APES Soils and Geology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
define Mineral
-occur naturally
-solid
-inorganic
-definite chemical composition
-atoms in pattern
Physical mineral properties
-color
-luster
-streak
-cleavage
-hardness
Color
least useful
more than one mineral w/ same color
more than one color per mineral
Luster
metallic
non metallic (glassy, waxy, pearly, dull)
Earth Layers
-inner core (Fe, Ni, solid)
-outer core (liquid)
-Mantle (most mass, lots of Fe)
-Crust (Si, O2)
Streak
-most helpful
-powdered form left on tile
Cleavage
-has cleavage if breaks on flat surface
-fracture if if breaks unevenly
Hardness
-scale 1-10 on Moh's Scale (10 is hardest) depends on if it scratches given surface
Define Rock (2 types)
-one or more minerals bound together found in crust
-monomineralic or polymineralic
Intrusive Igneous
-never reaches surface
-cools slower
-large crystals
-ex: granite
Extrusive Igneous
-reaches and cools at surface
-fast cooling
-small crystals or none if it hits water
-ex: basalt
Sedimentary chastic
-made of broken rocks
- formed by weathering or cements and compacts
Sedimentary non clastic
-formed by evaporation, or
made of organic matter or bioclastic (fossils)
Sedimentary Indicators
-made from sediment falling to bottom adding pressure
-ripple marks, mud cracks, fossils, other rocks, horizontal layers
Igneous Indicators
-formed by cooling of magma/ lava
-not dense, vesicular texture (air bubbles) or glassy texture, large crystals
Metamorphic Indicators
-formed by heat and/or pressure
-dense, mineral banding, foliated texture
Foliation
extreme pressure causing minerals to squish into lines (banding)
Lithification
sediment turning into sedimentary rock
Continental Drift
-idea by Alfred Wegener ~1915
-Pangea b/c
-puzzle fit
-similar fossils/rocks
-glacial evidence
- mountain range
-coal depositis
Theory of Plate Tectonics
earth has crust plates that move
movement caused by CONVECTION CELLS in the astheosphere of the MANTLE
Oceanic Crust
mostly igneous basalt
mafic (high in iron)
dense (sinks)
Continental Crust
mostly sedimentary granite
felsic (high in felspar)
low density
Divergent Boundary
-plates moving apart
-Ex: mid atlantic ridge
- forms mts., ridges, volcanoes, rift valleys
Convergent Boundary (land/land)
-2 land plates moving together
-Ex: Himalayas
- forms mountains
COnvergent Boundary (land/ocean)
-ocean plate slides under land
-Ex: nazca/S. American plate
-forms trenches, volcanoes, mts
Transform (lateral) Boundary
-plates slide past each other
-Ex: San Adres Fault
forms fault lines
Soil Components
-rock
-mineral nutrients
-water/ air
-decaying org. stuff
-living organisms
Weathering
break down of rock
physical : frost action, thermal expansion, exfoliation, root pry
Chemical: carbonation, oxidation
Erosion
transport of sediments
-gravity
-wind
-ice
-water
-humans
Permeability
rate that water infiltrates soil
- bigger particles = more permeable
-fine particles hold water
Particle size (S to L)
- clay
-silt
-sand
-gravel
porosity
% open space between particles
-unaffected by particle size
Order of Soil Horizons
O, A, E , B, C. R
O- horizon
organic matter, leaf litter
A- horizon
TOPSOIL, humus, loam, ploughing area
E-horizon
Eluvial zone, mineral leaching, white
B- horizon
zone of accumulation, nutrients, red
C- horizon
weathering soil, parent material
R-horizon
unweathered parent material, bedrock
Clay
less acidic
small particles, low permeabiltity
good for holding nutrients and water
poor water infiltration, aeration and workability
Loam
good for farming
medium at holding nutrients, water
medium infiltration, aeration and workability
Sand
more acidic
big particles high permeability
bad for holding nutrients/water
good aeration, infiltration and workability
Silt
medium particle size, medium permeability
medium at holding nutrients, water
medium infiltration, aeration and workability
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