Physical Geology Comprehensive Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Each layer or rock is older than the layer above it and younger than the rock layer below it. N Steno
Law of Superposition
Layers of rock extend in all directions
Law of lateral Extension
vertical succession of facies reflects lateral changes in environment
Law of succession of Facies
Earth's landscape developed over long periods of time through a variety of slow geologic and metamorphic processes. Hutton
Principle of Uniformitarianism
Sedimentary rocks are originally deposited in a horizontal manner
Law of Origanl Horizontality
Rock that crosses another rock must have crossed origianl rock AFTER the original was initially deposited
Law of cross cutting relationship
rise in sea level
transgression
Sea level drops
regression
Gap in the rock record
uncomformity
tilted sed. strata on bottom and younger horizontal sedimentary layers on top
angular uncomformity
parallel sedimentary beds above and below
disconformity
deposition of younger sed beds creates new rock layers on top of eroded igneous and meta. rock outcrops
nonconformity
fault that looks like a frown
anticline
fault that looks like a smile
syncline
fault that looks like a wavy line
monocline
fault that looks like up and down stair steps
horst and graben
trapped in pine resin and later turn into amber
amber preservation
large animals may become trapped in oily tar like asphalt
tar pit preservation
soft parts of organism may be preserved
mummification
steep valley walls scoured by glaciers
u shaped valleys or troughs
cut off ridges that extend into preglacial calley
truncated spurs
steep wall embayments
fiords
floor is at higher level than main valley, waterfalls
hanging valleys
bowl shaped depression
cirque
glaciers erode backwards and leave narrow ridge in between
Aretes
extremely steep walled peaks
horns
cirques contain these small lakes called
tarms
runaway rock
glacial erratic
unstratified sediments deposited directly by glacial ice
glacial till
layered and displays evidence of sorted sediments
striated drift
pile of rubble, long ridge like
end moraines
glacier retreats and deposit sediment, irregular topography
ground moraines
retreat and begin to stabilize again
recessional moraines
deposited by Pleistocene flacier at greatest advance stage
terminal moraine
valley glaciers start melting
lateral moraine
till reshaped elongated hill
drumlin
melted water rich in sediment
outwash
conical hills w/stratified drift
Kames
ridges of stratified drift/tributaries
Eskers
rafted into lakes by ice blocks from glaciers
dropstones
plucks off pieces of rock
roche moutonne
bedrock eroded by glacial ice looks polished
abrasion and glacial polish
abrasion causes straight scratches
striations and grooves
glacial ice freezes in cracks of bedrock
plucking
compaction of snow/elimination of pore space
firn
A drainage basin where rain and snow melt into common body of water
watershed
Each watershed basin is separated topographically
watershed divide
Waterway transmits water through landscape from higher area
river
Streams Shallowest Point
point bar
Bank where erosion is concentrated
cutbank
Flat land adjacent to Fluvial System
floodplain
Curving of Sinuous Path
meandering streams
Decrease in stream velocity, sediment is deposited on floor of channel
braided stream
U shaped water body
oxbow lake
stretch of river or creek in which water depth is above average
pool
Shallow stretch of river or stream where velocity picks up
riffle
Furthest upstream tributaries of a river
headwaters
Where it feeds into a river
mouth
Mouth of river flows into a ocean sea estuary or lake
delta
Aquifer that is of primary economic importance to a region
primary aquifer
Aquifer not relied on as a primary source of drinking water
secondary aquifer
Aquifer separated from other aquifers and land surfaces by a confining rock layer
confined aquifer
Layer of geologic material which hampers the movement of water into and out of an aquifier
aquitard
Aquifers that are not below a confining layer
unconfined aquifer
Allowers groundwater to partially fill the aquifer and allow upper surface of the groundwater called the water table to freely rise and fall based on recharge
unconfined layer
Top of a unconfined aquifer below which the pore spaces are generally saturated
water table
Aquifer where groundwater body is separated from the main froundwater below it by an impremeable layer
perched aquifer
Aquifer must have 4 characteristics to work:
porosity
permeability
recharge
discharge
Allows water to replenish an aquifers water recourses through groundwater percolation
recharge
Water headed below root zone to go into a aquifer
percolation
Ratio of volume of voids to the volume of aquifer material
porosity
Capacity of porous rock sediment or soil to transmit groundwater
permeability
movement of groundwater from an aquifer to the Earth's surface into a surface water body
discharge
-Tx S most extension of aquifer
-Partially covers 8 states
-Agriculture
-10 mya
Ogallala Aquifer
-Limestone
-Unique and most prolific artesian groundwater systems in the world
Edward's Aquifer
-Supplies groundwater for Waco area
-Stephenville recharge zone
-Dropped 400 ft since 70s
Trinity aquifer
Underground drainage system
-Carbonic Acid
-forms caves and caverns
Karst Topography
-moves from higher elevation to lower elevation
-higher head to lower head pressure
-follows topography of the land
groundwater
Spits completely grow across water so they close off bay
baymouth bar
Sand deposits form as waves bent around island
tombolo
-Long narrow island of sand deposits form short distance off shore
-South Padre Island
barrier island
Fossil evidence of prokaryotic life that remains alive today found in Shark Bay, Australia and Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas
stromatolite
What are fingerlike projections?
spits
What are the different types of coral reefs?
fringing, barrier reef, atoll and pinnacle
What coral is extinct?
tabulate and rugose
What is scallarett tennan?
todays corals
-Depression or hole caused by the removal of soil or bedrock, often both, by water
-Wink Sink: continues to grow today
Sinkhole
-100 mya
-Experienced uplift and karsting 25 mya
Natural Bridge Caverns
-Ordivician caves
Longhorn Caverns
must apply is use surface water, first in time first in right
Texas Water Rights
anyone can pump as much groundwater as they want from under their land as long as it's for beneficial use
Right of Capture
rise in sea level along coastline, most dangerous hurricane hazard
storm surge
over 74 mph, destrosy buildings debris flies and debris becomes flying missiles
hurricane force winds
widespread rain excess of 10 inches produces floods
heavy rains
How many hurricane names are retired?
Why are they retired?
how soon re-used?
64
legal reasons
10
2005 retired hurricane names
katrina
rita
willma
Category 5
190 mph winds
22-25 ft storm surge
develop Sapphir Simpson
aug 69
Hurricane Camille
category 5
160 mph winds
charleston,SC
sept 89
Hurricane Hugo
category 5
175 mph
s florida
Hurricane Andrew
tropical storm
5 days rain [37 in]
learned how to adress Katrin
Tropical Storm allison
category 5
made landfall 8/29
6th strongest storm
3rd strongest landfall storm
175 mph wind
902 millibar
Hurricane Katrina
4th strongest storm
strongest tropical cyclone
180 mph wind
895 millibar
C5
9/24/04 landfall
Hurricane Rita
Strongest storm EVER
C5
October
180 mph
882 mb
Hurricane Wilma
Which hurricane prompted the creation of the Sapphir-Simpson Scale?
Hurricane Camille
Downslope movement of material under gravity
mass wasting
steep angle slope can keep until gives in
angle of repose
what type of geology is mass wasting more common in?
loose material
Mass wasting classified by
___ of movement
___ of movement
___ of material being moved
rate
type
type
____ content, ____ cover, geology and ____ stability influence mass wasting
water, vegatative, slope
50% silt 30% H20 follow existing channels
mudflows
large size particles not alot of water not confined to existing channels
debris flow
slumps from upper part of hillside
earth flow
spontaneous liquification
quickclays
slow downslope movement of water saturated surface sediment
solifluction
slowest, extremely destructive
creep
talus, slumps, rock or block slides
rock and fall slides
involve several type of mass movement
ex:
debris avalanches and slide flow?
complex movements
Rip Rap, Seawall, Jetty, Sand replenishment, Special Fencing
reduce coastal erosion
crust is relieved of weight when mountain erodes
isostastic rebound
paleozoic mts
marine sediments
lgst mtn range in tx
Davis Mt., in West Tx
youngest mtn range
created by ring of fire
cretaceous/tertiary
cordilleran belt
Cascade Mt
once flat sed. seabed
underneath granite
precambrian granite uplifted
Grand Teton
low angle subduction zone
thrust and horst graben fault
cordilleran belt
Rock Mt.
oldest mt
paleozoic
rounded
Appallachian mt.
Shaking, rolling or sudden shock of the earth’s surface caused by the sudden release of energy.
earthquake
point within earth where faulting begins
focus
The point directly above the focus on the surface of the earth
epicenter
measures the amount of earth shaking
Richter Scale
measure of the kind of damage done
“Modified” Mercalli Intensity Scale
P or Primary Waves
S or Secondary Waves
Body Waves
R waves: Vertical
L Waves: Horizontal
Surface Waves
Fastest seismic waves
compressional wave
solids, liquids, or gases
“P” Waves
Slower than P waves
solids
S waves
Travel just below or along the ground’s surface.
L&R waves
9.5
1960
Tsunamis were generated due to earthquake
Chile Earthquake
9.2
1964
Good Friday
Alaska Prince William Sound Earthquake
1906
Ruptured 430 kilometers San Andreas fault
8.3
San Francisco Earthquake
subduction zone India Plate and Burma Plate
9.15
Focus 18.6 miles blw sea level
10 min
50 feet lateral offset 750 miles transform fault at subduction trench
2004 Sumatra Tsunami
cone
lgr cone older
shoot water 10s of feet in air
cone geyser
pool on surface
geysers erupt in burst
go everywhere
fountain geyser
Abundant supply of water

Adequate heat source

Unique plumbing system
3 requirements for geyser
where are these geysers located?
Crested Pool
Grand "fountain"
Daisy "cone"
Old Faithful "cone"
Famous Upper Geyser Basin
Where are these geysers located
echinus "fountain"
steamboat "cone"
Norris Geyser Basin
What is the tallest geyser in the Norris Basin?
Steamboat
A hot spring that boils off all its water before the water reaches the surface
"rotten egg" smell
Fumaroles
fumarole emerges under surface water
sulfuric acid dissolves nearby rock making muddy clay.
Mud Pots
prolonged volcanism on earth
crustal heating from magma plumes
hot spot
oldest island of Hawaii
oldest rocks 0.7 myo
new rocking being formed today
pacific plate moving over 70 mill yr
Hawaiian Ridge Emperor Seamounts Chain
summit 3000 m off bott of ocean
sporadic volcanism
Lohi Seamount
oldest island of Hawaii
5.5 myo
Kauai
moves over the hot-spots.
plates
have between 45% - 55% silica content.
dark
least violent
1000-1200 deg
Mafic Magmas
55% - 65% silica content
grey
fairly violent
900-1100 degrees
Intermediate Magmas
more than 65% silica content
light
most violent
800-1000 degrees
Felsic Magmas
collapse of the roof of a magma chamber due to removal of magma
Caldera
Breccia filled volcanic pipes form by gas explosions
uranium
Diatreme
Kimberlite Pipes
diamonds
simplest volcano
circular or oval
bowl shaped
steep hill
Cinder Cone Volcano
complex
viscous
strato volcano
steep sides
very tall
Composite Volcano
large base
very broad
basaltic lava
Kilauea
Shield Volcano
Least violent of eruptions

Highly basaltic lava flows
Produces ½ less pyroclastic material
Hawaiian Eruption
not very violent eruptions.
Found along fracture zones.
fluid basaltic lava
line of vents that cause an eruption
Fissure Eruption
intermittent explosion
release of volcanic gases
partially molten volcanic bombs
Strombolian Eruption
minimal lava intense ash
groundwater flashing to stream
precursor of a violent plinian eruption
Phreatic Eruption
Most violent type
Pyroclastic flows & lahars
Large explosive events
Plinian Eruption
volcanic ash was over 20 miles tall
buried the towns of Pompeii & Herculaneum
Mt. Vesuvius
Formation of lava domes
Andesitic lava
explosive eruption
Mount St. Helens (1980
deep summit caldera
lowered global temperatures by as much as 3° C.
Tambora Eruption (1815)
equal to 100 mega tons of TNT
catastrophic tsunami waves
Krakatoa (1883)
Mummification Preservation
Freezing Preservation
Amber Preservation
Tar Pit Preservation
Unaltered Body Fossil
Replacement
Recrystallization
Carbonization
Permineralization
Petrification
Altered Body Fossil
molecule-by-molecule substitution of another mineral
Replacement
recrystallizes to more stable compounds
Recrystallization
preserves fossil plants or soft-bodied animals as a thin carbon film
Carbonization
filling of pores by the deposition of minerals

most common
Pemineralization
crystals grow in the spaces left behind by the dissolution of the cell walls. 
Petrification
footprints
tracks
crawling traces
trails
excavations of animals
Burrows
holes made by an animal into shells, rock, wood, or hard sediment
Borings
polished stones from the gizzards of birds
Gastroliths
fossilized poop
Coprolites
form a with a treelike pattern along a rock
dendrites
Sponges
Phylum Porifera
Sea Moss
Phylum Bryozoa
Cnidarians
Phylum Cnidaria
Brachipods
Phylum Brachiopoda
Clam or Bivalve
Phylum Mollusca
Most successful
trilobite
arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda
Starfish/Sand Dollar
Phylum Echinodermata
Animals
Reptiles
Amphibians
Birds
Fish
Humans
Phylum Chordata
Who developed the theory and plate tectonics and how was it validated?
Alfred Wegner,noticed worlds continents fit like a puzzle
Which geologic period did the mega continent Pangea come together?
Paleozoic
___ plate subducting under S America Plate creating ___ Mts.
Nazca
Andes
___ subducting under N Am plate creating ___ Mts.
Juan De Fuca
Cascades
Which oceanic plates is forming the San Andreas Fault?
Pacific and Phillipine Plate
consolidated aggregate of mineral grains particles of other rocks or organic material
Rock
Father of Modern Geology
James Hutton
formed from the weathering of rocks and minerals
soil formation
Minerals are layered in rock
Foliated
Minerals are not layered in rock
granular
Non Foliated
original rock from which something else was formed
Parent Rock
Which major group has parent rocks?
Metamorphic Rock
Earths surface is covered with 75% of this rock...
sedimentary
Moh's Hardness Scale 1
Talc
Moh's Hardness Scale 2
Gypsum
Moh's Hardness Scale 3
Calcite
Moh's Hardness Scale 7
Quartz
Moh's Hardness Scale 10
Diamond
large crystals that are clearly visible to the eye
plutonic
Phaneritic Texture
small crystals that cannot be seen by the eye
volcanic
Aphanitic Texture
two minerals having a lg.difference in grain size.
phenocrysts
volcanic
Porphyritic Texture
contains no mineral grains.
extremely rapid cooling
volcanic
Glassy Texture
vesicles within igneous rock
Vesicular Texture
numerous grains or fragments to be welded together
Volcanic Tuff
Pyroclastic Texture
____ sedimentary rocks are made of pieces of rock or mineral grains
ex: Quartx sandstone
Detrital
Chemicals from the mineral mix with sediments on the oceanfloor crystallize and grow around sediment
ex: Chert and flint
Chemical
formed by the accumulation of microscopic marine calcite fossils
ex. coal
BioChemical
-where wind or water flows
-sand or gravel on bed of the system
-shows by crossing of strata
crossbedding
progressive decrease in grain size upward through hte bed
graded bedding
due to movement in water and mark is left behind
ripple mark
cast of a depression on the top surface of the immediately underlying rock bed.
sole mark
Which crust of the earth is more dense?
Why?
Oceanic Crust, because the crust is made of more dense material
-Rocks change into other rocks throughout geologic time
-material rocks are made from stays the same, but rocks constantly change.
Rock Cycle
When did prokaryotes appear?
3.5 billion years ago
When did Eukaryotes appear? when they diversified?
-1.6 - 2.1 billion years ago
-1.2 billion years ago with red alga
___ Banding Diseas
-tissue loss 5 mm per day
-sloughs off tissue
White
___ Banding Disease
-eats away zooxanthellae
Black
____ Reef Bleaching
-occurs when zooxanthellae is eaten away
Coral
rugose,tabulate,scleractinian corals appeared during the ____ period 230 mya
Triassic
How old is the universe and earth in billions of year?
earth: 4.5 bill years
universe: 8-12 bill yrs
Erosion can remove rock layers that were once deposited and erases from the rock record forever
Unconformity
1.Pacific Ocean
2.Atlantic Ocean
3.Indian Ocean
4.Southern Ocean
5.Artic Ocean
5 major world oceans from largest to smallest
This ocean contains
Petroleum and gas fields, sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, and precious stones
Atlantic Ocean
This ocean contains placer deposits/oil production/petroleum/heavy minerals
Indian Ocean
This ocean contains oil and gas fields/placer deposits
Southern Ocean
Petroleum and gas fields, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, sand and gravel aggregates
Artic Ocean
Age of the Reptile
Mesozoic
Age of the Mammals
Cenozoic
Puerto Rico Trench
Carribbean
Marianas Trench
Pacific Ocean
Llano uplift
Town mountain granite
Enchanted Rock
El Capitan: permian aged corals
250 myo
Guadalupe Nat'l Park
Sulfuric acid carved out limestone
same reef material of El Capitan
Carlsbad Caverns
Youngest lava flow in US
Malpaid Lava Flow
Valley of Fires
ice caves
cindercone volcano
basaltic
Bandera Volcano
nickel iron meteorite
highly studied because well preserved
Meteor Crater
pertrified forest
best geologic and fossils records
Painted desert
4x harder than granite
colorful b/c of impurities
225 myo Triassic
Petrified Forest
faulting uplift Colorado Plateau
verde river
Sedona red rock
Oak Creek Canyon
10 major rock layers
colorado river
Great Unconformity:all 3 types
Grand Canyon
Best preserved cross bedding of navajo sandstone
virgin river
Zion Canyon
Hoodoos
Claron Formation
free and thaw cycle
joints and fractures
Bryce Canyon
flash flooding
navajo sandstone
2 canyons: Upper and Lower
most photographed
Antelope Canyon
volcanic dikes and necks
erupted 30 myo
mafic igneous
Shiprock Monument
*20-30 degrees C*
temp increases/depth at rate in earth's crust
Geothermal Gradient
1. Weathering
2. Transportation
3. Deposition
4. Compaction
5. Lithification
Formation of Sedimentary Rocks
Sandstone
Conglomerate & Breccia
Shale
Major types of Clastic Rocks
Slate
Phyllite
Schist
Gneiss
Examples of Foliated Rocks
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