

WRONG:
Increased medical bills cost us billions because of pollution.
could
You could do anything you want.

SUSPECT:
You have (or may have) the possibility of doing anything you want.

WRONG:
You could possibly do anything you want.
create
We will CREATE a team TO lead the discussion.

WRONG:
We will create a team for leading the discussion.
credit
Hugo CREDITS her WITH good taste.

She is CREDITED WITH good tase.

WRONG:
She is creditet for good taste (or for having good taste)

WRONG:
She is creditet to be a person with good taste.
credit A with B
to believe that sb/sth has a particular good quality or feature

e.g. I credited you with a little more sense
credit (for sth)
praise or approval because you are responsible for sth good that has happened

e.g. I can’t take all the credit for the show’s success—it was a team effort
credit A (with B) | credit B (to A)
to add an amount of money to sb’s bank account

e.g. Your account has been credited with $50 000
e.g. $50 000 has been credited to your account
[usually passive] credit A with B | credit B to A
to believe or say that sb is responsible for doing sth, especially sth good

e.g. The company is credited with inventing the industrial robot
e.g. The invention of the industrial robot is credited to the company
[usually passive] credit sb/sth as sth
to believe that sb/sth is of a particular type or quality

e.g. The cheetah is generally credited as the world’s fastest animal
danger
We are IN DANGER OF forgetting the past.

SUSPECT:
We are endangered by forgetting the past.

WRONG:
We are in danger to forget the past.
date
They DATED the artifact AT three centuries old.

The artifact WAS DATED AT three centuries old.

WRONG:
The artifact was dated to be three centuries old.

WRONG:
The artifact was dated as being three centuries old.
decide
She DECIDED TO start a company.

SUSPECT:
Her decision was to start a company.
declare
I DECLARED the election a fraud.

I DECLARED the referendum invalid.

I DECLARED invalid the referendum that the new regime imposed.

They DECLARED THAT the election was fraud.

SUSPECT:
They declared the election was a fraud (declare that is preferred).

SUSPECT:
The judge declared the election to be a fraud.

WRONG:
The judge declared the election as a fraud.
decline
The price of oil DECLINED.

Oil DECLINED IN price.

The DECLINE IN the price of oil was unexpected.

My friend's reputation DECLINED.
demand
They DEMANDED THAT the store BE closed.

Their DEMAND THAT the store BE closed was not met.

WRONG:
They demanded the store to be closed.

WRONG:
They demanded that the store should be closed.
depend
The outcome DEPENDS ON WHETHER he CAN make friends.
design
This window is DESIGNED TO open.
determine
The winner was DETERMINED BY a coin toss.

WRONG:
The winner was determined through (or because of) a coin toss.

WRONG:
The winner was determined from (or as a result of) a coin toss.
develop
The executive DEVELOPED her idea INTO a project.

The idea DEVELOPED INTO a project.

WRONG:
An idea developed itself into a project.
differ / different
My opinion DIFFERS FROM yours.

My opinion IS DIFFERENT FROM yours.

WRONG:
My opinion is different in comparison to yours.

You should use DIFFERENT FROM, rather than DIFFERENT THAN, when you are comparing nouns.
difference
There is a DIFFERENCE IN ability BETWEEN us.

There is a DIFFERENCE BETWEEN what you can do AND what I can do.

There are DIFFERENCES IN what you and I can do.

WRONG:
There are differences between what you and I can do.
difficult
Quantum mechanics is DIFFICULT TO study.

WRONG:
Quantum mechanics is difficult for study.
discovery
I love the DISCOVERY THAT carbon can form soccer-ball molecules.

SUSPECT:
I love the discovery of carbon's ability to form soccer-ball molecules.

WRONG:
I love the discovery of carbon being able to form soccer-ball molecules.
disinclined
She IS DISINCLINED TO write her parents.

WRONG:
She has a disinclination to write her parents.
distinguish / distinction
The investor DISTINGUISHED BETWEEN trends AND fads.

There is a DISTINCTION BETWEEN trends AND fads.

SUSPECT:
The investor distinguished trends from fads.

WRONG:
The investor distinguished trends and fads.

WRONG:
The investor distinguished between trends from fads.

WRONG:
There is a distinction between trends with fads.
do
I did not eat the cheese, but my mother DID (or DID SO).

WRONG:
I did not eat the cheese, but my mother did it (or did this)
doubt
We DO NOT DOUBT THAT the apples are ripe.

We HAVE NO DOUBT THAT the apples are ripe.

She DOUBTS WHETHER Jan will arive on time.

SUSPECT:
She doubts that Jan will arrive on time
NOTE: The GMAT claims that DOUBT, used in a positive statement without NOT or NO, should be followed by WHETHER or IF, not THAT.

WRONG:
We do not doubt whether the apples are ripe.

WRONG:
We have no doubt whether the apples are ripe.

not / no doubt --> that
doubt --> wheter, if
due to
The deficit IS DUE TO overspending (= results from).

Our policy will not cover damage DUE TO fire (= resulting from).

BECAUSE politicians SPEND money, we have a deficit.

WRONG:
Due to politicians spending money, we have a deficit.

WRONG:
Due to the fact that politicians spend money, we have a deficit.
due to vs. because of
Due to - As a result of
Because of - On account of

Due to is an adjectival prepositional phrase, meaning it modifies a noun. It is commonly preceded by a form of the verb to be (be, is, are, was, were, etc.). Because it follows a be verb, it is considered a subject complement: It modifies the subject of the sentence.
Ex: His loss was due to a broken tie rod.

In the above example, the adjectival prepositional phrase due to a broken tie rod follows was (a form of the verb to be) and modifies the subject of the sentence: His loss.

Because of is an adverbial prepositional phrase, meaning it modifies a verb. It usually answers the question, “Why?”

Ex: He lost because of a broken tie rod.

The adverbial prepositional phrase because of a broken tie rod follows the verb lost, as seen in this example, answers the question, “Why did he lose?”
due to
The following sentences correctly use ‘Due to…’ and ‘Due to the fact that…’:

The problem was due to a shortage of high court judges.
Due to overcrowding last year, the competition field was narrowed down to six teams.
Due to a delay in Lanzhou, the flight was unable to leave until this morning.
Shell said the cuts were due to a general easing of oil prices.
Some liberals also expressed worry that the impact of the motion would be reduced due to the current debate between Hong Kong and Britain on democratization.
It can be seen that ‘due to’ is followed by a noun phrase in all of the examples above. [It may NOT be followed by a main clause, as in this student example: *Due to they have no salary, they may need to think how to use it.].

However, it IS acceptable to use the structure ‘Due to the fact that’ + Main Clause, as the following examples show:

The difference must have been due to the fact that Minh had been living in a more pleasant environment for six months.
Mr Goh said the dramatic rise in the amount of American currency flowing from the territory back to the US might be due to the fact that more tourists had come to Hong Kong.

http://www2.elc.polyu.edu.hk/CILL/exercises/because.htm
due to vs. because of
I use a simple rule to differentiate between because of and due to.

Use 'because of' in sentences where you can ask the question Why?.

Due to is mostly used in place of 'caused by'.

Look at this sentence only.

wildfires, which have become an ongoing threat due to drought and booming population density.

Why have wildfires become an ongoing threat?
Because of drought and booming ...

We were late because it rained.
Why were we late?
Because it rained.

The game was postponed because of/due to rain."

Why was the game postponed? because of rain.

"The game's postponement was due to rain
In this sentence can we ask the why question? No we can't.
So we don't use because, we'll use due to.

Hope this helps.
"due to" vs "because of"
This is what Manhattan GMAT's online Sentence Correction had to say about "due to" vs "because of"

"Due to" functions as an adjectival phrase and is used to modify a noun (e.g., His failure was due to his laziness). "Because of" functions as an adverbial phrase and is used to modify a verb or verb phrase (e.g., He failed because of his laziness).

"Due to" is a phrase that must describe a noun. "The fire was due to drought" is correct, but "There was a fire due to drought" is not. When describing a verb phrase, "because of" is preferable: "There was a fire because of drought."
economic
The rise in gasoline prices has an ECONOMIC impact on consumers.

Our new car is more ECONOMICAL than our last (=efficient).

WRONG:
The rise in gasoline prices has an economical impact on consumers.
either ... or
I will take EITHER the subway OR the bus.

WRONG:
I will take either the subway and the bus.
elect
She ELECTED TO withdraw her money early.

WRONG:
She elected withdrawing her money early.
enough
The book was short ENOUGH TO read in a night.

The book was short ENOUGH FOR me TO read in a night.

WRONG:
The book was short enough that I could read it in a night.

WRONG:
The book was short enough so that I could read it in a night.
ensure
He ENSURES THAT deadlines are met (or will be met).

WRONG:
He ensures that deadlines must be met (or should be met)
equipped
They are EQUIPPED TO fight on any terrain.

WRONG:
They are equipped for fighting on any terrain.
equip yourself / sb / sth (with sth) (for sth)
1) to provide yourself/sb/sth with the things that are needed for a particular purpose or activity

e.g. to be fully / poorly equipped

e.g. She got a bank loan to rent and equip a small workshop

e.g. He equipped himself with a street plan

e.g. The centre is well equipped for canoeing and mountaineering

2) to prepare sb for an activity or task, especially by teaching them what they need to know
e.g. The course is designed to equip students for a career in nursing
estimate
She ESTIMATES the cost TO BE ten dollars.

The cost is ESTIMATED TO BE ten dollars.

WRONG:
She estimates the cost at ten dollars.
even
I am EVEN RICHER THAN a prince.

I earn AS MUCH money AS EVEN the wealthiest king.

WRONG:
I am richer even than a prince.

WRONG:
I earn even as much money as the wealthiest king.
ever
The economy is MORE fragile THAN EVER BEFORE.

WRONG:
The economy is more fragile than never before.

WRONG:
The economy is more fragile as never before.

WRONG:
The economy is more than ever before fragile.
every
FOR EVERY dollar SAVED, THREE dollars ARE WASTED.

WRONG:
For every dollar saved wastes three dollars.
except for
EXCEPT FOR a final skirmish, the war was over.

SUSPECT:
Besides a final skirmish, the war was over.
expect
We EXPECT the price TO fall.

The price IS EXPECTED TO fall.

We EXPECT THAT the price WILL FALL.

Inflation rose MORE THAN we EXPECTED.

There IS an EXPECTATION THAT the price will fall.

WRONG:
The price is expected for it to fall.

WRONG:
It is expected that the price should fall.
expend
we EXPEND energy ON neighborhood development.

WRONG:
We expend energy for neighborhood development.
expend sth (in / on sb) | expend sth (in / on / doing sth)
(formal) to use or spend a lot of time, money, energy, etc.

e.g. She expended all her efforts on the care of home and children
extent
We enjoyed the film TO some EXTENT.

"Thumbs part up" is the EXTENT TO WHICH we enjoyed the film.

WRONG:
"Thumbs part up" is the extent that we enjoyed the film.
fact that
It is important to recognize THAT our strategy is working.

We have succeeded BECAUSE we work hard.

WRONG:
We have succeeded due to the fact that we work hard.
[not before noun] due to sth/sb
caused by sb/sth; because of sb/sth

e.g. The team’s success was largely due to her efforts

e.g. Most of the problems were due to human error

e.g. The project had to be abandoned due to a lack of government funding
fault
The criminals ARE AT FAULT FOR BREAKING the law.

WRONG:
Thate the criminals broke the law is at fault.
find
The scientist FOUND THAT the reaction was unusual.

SUSPECT:
The scientist found the reaction to be unusual.

WRONG:
The scientist found the recation was unusual.
forbid
The law FORBIDS any citizen TO VOTE twice.

WRONG:
The law forbids any citizen from voting twice.
from ... to
The price fell FROM 10 euros TO 3 euros.

The price fell TO 3 euros FROM 10 euros.

WRONG:
The price fell from 10 euros down to 3 euros.

WRONG:
The price rose from 3 euros up to 10 euros.
goal
The GOAL IS TO EXPAND the company.

WRONG:
The goal is expanding the company.
hear
She HEARD THAT her investment had paid off.

WRONG:
She heard of her investment paying off.
help
He HELPS RAKE the leaves.

He HELPS TO RAKE the leaves.

He HELPS me RAKE the leaves.

He HELPS me TO RAKE the leaves.

His HELP IN RAKING the leaves has been welcome.

WRONG:
He helps me in raking the leaves.
hold
The law HOLDS THAT jaywalking is illegal.

SUSPECT:
The law HOLDS jaywalking to be illegal.

WRONG:
The law holds jaywalking is illegal.
if
Inflation can hur profits IF cost increase (IF = condition).

I can eat ice cream, PROVIDED THAT my doctor approves (= ONLY IF).

SUSPECT:
Inflation can hurt profits when costs increase (when = time period).

WRONG:
I can eat ice cream, provided my doctor approves (--> requires THAT).
in order to
She drank coffee IN ORDER TO STAY awake.

She drank coffee TO STAY awake (infinitive TO STAY indicates purpose).

WRONG:
She drank coffee for staying awake.

WRONG:
Coffee was drunk by her in order to stay awake or to stay awake.
NOTE: the subject COFFEE is not trying TO STAY awake.
indicate
A report INDICATES THAT unique bacteria LIVE on our skin (bacteria = plural, bacterium = singular)

WRONG:
A report indicates unique bacteria live on our skin (that is needed).
influence
His example INFLUENCED me.

SUSPECT:
His example was influential to me (or an inspiration to me).

WRONG:
His example was influential on me.
instance
We eat out often; FOR INSTANCE, last week we ate out every night.

WRONG:
We eat out often; as an instance, last week we ate out every night.
instead
They avoided the arcade and INSTEAD went to a movie.

WRONG:
They avoided the arcade and rather went to a movie.

WRONG:
They avoided the arcade, rather going to a movie.
intent
I went with the INTENT (or INTENTION) OF LEAVING soon.

I went with the INTENT TO LEAVE soon.

SUSPECT:
I went with the intent that I would leave soon.
interact
These groups often INTERACT WITH ONE ANOTHER (or EACH OTHER).

WRONG:
These groups often interact among one another.

WRONG:
These groups often interact with themselves.
interaction
The INTERACTION OF two nuclei COLLIDING releases energy.

SUSPECT:
The INTERACTION BETWEEN two nuclei COLLIDING releases energy.

WRONG:
The INTERACTION WHERE two nuclei COLLIDE releases energy.
invest
She INVESTED funds IN research TO study cancer.

WRONG:
She invested funds into or for research to study cancer.

WRONG:
She invested funds in research for studying cancer.
isolated
The culture was ISOLATED FROM outside contact.

SUSPECT:
The culture was in isolation.

WRONG:
The culture was in isolation from outside contact.
know
We KNOW her TO BE brilliant.

She is KNOWN TO BE brilliant.

We KNOW him AS "Reggie".

He is KNOWN AS "Reggie".

WRONG:
We know her as brilliant.
--> know as = named
lack
Old gadgets ARE LACKING IN features.

Old gadgets LACK features.

The LACK OF features is upsetting.

WRONG:
Old gadgets lack of features.
lack
[no passive] to have none or not enough of sth

e.g. Some houses still lack basic amenities such as bathrooms
e.g. He lacks confidence
e.g. She has the determination that her brother lacks
less
Out utilities add up to LESS THAN 10% of our income.

WRONG:
Our utilities add up to lower than 10% of our income.
let
My doctor LETS me swim in the ocean.

WRONG:
My doctor leaves me swim in the ocean.
lie
Our strength LIES IN numbers (= resides in).

Yesterday, our strength LAY IN numbers (= resided in).

Tomorrow, our strength WILL LIE IN numbers.

I lose my books whenever I LAY them down (= present tense of different verb).
like
LIKE his sister, Matt drive fast cars (= both drive fast cars).

Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister (= both drive fast cars, OR both drive fast cars in the same way).

Matt drives fast cars LIKE his sister's (= both drive similar cars; he does not drive his sister's car)

WRONG:
Matt drives fast cars like his sister does.

WRONG:
Like his sister, so Matt drives fast cars.
likely
My friend IS LIKELY TO eat worms.

IT IS LIKELY THAT my friend will eat worms.

My friend is MORE LIKELY THAN my enemy (is) TO eat worms.

My friend is TWICE AS LIKELY AS my enemy (is) TO eat worms.

MORE THAN LIKELY, my friend will eat worms.
loss
I have suffered a LOSS OF strength (= decline of quality).

They have suffered a LOSS IN the euro (= decline of an investment)

WRONG:
I have suffered a loss in strength
mandate
The general MANDATED THAT a trench BE dug (=SUBJUNCTIVE)

WRONG:
The general mandated a trench to be dug.
make
The leader MADE the resistance possible.

The leader MADE it possible to resist oppression.

NOTE: The IT properly refers to the infinitive TO RESIST)

WRONG:
The leader made possible to resist oppression.
mass
The truck HAS TEN TIMES THE MASS OF a small car.

WRONG:
The truck is then times the mass of a small car.
means
Music education is A MEANS TO improved cognition.

WRONG:
Music education is a means of improved cognition.

WRONG:
Music education is a means for improved cognition.
mistake
My spouse HAS MISTAKEN me FOR a wealthier person.

WRONG:
My spouse has mistaken me as a wealthier person.

WRONG:
My spouse has mistaken me to a wealthier person.
[not usually before noun] mistaken (about sb/sth)
wrong in your opinion or judgement

e.g. You are completely mistaken about Jane
e.g. Unless I’m very much mistaken, that’s Paul’s wife over there
more
We observed A 100% INCREASE IN robberies last month.

MORE AND MORE we have observed violent robberies on weekends.

INCREASINGLY we have observed violent robberies on weekends.

SUSPECT:
We observed 10% more robberies last month.
most
OF ALL the Greek gods, Zeus was THE MOST powerful (superlative).

He was THE SECOND MOST attractive and THE MOST powerful.

WRONG:
Of all the Greek gods, Zeus was the more powerful.

WRONG:
He was the second most attractive and most powerful.
native
The kangaroo is NATIVE TO Australia (said of animals, plants).

My friend is A NATIVE OF Australia (said of people).

WRONG:
The kangaroo is native in Australia.
not ... but
She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT ATE other kinds of fruit.

She DID NOT EAT mangoes BUT LIKED other kinds of fruit AND later BEGAN to like kiwis, too.

A tomato is NOT a vegetable but a fruit.

A tomato is NOT a vegetable BUT RATHER a fruit.

The agency is NOT a fully independent entity BUT INSTEAD derives its authority from Congress (NOTE: IS and DERIVES are parallel)

She DID NOT EAT mangoes; INSTEAD, she ate other kinds of fruit.

WRONG:
She did not eat mangoes but other kinds of fruit.

WRONG:
She did not eat mangoes; rather other kinds of fruit.
not only ... but also
We wore NOT ONLY boots BUT ALSO sandals.

We wore NOT ONLY boots, BUT ALSO sandals. (NOTE: Comma is optional)

We wore NOT JUST boots BUT ALSO sandals.

WRONG:
We wore not only boots and also sandals.

WRONG:
We wore not only boots but, as well, sandals.
number
A NUMBER OF dogs ARE barking.

THE NUMBER OF dogs IS large.

THE NUMBER OF dogs HAS FALLEN, but THE NUMBER OF cats HAS RISEN.

The grey oyster nearly vanished, but ITS NUMBERS have rebounded.

WRONG:
The numbers of dogs have fallen.

WRONG:
Dogs have fallen in number, but cats have risen in number.
object
We OBJECT TO these proceedings.

SUSPECT:
We have an objection to these proceedings.
once
We might ONCE have seen that band.

WRONG:
We might at one time have seen that band.
only
Her performance is exceeded ONLY by theirs. (modifies by theirs)

WRONG:
Her performance is ONLY exceeded by theirs. (technically modifies exceeded)

NOTE: ONLY should be placed just before the words it is meant to modify!!!!!
In both speech and writing, we often place ONLY before the verb, but this placement is generally wrong, according to the GMAT, since we rarely mean that the verb is the only action ever performed by the subject.
or
I do NOT want water OR milk.

SUSPECT:
I do not want water and milk (implies the combination)!!
order
The state ORDERS THAT the agency collect taxes (SUBJUNCTIVE)

The state ORDERS the agency TO collect taxes.

WRONG:
The state orders that the agency should collect taxes.

WRONG:
The state orders the agency collecting taxes.
owe
He OWES money TO the government FOR back taxes.

SUSPECT:
He owes money to the government because of back taxes.
pay
The employer PAYS the same FOR this job as for that one.
persuade
He PERSUADED her TO GO with him.

WRONG:
He persuaded her in going with him.

WRONG:
He persuaded that she go (or should go) with him.
potentially
A tornado IS POTENTIALLY overwhelming.

WRONG:
A tornado can potentially be overwhelming. (REDUNDANT)
privilege
The academy gave senior cadets DANCING PRIVILEGES.

WRONG:
The academy gave seniors cadets the privillege to dance.
probably
This situation IS PROBABLY as bad as it can get.

This situation MAY BE as bad as it can get. (less certain than probably)

PERHAPS (or MAYBE) this situation IS as bad as it can get.

WRONG:
This situation is maybe as bad as it can get.
prohibit
The law PROHIBITS any citizen FROM VOTING twice.

WRONG:
The law prohibits any citizen to vote twice.

WRONG:
The law prohibits that any person vote (or votes) twice.
pronounce
She PRONOUNCED the book a triumph.

SUSPECT:
She pronounced the book as a triumph.
propose
The attorneys PROPOSED THAT a settlement BE reached (SUBJUNCTIVE)

The attorneys PROPOSED a new venue.

The attorneys PROPOSED TO MEET for lunch.

WRONG:
The attorney proposed that a settlement is reached.

WRONG:
The attorneys proposed a settlement be (or to be) reached.
range
His emotions RANGED FROM anger TO joy.

His WIDELY RANGING emotions are hard to deal with (=changing over time).

His WIDE RANGE of accomplishments is impressive (= a variety).

WRONG:
His widely ranging accomplishments are impressive.
rank
This problem RANKS AS one of the worst we have seen.

WRONG:
This problem has the rank of one of the worst we have seen.
rate
The RATES FOR bus tickets are good for commuters. (=prices)

The RATE OF theft has fallen. (= frequency or speed)

WRONG:
The rates of bus tickets are good for commuters.

WRONG:
The rate for theft has fallen.
rate
The RATES FOR bus tickets are good for commuters. (=prices)

The RATE OF theft has fallen. (= frequency or speed)

WRONG:
The rates of bus tickets are good for commuters.

WRONG:
The rate for theft has fallen.
rather than
He wrote with pencils RATHER THAN with pens.

SUSPECT:
He wrote with pencils instead of pens.

NOTE: The GMAT seems to avoid INSTEAD OF even when it is correct.
reason
I have A REASON TO DO work today.

She has A REASON FOR the lawsuit.

This observation indicates a REASON THAT he is here.

SUBJECT:
This observation indicates a reason why he is here.

WRONG:
This observation indicates a reason he is here.

WRONG:
The reason he is here is because he wants to be.
rebel
The colonists REBELLED AGAINST tyranny.

SUSPECT:
The colonists' rebellion was against tyranny.
recognize
They RECOGNIZED THAT the entrance fee WAS a bargain.

They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee TO BE a bargain.

They RECOGNIZED the entrance fee AS a bargain.

WRONG:
They recognized the entrance fee as being a bargain.
recommend
We RECOMMENDED THAT the shelter BE opened.

WRONG:
We recommended that the shelter should be opened (!!!)
reduce
The coalition REDUCED prices.

The coalition was considering A REDUCTION IN prices.

WRONG:
The coalition made a reduction of prices.
refer
This term REFERS TO a kind of disease.

REFERRING TO the controversy, the politican asked for calm.

SUSPECT:
This term is used to refer to a kind of disease.

WRONG:
This term is in reference to a kind of disease.

WRONG:
In reference to the controversy, the politician asked for calm.
regard
He REGARDS the gold ring AS costly.

The gold ring IS REGARDED AS costly.

He IS REGARDED AS HAVING good taste.
reluctant
They were RELUCTANT TO SAY anything.

WRONG:
They were reluctant about saying anything.
report
A study HAS REPORTED THAT bees are disappearing rapidly.
request
I REQUEST THAT he BE removed (SUBJUNCTIVE)

WRONG:
I request him to be removed.
require
She REQUIRES time TO WRITE.

She REQUIRES her friend TO DO work.

Her friend IS REQUIRED TO DO work.

She REQUIRES THAT her friend DO work (SUBJUNCTIVE).

She REQUIRES OF her friend THAT work BE done (SUBJUNCTIVE)

SUSPECT:
There is a requirement that work be done.

WRONG:
She requires her friend do work.

WRONG:
She requires of her friend to do work.

WRONG:
She requires her friend doing work.
resemble
A neighbor of mine RESEMBLES my father.
restriction
The government imposed RESTRICTIONS ON the price of gasoline.

WRONG:
The government imposed RESTRICTIONS FOR the price of gasoline.
result
Wealth RESULTS FROM work.

Work RESULTS IN wealth.

Wealth IS A RESULT OF work.

Wealth grows AS A RESULT OF work.

AS A RESULT OF our work, our wealth grew.

The RESULT OF our work WAS THAT our wealth grew.

WRONG:
We worked with the result of wealth.

WRONG:
Resulting from our work, our wealth grew.
reveal
The analysis REVEALED THAT the comet WAS mostly ice.

SUSPECT:
The analysis revealed the comet was mostly ice.

WRONG:
The analysis revealed the comet to have been mostly ice.
rise
Oil prices ROSE sharply last year.

A RISE IN oil prices has led to inflation.

RISING prices at the gas pump are hurting consumers.

The RISING OF the SUN always lifts my spirits.

SUSPECT:
Oil prices were raised sharply last year (implies intent and control).

WRONG:
A raise in oil prices has led to inflation (RAISE = bet or pay increase)

WRONG:
A rising of prices at the gas pump is hurting consumers.
rule
The judge RULED THAT the plaintiff WAS in contempt.

SUSPECT:
The judge ruled the plaintiff was in contempt.

WRONG:
The judge ruled the plaintiff to be in contempt.
same
The car looks THE SAME TO me AS TO you.

I drove to the store AT THE SAME TIME AS you (did).

WRONG:
The car looks the same to me as you (ambiguous)

WRONG:
I drove to the store at the same time you did.
secure
Our authority IS SECURE.

WRONG:
We are secure about our authority.
seem
This result SEEMS TO demonstrate the new theory.

IT SEEMS THAT this result demonstrates the new theory.

IT SEEMS AS IF this result demonstrates the new theory.

WRONG:
This result seems as if it demonstrates the new theory.

WRONG:
This result seems like it demonstrates the new theory.
should
A car SHOULD BE TAKEN to the mechanic frequently (= obligation).

WRONG:
A car should pass every two hours (=probability)

WRONG:
The owner requested that the car should be taken to the mechanic (use the subjunctive BE TAKEN instead).
show
A discovery SHOWS THAT an oject IS strange.

A discovery SHOWS an object TO BE strange.
significant
Your edits HAVE SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVED the book.

WRONG:
Your edits have been significant in improving the book.
similar
ALL companies HAVE SIMILAR issues. (comparison requires plural)

WRONG:
Each company has similar issues.

WRONG:
Every company has similar issues.
since
Xingo is THE MOST successful new product SINCE 1997 (= up to now).

It is the best new beverage SINCE Prunce Cola.

SUSPECT:
Xingo is the best new beverage following Prune Cola.

WRONG:
Xingo is the most successful new prodcut after 1997.
so ... as to
SUSPECT:
The sauce was so hot as to burn my mouth.

NOTE:
The GMAT seems to have changed its mind on this idiom. In the 10th Edition of the Official Guide, problem #88 uses the construction in the correct answer. However, #37 in the 12th Edition says that this idiom is "incorrect" with no further explanation. Other authorities consider this idiom correct, and we agree. Nevertheless, you should be wary of its use.

WRONG:
The sauce had such heat as to burn my mouth.

WRONG:
The sauce had so much heat as to burn my mouth.
so ... that
The book was SO SHORT THAT I could read it in one night.

The book was SHORT ENOUGH FOR me TO READ in one night.

NOTE: These two expressions have slightly different emphases, but it is unlikely that you will need to choose an answer solely on this basis.

WRONG:
The book was of such shortness, I could read it.
so long as
see AS LONG AS
so that
She gave money SO THAT the school could offer scholarships (=purpose).

WRONG:
She gave money so the school could offer scholarships.
so too
Bellbottoms ARE coming back in style, and SO TOO ARE vests.

WRONG:
Bellbottoms are coming back in style, and so too vests.
substitute
We SUBSTITUTED Parmesan cheese FOR mozzarella.

WRONG:
We substituted Parmesan cheese in place of mozzarella.
succeed
She SUCCEEDED IN REACHING the summit.

WRONG:
She succeeded to reach the summit.
such
You may enjoy chemistry and pysics, but I hate SUCH subjects.

You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate these subjects.

NOTE:
THESE means "these specifically". SUCH is more general.

WRONG:
You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate subjects OF THIS KIND.

WRONG:
You may enjoy chemistry and physics, but I hate subjects LIKE THESE.
such as
Matt drives fast cars, SUCH AS Ferraris (=example).

Matt enjoys driving SUCH cars AS Ferraris.

Matt enjoys intense activities, SUCH AS DRIVING fast cars.

WRONG:
Matt drives fast cars like Ferraris. (= similar to, but "example" is implied)

WRONG:
Matt enjoy intense activites, such as to drive fast cars.
suggest
A study SUGGESTS THAT more work IS needed (or will be needed).

We SUGGEST THAT he BE promoted (SUBJUNCTIVE)

This artwork SUGGESTS great talent.
surface
Craters have been seen ON THE SURFACE OF the moon.

WRONG:
Craters have been seen at the surface of the moon.
targeted
This intervention is TARGETED AT a specific misbehavior.

WRONG:
This intervention is targeted to a specific misbehavior.
than
His books are MORE impressive THAN those of other writers.

This paper is LESS impressive THAN that one.

This paper is NO LESS impressive THAN that one.

This newspaper cost 50 cents MORE THAN that one.

MORE THAN 250 newspapers are published here.

Sales are HIGHER this year THAN last year.

WRONG:
His books are more impressive as those of other writers.

WRONG:
Sales are higher this year over last years.
think
She THINKS OF them AS heroes.

She IS THOUGHT TO BE secretly wealthy.

WRONG:
She thinks of them to be heroes.
tool
We have a TOOL FOR MAKING progress.

We have a TOOL TO MAKE progress.

NOTE:
The GMAT does not seem to require WITH, although one makes progress WITH a tool.
train
She WAS TRAINED TO run a division.

WRONG:
She was trained for running (or in running) a division.
try
They WILL TRY TO BUILD a company (= intent or purpose)

WRONG:
They will try and build a company.
twice
He is TWICE AS tall AS Alex (is).

Leaves fall TWICE AS quickly AS they grow.

Naomi wrote TWICE AS MANY letters AS Sara (did).

Naomi wrote ten letters, DOUBLE THE NUMBER THAT Sara wrote.

Naomi's income DOUBLED in three years.

Naomi DOUBLED her income in three years.

WRONG:
He is twice as tall than Alex (is).
unlike
UNLIKE the spiny anteater, the aardvark is docile.
use
He USES the hammer TO BREAK a board.

He BREAKS a board WITH the hammer.

His hammer BREAKS a board.

He USES the hammer AS a weapon.

WRONG:
He uses the hammer like a weapon.
variation
There are VARIATIONS IN sunspot frequency and strength over time.

WRONG:
There are variations of sunspot frequency and strength over time.
view
I VIEWED this process AS a mistake.

WRONG:
I viewed this process to be a mistake (or like a mistake)
way
We proposed a WAY OF REACHING the goal.

The WAY IN WHICH we discussed the idea was positive.

The best WAY TO REACH the goal IS TO FOCUS one's energy.

This process was developed TO ACHIEVE the target.

WRONG:
We proposed a way for reaching the goal.
weigh
My laptop WEIGHS LESS THAN a suitcase.

My laptop IS LIGHTER THAN a suitcase.

WRONG:
My laptop weighs lighter than a suitcase.
where
Sussex is the only country WHERE pomegranates grow in this state.

Sussex is the only country IN WHICH pomegranates grow in this state.

This incident represents a case IN WHICH I would call the police.

WRONG:
This incident represents a case where I would call the police.
whether ... or
I decided to eat the food, WHETHER it was tasty OR NOT.

WHETHER trash OR treasure, the recyclables must be picked up.

WRONG:
WHETHER trash OR ALSO treasure, the recyclables must be picked up.
whose / whom
The officer WHOSE task was to be here did not show up.

The company WHOSE groth leads the industry is XYZ, Inc.

SUSPECT:
The officer, THE task OF WHOM was to be here, did not show up.
with
The lions growled, WITH their fur STANDING on end.

WRONG:
With only 25% of the student body, seniors get 50% of the resources.
worry
The committee was WORRIED ABOUT increased prices.

WRONG:
The committee was worried over increased prices.
yet
see BUT
/ 214
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online