(PICTURES!!!) EESC 360: Rock & Mineral Lists 1- 4 - Identification (Sed., Met., and Ig.) Flashcards

plagioclase
Terms Definitions
The most important Iron Ore
Banded Iron Formations

(HINT: Mining)
Host rock for large Gold deposits
Conglomerate host rock
Host Rock for Stratabound Sulphides
Limestone and/or Shale host rock
Reservoir for Oil and Gas
Sandstone, Limestone, Dolostone
Sedimentary rock used in Fertilizer
Phosphate (Apatite), Evaporite (Silvinite)
Sedimentary rock with Fossil Fuels
Coal, Oil, Shale, Tar Sands
Cement Raw Minerals
Limestone

(HINT: Industrial Mineral Use)
Glass Raw Minerals
Quartz Sandstone

(HINT: Industrial Mineral Use)
What is used in Plaster?
Gypsum

(HINT: Industrial Mineral Use)
From what is Table Salt, Road Salt made?
Rock Salt

(HINT: Industrial Mineral Use)
Name the Mineral and Family
Olivine (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Pyroxene (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Amphibole (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Biotite (Silicate)
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Pyroxene
(Ca,Na)(Mg,Fe,Al)(Al,Si) 2 O 6
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Amphibole
(Ca,Na) 2-3 (Mg,Fe,Al) 5 Si 6 (Si,A) 2 O22 (OH) 2
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Biotite
K(Mg,Fe) 3 AlSi 3 O10 (OH) 2
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Plagioclase (Labradorite)
NaAlSi 3 O 8 - CaAl 2 Si 2 O8
FORMULA: (Silicate)

K-Feldspar
KAlSi 3 O8
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Quartz
SiO 2
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Muscovite
KAl 3 Si 3 O10 (OH) 2
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Talc
Mg 3 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Garnet (Almandine)
Fe 3 Al 2 Si 3 O12
FORMULA: (Silicate)

Plagioclase (Albite)
NaAlSi 3 O 8
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Chert Pebble Conglomerate
Quartz (Chert Pebble)
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Quartz Sandstone
Quartz
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Arkose
K-Feldspar

Quartz

Hematite
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Greywacke
K-Feldspar

Quartz Rock Fragments
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Siltstone
Quartz Rock Fragments
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Oolitic Limestone
Calcite
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Crystalline Limestone
Calcite
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Dolostone
Dolomite
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Gypsum
Gypsum
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Chert
Quartz
MINERALOGY: (Sedimentary Rocks)

Coal
Organic material
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Slate
1. Chlorite, mica, Pyrite (Porphyroblast)

2. Shale
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Phyllite
1. Chlorite, Muscovite

2. Shale
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Schist
1. albite, Biotite, Quartz, Garnet (Porphyroblast)

2. Shale
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Gneiss
1. Plagioclase, Quartz, Biotite, Garnet

2. Shale
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Augen Gneiss
1. K-Feldspar, Amphibole, Biotite

2. Arkose, Granodiorite
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Greenschist
1. Chlorite

2. Basalt
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Amphibole
1. Amphibole, Plagioclase

2. Basalt
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Greenstone
1. Chlorite

2. Basalt
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Serpentinite
1. Serpentine

2. Peridotite
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Marble
1. Calcite

2. Limestone
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Quartzite
1. Quartz, Muscovite

2. Quartz Sandstone
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Hornfels
1. N/A

2. Shale
1. MINERALOGY & 2. PARENT: (Metamorphic Rocks)

Skarn
1. Garnet, Epidote, Calcite

2. Limestone
FORMULA: (Oxides)

Magnetite
Fe 3 O 4
FORMULA: (Oxides)

Chromite
FeCr2 O 4
FORMULA: (Oxides)

Hematite
Fe 2 O 3
FORMULA: (Oxides)

Ilmenite
FeTiO 3
FORMULA: (Oxides)

Cassiterite
SnO 2
FORMULA: (Oxides)

Cuperite
Cu 2 O
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Bornite
Cu 5 FeS 4
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Galena
PbS
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Sphalerite
ZnS
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Chalcopyrite
CuFeS 2
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Pyrrhotite
Fe (1-x) S
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Cinnabar
HgS
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Pyrite
FeS 2
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Molybdenite
MoS 2
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Stibnite
Sb 2 S 3
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Chalcocite
Cu 2 S
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Nickeline
NiAs
FORMULA: (Sulphides)

Arsenopyrite
FeAsS
FORMULA: (Tungstates)

Scheelite
CaWoO 4
FORMULA: (Tungstates)

Wolframite
(Fe,Mn)WO 4
FORMULA: (Native Element)

Graphite
C
FORMULA: (Oxides & Hydroxides)

Corundum
Al 2 O 3
FORMULA: (Oxides & Hydroxides)

Bauxite (Gibbsite)
Al(OH) 3
FORMULA: (Oxides & Hydroxides)

Goethite
FeO(OH)
FORMULA: (Oxides & Hydroxides)

Limonite
FeO(OH) * nH 2 O
FORMULA: (Halides)

Halite
NaCl
FORMULA: (Halides)

Sylvite
KCl
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Siderite
FeCO 3
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Rhodochrosite
MnCO 3
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Azurite/Malachite
Cu 3 (CO 3) 2 (OH) 2 / Cu 2 CO 3 (OH) 2
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Barite
BaSO 4
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Gypsum
CaSO 4 * 2 H2O
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Celestite
SrSO 4
FORMULA: (Carbonates, Sulfates, & Phosphates)

Apatite
Ca 5 (PO4) 3 (F,Cl,OH)
FORMULA: (Silicates)

Talc
Mg 3 Si 14 O 10 (OH) 2
FORMULA: (Silicates)

Kaolinite
Al 2 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4
FORMULA: (Silicates)

Vermiculate
(Mg,Ca) 0.3 (Mg,Fe,Al) 3 (Al, Si) 4 O 10 (OH) 4 * 8 H 2 O
Name the Mineral and Family
Plagioclase (Labradorite)

(Silicates)
Name the MIneral and Family
Plagioclase (Albite)

(Silicate)
Name the Mineral and family
k-feldspar (silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Quartz (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Muscovite (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Talc (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Garnet (Almandine)

(Silicate)
Name the Rock and Type
Chert Pebble conglomerate

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Quartz Sandstone

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Arkose

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Siltstone (Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Greywacke (Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Oolitic Limestone

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Crystalline Limestone

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Dolostone

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Gypsum

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Coal

(Sedimentary)
Name the Rock and Type
Slate (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Phyllite (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Schist (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Augen Gneiss (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Gneiss (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Amphibole (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Greenschist (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Serpentinite (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Marble (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Quartzite (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Hornfels (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Skarn (Metamorphic)
Name the Rock and Type
Greenstone (Metamorphic)
Name the Mineral and Family
Magnetite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Chromite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Hematite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Hematite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Hematite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Ilmenite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Cassiterite (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Cuperite (Oxides)
Name the Mineral and Family
Bornite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Galena (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Sphalerite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Chalcopyrite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Pyrrhotite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Cinnabar (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Pyrite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Molybdenite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Stibnite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Chalcocite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Nickeline (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Arsenopyrite (Sulphide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Graphite (Native Mineral)
Name the Mineral and Family
Scheelite (Tungstate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Corundum (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Corundum (Oxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Bauxite (Gibbsite)

(Hydroxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Goethite (Hydroxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Halite (Halide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Sylvite (Halide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Limonite (Hydroxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Siderite (Carbonate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Rhodochrosite (Carbonate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Rhodochrosite (Carbonate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Rhodochrosite (Carbonate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Barite (Sulfate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Celestite (Sulfate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Azurite (Blue)
Malachite (Green)

(Hydroxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Celestite (Hydroxide)
Name the Mineral and Family
Apatite (Phosphate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Apatite (Phosphate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Apatite (Phosphate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Apatite (Phosphate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Kaolinite (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Talc (Silicate)
Name the Mineral and Family
Vermiculate (Silicate)
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Olivine
LUSTRE: Glassy
HARDNESS: 6.5 - 7
CLEAVAGE: None
STREAK: White

OTHER: Olive Green color, granular
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Pyroxene (Augite)
LUSTRE: Glassy
HARDNESS: 5 - 6
CLEAVAGE: Blocky (2 dir @ 90 degrees)
STREAK: White

OTHER:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Amphibole (Hornblende)
LUSTRE: Glassy
HARDNESS: 5 - 6
CLEAVAGE: Prismatic (Wedge-like, 2 dir @ 56 degrees & 124 degrees)
STREAK: white

OTHER:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Biotite
LUSTRE: Glassy, splendent
HARDNESS: 2.5 - 3
CLEAVAGE: Basal
STREAK: White or Brownish

OTHER:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Plagioclase (Labradorite)
LUSTRE: Glassy
HARDNESS: 6
CLEAVAGE: Blocky
STREAK: White

OTHER: Twin Striations
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Plagioclase (Albite)
LUSTRE: Glassy
HARDNESS: 6
CLEAVAGE: Blocky
STREAK: White

OTHER: Twin Striations
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

K-Feldspar
LUSTRE: Glassy
HARDNESS: 6
CLEAVAGE: Blocky
STREAK: White

OTHER:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Quartz
LUSTRE: Glassy to Greasy
HARDNESS: 7
CLEAVAGE: None
STREAK: White

OTHER: Conchoidal fracture, Hexagonal Prism
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Muscovite
LUSTRE: Glassy, Pearly
HARDNESS: 2 - 2.5
CLEAVAGE: Basal
STREAK: White

OTHER:
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Talc
LUSTRE: Pearly, Greasy
HARDNESS: 1
CLEAVAGE: Basal
STREAK: White

OTHER: Soapy feel
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:

Garnet (Almandine)
LUSTRE: Glassy-resinous
HARDNESS: 6.5 - 7.5
CLEAVAGE: None
STREAK: White

OTHER: Crystal Form
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Chert Pebble Conglomerate
TEXTURE: Gravel-sized, rounded, very poorly sorted

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Quartz Sandstone
TEXTURE: Sand-sized, rounded, very well sorted

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Arkose
TEXTURE: mostly sand-sized, subangular, poorly sorted

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Greywacke
TEXTURE: sand-sized, subrounded, moderately sorted

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Siltstone
TEXTURE: Silt-sized, well sorted

STRUCTURE: parallel bedding, plant fossils
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Oolitic Limestone
TEXTURE: Oolitic

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Crystalline Limestone
TEXTURE: Crystalline

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Dolostone
TEXTURE: Crystalline

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Gypsum
TEXTURE: Crystalline

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Chert
TEXTURE: Crystalline

STRUCTURE:
COMPOSITION: (Sedimentary)

Coal
TEXTURE:

STRUCTURE: parallel bedding
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Slate
TEXTURE: Slaty cleavage, Porphyroblastic

FACIES: Zeolite
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Phyllite
TEXTURE: GlossyéSheen, Cleavage

FACIES: Prehnite
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Schist
TEXTURE: schistosity, porphyroblastic

FACIES: Lower Greenschist
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Gneiss
TEXTURE: Gneissic

FACIES: Lower Amphibolite
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Augen Gneiss
TEXTURE: Gneissic, Porphyroblastic

FACIES: Upper Amphibolite
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Greenschist
TEXTURE: Schistosity

FACIES: Greenschist
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Amphibolite
TEXTURE: Lineation

FACIES: Amphibolite
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Greenstone
TEXTURE: Nonfoliated

FACIES: Greenschist
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Serpentinite
TEXTURE: Nonfoliated

FACIES:
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Marble
TEXTURE: Nonfoliated

FACIES: At least Greenschist
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Quartzite
TEXTURE: Crystalline, weakly foliated

FACIES: At least Greenschist
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Hornfels
TEXTURE: Nonfoliated

FACIES: Hornfels
COMPOSITION (Metamorphic)

Skarn
TEXTURE: Nonfoliated

FACIES: Hornfels
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Magnetite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Black
STREAK: Black
HARDNESS: 6
OTHER: Strongly Magnetic, Iron Ore
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Chromite
LUSTRE: Metallic to Sub-metallic
COLOR: Black to Brownish-Black
STREAK: Dark Brown
HARDNESS: 5.5
OTHER: No cleavage, Weakly Magnetic, Only Chromium Ore
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Hematite
LUSTRE: Metallic in crystals and dull in earthy varieties
COLOR: Reddish-Brown to Black
STREAK: Red
HARDNESS: 5.5 - 6.5
OTHER: Iron Ore, Pigments, Gems
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Ilmenite
LUSTRE: Metallic to Sub-metallic
COLOR: Iron Black
STREAK: Black to Brownish-Red
HARDNESS: 5.5 - 6
OTHER: Major source of Titanium
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Cassiterite
LUSTRE: adamantine to Sub-metallic
COLOR: Brown, yellow or Black
STREAK: White
HARDNESS: 6 - 7
OTHER: Principle ore of Tin
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Cuperite
LUSTRE: Sub-metallic to Adamantine
COLOR: Red of various shades
STREAK:
HARDNESS: 3.5 - 4
OTHER: An ore of Copper
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Bornite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Brownish-Bronze (Purple or Blue)
STREAK: Grayish black
HARDNESS: 3
OTHER: An ore of copper
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Galena
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Lead Gray
STREAK: Lead Gray
CLEAVAGE: Cubic (3 dir)
HARDNESS: 2.5
OTHER: Only source of Lead, Important ore of Silver
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Sphalerite
LUSTRE: Resinous (Adamantine)
COLOR: Yellow, Brown to Black (Fe-Rich)
STREAK: white to yellow and brown
CLEAVAGE: 6 cleavages (too fine grained to show)
HARDNESS: 3.5 - 4
OTHER: Important Zinc Ore, inportant source of Cadmium, indium, gallium, and Germanium
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Chalcopyrite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Brass-Yellow
STREAK: Greenish-Black
HARDNESS: 3.5 - 4
OTHER: Important Copper ore
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Pyrrhotite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Brownish-Bronze
STREAK: Black
HARDNESS: 4
OTHER: Magnetic, Mined for associated Nickel, Copper, Platinum, also source of Sulphur
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Cinnabar
LUSTRE: Adamantine to Earthy
COLOR: Red to Brownish-Red
STREAK: Red (Scarlet)
HARDNESS: 2.5
OTHER: Only important source of Mercury
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Pyrite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Pale Brass-Yellow
STREAK: Greenish to Brownish Black
HARDNESS: 6 - 6.5
FRACTURE: Uneven, brittle
OTHER: Mined for association with Gold and Copper, also a source of Sulphur
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Molybdenite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Lead Gray
STREAK: Grayish-Black
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 1 - 1.5

OTHER: Greasy Feel, Principle ore of Molybdenum
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Stibnite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Lead-Gray to Black
STREAK: Grayish-Black
CLEAVAGE: Two
HARDNESS: 2
OTHER: Striations on Crystal Faces, Chief ore of Antimony
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Chalcocite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Lead-Gray or tarnishing to dull black
STREAK:
HARDNESS: 2.5 - 3 (some soft, some sooty)
OTHER: one of the most profitable Copper ores, secondary mineral in many ore bodies in a zone called the supergene enrichment zone
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Nickeline
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Pale Copper-Red tarnishing to Gray
FRACTURE: uneven
HARDNESS: 5 - 5.5
OTHER: Minor ore of Nickel
PROPERTIES: (Sulphides)

Arsenopyrite
LUSTRE: Metallic
COLOR: Silver-White
CLEAVAGE: Poor
HARDNESS: 5.5 - 6
OTHER: Major ore of Arsenic, can contain small amounts of Gold as impurity
PROPERTIES: (Tungstates)

Scheelite
LUSTRE: Vitreous to Adamantine
COLOR: White, Yellow, Green, Brown
STREAK: White
CLEAVAGE: two
HARDNESS: 4.5 - 5
OTHER: fluorescence, ore of Tungsten, more important in the US
PROPERTIES: (Tungstates)

Wolframite
LUSTRE: Sub-metallic
COLOR: Black to Brown
STREAK: Black to Brown
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 4 - 4.5
OTHER: Chief ore of Tungsten, used for filaments for electric lamps, heating elements for electrical furnaces, tungsten Carbide is important compound in metal working, mining, and petroleum industries
PROPERTIES (Native Elem.)

Graphite
LUSTRE:Metallic
COLOR: Black
STREAK: Black
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 1 - 2
OTHER: Greasy Feel, used in steel and electric industries, lubricant, pencil lead
PROPERTIES: (Oxides)

Corundum
LUSTRE: Adamantine-vitreous
COLOR: Usually some shade of Brown, Pink or Blue (ruby-Red, sapphire-any other color)
HARDNESS: 9
OTHER: Gemstone or used as an abrasive
PROPERTIES: (Hydroxides)

Bauxite (Gibbsite)
LUSTRE: Dull-Earthy
COLOR: White-Gray
HARDNESS: 1 - 3
OTHER: Aluminum ore
PROPERTIES: (Hydroxides)

Goethite
LUSTRE: Adamantine to Dull, Silky in certain varieties
COLOR: Yellowish Brown to Dark Brown
CLEAVAGE: Two
HARDNESS: 5 - 5.5
OTHER: Iron ore
PROPERTIES: (Hydroxides)

Limonite
LUSTRE: Amorphous
COLOR: Yellowish Brown
OTHER: Not a true mineral, composed of hydrated Iron Oxide minerals, mostly goethite, Iron ore
PROPERTIES: (Halides)

Halite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Colorless or White
CLEAVAGE: Cubic
HARDNESS: 2.5
OTHER: Salty taste, used in Chemical Industry, road salting, food industry
PROPERTIES: (Halides)

Sylvite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Colorless or White, varying with impurities
CLEAVAGE: Cubic
HARDNESS: 2
OTHER: Salty-Bitter Taste, Used as fertilizers
PROPERTIES: (Carbonates)

Siderite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Light Dark Brown
CLEAVAGE: Rhombohedral
HARDNESS: 3.5 - 4
OTHER: Minor ore of Iron
PROPERTIES: (Carbonates)

Rhodochrosite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Rose-red
STREAK: White
CLEAVAGE: Rhombohedral
HARDNESS: 3.5 - 4
OTHER: Minor ore of Manganese
PROPERTIES: (Carbonates)

Azurite/Malachite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Blue/Green
CLEAVAGE: Two but rarely seen
HARDNESS: 3.5 - 4
OTHER: Minor ore of Copper, ornamental and gem mineral
PROPERTIES: (Sulfates)

Barite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Colorless-white
CLEAVAGE: One perfect
HARDNESS: 3 - 3.5
OTHER: Feels heavy, 80% used as drilling mud, additive to cement, rubber, and raw material for barium chemicals
PROPERTIES: (Sulfates)

Gypsum
LUSTRE: Vitreous (Pearl or Silky)
COLOR: Colorless-White (Blueish)
CLEAVAGE: One perfect
HARDNESS: 2

OTHER: used in cement, wallboard, Plaster-of-Paris, paint filler, toothpaste, pharmaceuticals
PROPERTIES: (Sulfates)

Celestite
LUSTRE: Vitreous to Pearly
COLOR: Colorless-light blue
CLEAVAGE: Three (One perfect)
HARDNESS: 3 - 3.5
OTHER: Used in glazes for ceramics, in Strontium nitrate for fireworks, to produce strontium salts used in the refining of beet sugar
PROPERTIES: (Phosphates)

Apatite
LUSTRE: Vitreous-Subresinous
COLOR: Light Green, some Brown
CLEAVAGE: One poor
HARDNESS: 5
OTHER: Used mainly as fertilizer, also in chemical and pharmaceutical indutries
PROPERTIES: (Silicates)

Talc
LUSTRE: Pearly-Greasy
COLOR: White, Gray, Light Green
CLEAVAGE: One Poor
HARDNESS: 5

OTHER: Greasy Feel, ingerdient in paint, ceramics, insecticides, roofing, paper, and talcum powder
PROPERTIES: (Silicates)

Kaolinite
LUSTRE: Dull-Earthy, Crystal Plates pearly
COLOR: White, often colored by impurities
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 2
OTHER: Production of ceramics, Filler for paint, rubber and plastics, Largest use is in the paper industry to produce glossy paper
PROPERTIES: (Silicates)

Vermiculate
LUSTRE: Pearly
COLOR: Yellow-Brown
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 1.5
OTHER: Construction, agricultural, horticultural, and industrial markets such as asbestos substitutions, heat insulation, animal feed, soil conditioner, potting mixes, drilling muds, paints
PROPERTIES: (Sulfates)

Barite
LUSTRE: Vitreous
COLOR: Colorless-white
CLEAVAGE: One perfect
HARDNESS: 3 - 3.5
OTHER: Feels heavy, 80% used as drilling mud, additive to cement, rubber, and raw material for barium chemicals
PROPERTIES: (Sulfates)

Gypsum
LUSTRE: Vitreous (Pearl or Silky)
COLOR: Colorless-White (Blueish)
CLEAVAGE: One perfect
HARDNESS: 2
OTHER: used in cement, wallboard, Plaster-of-Paris, paint filler, toothpaste, pharmaceuticals
PROPERTIES: (Sulfates)

Celestite
LUSTRE: Vitreous to Pearly
COLOR: Colorless-light blue
CLEAVAGE: Three (One perfect)
HARDNESS: 3 - 3.5
OTHER: Used in glazes for ceramics, in Strontium nitrate for fireworks, to produce strontium salts used in the refining of beet sugar
PROPERTIES: (Phosphates)

Apatite
LUSTRE: Vitreous-Subresinous
COLOR: Light Green, some Brown
CLEAVAGE: One poor
HARDNESS: 5
OTHER: Used mainly as fertilizer, also in chemical and pharmaceutical indutries
PROPERTIES: (Silicates)

Talc
LUSTRE: Pearly-Greasy
COLOR: White, Gray, Light Green
CLEAVAGE: One Poor
HARDNESS: 5
OTHER: Greasy Feel, ingerdient in paint, ceramics, insecticides, roofing, paper, and talcum powder
PROPERTIES: (Silicates)

Kaolinite
LUSTRE: Dull-Earthy, Crystal Plates pearly
COLOR: White, often colored by impurities
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 2
OTHER: Production of ceramics, Filler for paint, rubber and plastics, Largest use is in the paper industry to produce glossy paper
PROPERTIES: (Silicates)

Vermiculate
LUSTRE: Pearly
COLOR: Yellow-Brown
CLEAVAGE: One
HARDNESS: 1.5
OTHER: Construction, agricultural, horticultural, and industrial markets such as asbestos substitutions, heat insulation, animal feed, soil conditioner, potting mixes, drilling muds, paints
MINERALOGY: (Intrusive Igneous)

Granite (Porphyry)
K-Feldspar

Quartz

Plagioclase

Biotite
MINERALOGY: (Intrusive Igneous)

Granite
Plagioclase

K-Feldspar

Quartz

Biotite
MINERALOGY: (Intrusive Igneous)

Syenite
K-Feldspar

Amphibole
MINERALOGY: (Intrusive Igneous)

Diorite
Plagioclase

Amphibole

Biotite
MINERALOGY: (Intrusive Igneous)

Gabbro
Pyroxene

Plagioclase
MINERALOGY: (Intrusive Igneous)

Peridotite
Olivine

Pyroxene (Cr-Diopside)
MINERALOGY: (Extrusive Igneous)

Rhyolite
K-Feldspar

Quartz

Biotite

Amphibole
MINERALOGY: (Extrusive Igneous)

Trachyte
Albite
MINERALOGY: (Extrusive Igneous)

Andesite
Amphibole

Plagioclase
MINERALOGY: (Extrusive Igneous)

Basalt
Plagioclase

Pyroxene
Name the Rock and Type
Granite (Pophyry)

Intrusive Igneous
Name the Rock and Type
Granite

Intrusive Igneous
Name the Rock and Type
Syenite

Intrusive Igneous
Name the Rock and Type
Diorite

Intrusive Igneous
Name the Rock and Type
Peridotite

Intrusive Igneous
Name the Rock and Type
Gabbro

Intrusive Igneous
Name the Rock and Type
Rhyolite (Extrusive Igneous)
Name the Rock and Type
Trachyte (Extrusive Igneous)
Name the Rock and Type
Andesite (Extrusive Igneous)
Name the Rock and Type
Basalt (Extrusive Igneous)
COMPOSITION: (Intrusive)

Granite (Porphyry)
TEXTURE: Porphyritic with phaneritic groundmass

MAFICS: 5%

COMPOSITION: Felsic
COMPOSITION: (Intrusive)

Granite
TEXTURE: Phaneritic

MAFICS: 20%

COMPOSITION: Felsic
COMPOSITION: (Intrusive)

Syenite
TEXTURE: Phaneritic

MAFICS: 10%

COMPOSITION: Felsic
COMPOSITION: (Intrusive)

Diorite
TEXTURE: Phaneritic

MAFICS: 50%

COMPOSITION: Intermediate
COMPOSITION: (Intrusive)

Gabbro
TEXTURE: Phaneritic

MAFICS: 40%

COMPOSITION: Mafic
COMPOSITION: (Intrusive)

Peridotite
TEXTURE: Phaneritic

MAFICS: 100%

COMPOSITION: Ultramafic
COMPOSITION: (Extrusive)

Rhyolite
TEXTURE: Porphyritic with Aphanitic groundmass

COLOR: Light Gray

COMPOSITION: Felsic
COMPOSITION: (Extrusive)

Trachyte
TEXTURE: Porphyritic with Aphanitic groundmass

COLOR: Medium Gray

COMPOSITION: Felsic
COMPOSITION: (Extrusive)

Andesite
TEXTURE: Porphyritic with Aphanitic groundmass

COLOR: Medium Gray

COMPOSITION: Intermediate
COMPOSITION: (Extrusive)

Basalt
TEXTURE: Porphyritic with Aphanitic groundmass

COLOR: Dark Gray

COMPOSITION: Mafic
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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