NCCT Official Review for National Certified Phlebotomy Technician Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The forearm vein most commonly used for venipuncture is the -
median cubital
The smallest veins in the human body are known as -
venules
The aorta branches into smaller divisions called arteries, which in turn branch into even smaller divisions called -
arterioles
Characteristics of capillaries include -
having thin walls, forming microscopic pathways, and connecting arterioles with venules
Within capillaries, blood cell functions include -
releasing oxygen, binding carbon dioxide, and eliminating waste
The heart, lymphatic organs, and blood vessels are in the - - system.
cardiovascular
The suffix -URIA at the end of a medical term refers to what body location?
Urine
The study of blood is known as -
hematology
The liver, stomach, mouth, and pancreas are in the - - system.
digestive
The most important step to insure accuracy in sample collection is -
identifying the patient properly.
The bladder, urethra, kidneys, and ureters are in the - - system.
urinary
The trachea, nose, lungs, and pharynx are in the - - system.
respiratory
The sebaceous glands, skin, hair, and nails are in the - - system.
integumentary
The body system that is a primary regulator of hormones is the - - system.
endocrine
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes are types of -
white blood cells.
The common name for the thrombocyte is the -
platelet.
The liquid portion of an anticoagulated blood sample is known as -
plasma.
The instrument that measures blood pressure is called a -
sphygmomanometer.
An artery can be distinguished from a vein because an artery will be -
pulsating.
Lancets are used to collect blood samples by -
capillary or skin puncture.
The abbreviation VAD is commonly used in hospitals to refer to -
venous access devices.
To determine the size of a needle, remember that the higher the gauge, the -
smaller the needle bore.
Adult capillary punctures most often involve the use of the - - finger(s).
third and fourth (middle and ring)
A centrifuge is used in a clinical laboratory setting to -
separate liquid from cells in blood.
The oral glucose tolerance test is used for the detection of -
diabetes.
Use a - -topped evacuated tube for collection of blood for a CBC test.
lavender
Use a - -topped evacuated tube for collection of blood for electrolyte testing.
red (or green for STAT orders)
Use a - -topped evacuated tube for collection of blood for cholesterol testing.
red
Sodium citrate is an anticoagulant of choice for coagulation studies because it protects -
clotting factors.
When preparing a blood smear directly from a skin puncture, it is best to -
wipe away the first drop of blood.
The purpose of doing blood cultures is to detect -
septicemia.
Anticoagulants are used to -
prevent blood from clotting.
White blood cells help the body by -
defending against foreign invaders.
Platelets help circulation by -
participating in hemostasis.
When blood seeps into the surrounding tissue during venipuncture, a - - may form.
hematoma
In a patient with a clotting disorder, pressure should be applied to the puncture site for at least - - minutes after venipuncture to insure blood stoppage.
5
Skin punctures may be indicated for use when -
1)the patient is an infant, toddler, or preschooler, 2) only a small amount of blood is needed, or 3) patient veins need to be preserved for IV therapy.
All specimens should be labeled with -
1) Patient's name, D.O.B., and numeric ID)
2) Date and time collected
3) Collector's initials
One test often used to assess hemostasis before surgery is -
bleeding time.
One possible cause of unexpected clotting in an anticoagulated blood tube might be -
insufficient mixing.
When performing a venipuncture, position the bevel of the needle -
facing up (you should be able to see the opening).
If blood does not appear in an evacuated tube upon venipuncture, the phlebotomist's first course of action should be to -
slightly reposition or turn the needle.
Redirecting a needle during venipuncture is sometimes necessary when -
1) the vein was not properly anchored, 2) the patient moves unexpectedly, 3) blood flow starts, then stops.
A vein might be prone to collapse if the -
vacuum tube is too large for the vein, or the syringe plunger was pulled back too quickly.
Hemolysis would cause rejection of a sample collected for - - testing.
potassium
If a patient is prone to syncope during venipuncture, the phlebotomist should -
watch in case of fainting.
A tube of blood that arrives in the laboratory without a label must be -
rejected automatically.
If a blood sample must be collected 2 hours post-prandial, the phlebotomist should collect the sample -
2 hours after a meal.
Knowing when to collect peak and trough levels is important when drawing -
therapeutic drugs.
A pre-warming technique may be used to -
increase a patient's tendency to bleed.
The role of all anticoagulants is ultimately to prevent formation of -
Fibrin.
The anticoagulant EDTA works by -
binding calcium.
If the tourniquet is not released before the needle is withdrawn from the arm during venipuncture, this will most likely result in -
bleeding from the site.
The bilirubin test is - - sensitive.
light
The - - must be followed exactly whenever drawing patient test samples that may be used in a legal proceeding.
Chain of Custody
The anticoagulant SPS (sodium polyanetholesulfonate) is recommended for use in blood cultures because it -
does not inhibit bacterial growth.
Before entering an inpatient room if the door is closed, phlebotomists should always -
Check for isolation signage, knock, and ask for permission to enter.
Before entering designated isolation rooms, phlebotomists should always -
check requirements on signs.
The single most important means of prevent the spread of infection in a hospital is by -
hand washing.
The most prevalent type of nosocomial infections are -
urinary tract infections.
Phlebotomists have a statistically greater chance of contracting - - in a work-related accident than they do of contracting AIDS.
hepatitis
AIDS is caused by -
the HIV virus.
When performing heelsticks on infants in a hospital nursery, it is important to never -
share supplies from one infant to another.
When delivering blood samples to a laboratory, they should always be transported inside -
sealed plastic bags.
If a biohazard spills in the laboratory, a phlebotomist should first try to -
contain the spill safely.
According to OSHA, a contaminated needle may be safely discarded into a -
sharps container.
In most hospitals, a phlebotomist with a cough may draw from a patient provided the -
1) Patient is not in reverse isolation
2) The phlebotomist does not have a fever
3) The phlebotomist wears a mask
When drawing blood from pediatric inpatients, a phlebotomist can increase the safety for the patients by -
1) Using a smaller bore needle and smaller collection tubes
2) Getting help to hold the patient securely during the draw
3) Making sure the bed-rails are left raised if found that way
To eliminate bacteria from the skin of a bacterial culture venipuncture site, - - is sometimes used in addition to alcohol in the skin cleansing process.
iodine
The term that refers to right and wrong conduct is -
ethics.
An unlawful threat or attempt to do bodily injury is -
assault.
Law protects the health worker if it can be determined that he or she acted reasonably as compared with fellow workers; this is called -
reasonable care.
Negligence by a professional person is called -
malpractice.
Information given by a patient to medical personnel that can not be disclosed without consent constitutes -
privileged communication.
Permission granted by a person voluntarily (and in his right mind) is -
consent.
A phlebotomist who attempts to draw blood without sufficient training could be accused of - - if the procedure is performed incorrectly, causing harm to the patient.
incompetence
Forcing venipuncture on a patient who has refused it would be considered -
battery.
The branch of study of moral issues, questions, and problems arising in the practice of medicine and biomedical research is called -
bioethics.
Conduct, courtesy, and manners, customary in the medical profession, is called -
medical etiquette.
Each and every patient is entitled to - - as part of his or her patient rights.
respect and complete care
Some suggested methods of controlling on the job stress during phlebotomy might include -
taking deep breaths if anxious.
Appropriate means of communicating with a patient that is profoundly hearing impaired might include -
using written communication.
In performing phlebotomy on children, it is best to -
1) talk softly and gently
2) enlist the help of parents
3) tell the truth if asked
A patient who is making a fist and frowning is exhibiting - - body language.
uncooperative
A 24-hour urine specimen must be kept -
refrigerated.
A chronic disease in which the pancreas fails to secrete enough insulin is called -
diabetes mellitus.
The purpose of the bleeding time test is to assess -
platelet plug formation in the capillaries.
Diurnal rhythms refer to variations in the body's functions or fluids that occur during -
every 24 hours.
EMLA is an emulsion of lidocaine and prilocaine that can be used to -
topically anesthetize a draw site.
Another name for red blood cells is -
erythrocytes.
The artery located in the groin, lateral to the femur bone, which is used as an alternative site for arterial blood gas collections is the -
femoral.
The federal law that was expanded in 2000 to protect the confidentiality of electronically stored health information is abbreviated as -
HIPPA.
The study of all aspects of disease in the body is known as -
pathology.
The phase of laboratory testing that refers to test orders, test collection, and test sample preparation are all part of the - - phase.
pre-analytical
A patient in reverse isolation has been so placed because he or she -
needs protection from others carrying infection.
Contaminated objects that can penetrate skin, such as needles, scalpels, broken class, and broken capillary tubes are called -
contaminated sharps.
To use a physical-chemical procedure to destroy all microbial life including highly resistant bacterial endospores is to -
sterilize.
The single most important source of HIV and HBV in the workplace is -
blood.
After they are used, disposable syringes, scalpel blades, and other sharp items should be placed in - - containers for disposal.
puncture resistant
Contaminated laundry should be - - where it was soiled.
bagged or containerized at the location
The suffix - - means blood.
-emia
The literal meaning of the word hemolysis is -
blood breaking down.
PT is the lab abbreviation for the - - test.
Prothrombin time
When a patient's arm is swollen with excess fluids, this is called -
edema.
A nosocomial infection is an infection acquired -
in the healthcare facility.
Choose the item that is NOT a single use only item: needles, tourniquets, tube holders, winged infusion sets.
Tourniquets
The name of the equipment used to separate plasma or serum from red blood cells is -
centrifuge.
The tube holder and needle are to be disposed of - - into a sharps container.
together, as a unit
Needles are color-coded to indicate their -
gauge.
According the the CLSI, the maximum recommended depth for heel punctures is -
2.0 mm
The - - color stopper indicates the blood collection tube contains sodium heparin.
green
When a lipid panel is ordered, the patient should be fasting for -
at least 12 hours with water allowed.
The key principle of Universal Precautions is that -
the blood and body fluids of all individuals are considered potentially infectious.
A patient having a glucose tolerance test does not have the restriction of -
drinking water.
In the healthcare setting, HBV, HCV, and HIV can be transmitted by -
1) sharps injuries, 2) splash of blood or body fluids to the mucous membranes, 3) touching non-intact skin without gloves
Needlestick injuries can be prevented by -
using safe needle devices and following instructions for proper use.
Sharps containers should be closed, sealed, and made ready for disposal when it is -
3\4ths full.
If you should recieve a needlestick injury, you should report it -
immediately.
Antisepsis is a technique used on -
skin.
The transmission based isolation category Airborne Precautions is used when a patient is known or suspected to have -
tuberculosis.
The bloodborne disease most likely to be transmitted by a needlestick in the US is -
Hepatitis C.
A patient experiences shooting pains in his arm when you are drawing from the antecubital area, which means you may have -
punctured or nicked the basilic nerve.
The most likely reason a CBC specimen would clot is -
the blood and the anticoagulant in the tube were not mixed sufficiently.
A patient had a mastectomy on the right side five years ago. The side you will draw from is -
the left side, as blood is never drawn from the side with a mastectomy.
You are drawing blood from an outpatient when they begin to feel faint. The recommended course of action is to -
remove the needle, and lower the patient's head between their legs.
Hemoconcentration may be cause by -
prolonged application of the tourniquet.
The primary cause of a collapsed vein during venipuncture is -
blood is withdrawn too quickly or forcefully.
Mixing the blood with the anticoagulant or additive by shaking may result in -
a hemolyzed specimen.
If you find blood on the outside of the tube you have just filled, you should -
wipe the outside of the tube with a disinfectant.
Name three things that could result in a lawsuit being filed against a phlebotomist.
1) Inserting the needle at an incorrect angle.
2) Excessive probing after missing a vein.
3) Mislabeling blood tubes.
Considering patient safety, the most dangerous phlebotomy practice is -
labeling the empty collection tubes before the collection.
Per CLSI, the maximum number of venipuncture attempts by an individual phlebotomist is -
no more than two.
According to standards of good practice, specimen collection tube labeling should always occur -
before the phlebotomist leaves the patient's side.
The first drop of blood that forms following a skin puncture should be -
wiped away.
When identifying a patient, you must ask them to state -
their name and date of birth.
The - - vein is recommended for use when drawing 5 mL of blood on an 18 month old.
dorsal hand
Cleansing the skin with Betadine for a skin puncture may interfere with the analysis of -
bilirubin.
When performing a microcollection procedure, the best way to increase blood flow is to -
pre-warm the site.
A patient's wristband matches your requisition form except for the birth date. It shows the same month and day, but the year is 1947 instead of 1945. In order to draw blood -
all identification discrepancies must be resolved FIRST!
Drugs used to kill or destroy bacteria that cause disease are called -
antibiotics.
CSF is the abbreviation for -
cerebrospinal fluid.
Red and white blood cell counts are examples of - - tests.
hematology
The blood cells most numerous in the circulating blood are the -
red blood cells.
The medical term for fainting is -
syncope.
Serum or plasma that has a milky white appearance is called -
lipemic.
The lab test "T & C" is the abbreviation for -
Type and Crossmatch.
The rubber sleeve (at the end opposite of the beveled needle tip) on an evacuated tube needle makes it possible for use with -
multiple tubes.
Capillary blood sampling may be used if the laboratory tests require -
very little blood.
A tube adapter visibly contaminated with blood should be -
disposed in a biohazard waste container.
The evacuated tube containing sodium citrate has a - - colored stopper.
blue or light blue
A fasting test is ordered to -
eliminate the effects of diet on the test results.
A - - topped tube should be used for a lab test requiring serum.
red
Hepatitis - - is not a blood borne pathogen.
A
The LAST choice for blood collection in the antecubital area is the -
brachial veins.
The venipuncture site should be cleaned in a circular motion from the center to the -
periphery.
A patient on which you have been ordered a draw has no armband. You should -
tell the patient's nurse that the patient does not have an armband, and you can not collect until it is placed on the patient.
Therapeutic phlebotomy is performed as a treatment for patients with -
polycythemia vera.
The formed elements make up about - - percent of the whole blood volume.
45
The buffy coat consists of -
leukocytes and thrombocytes.
The two components of blood found in a tube without anticoagulant are -
serum and clot.
The fluid portion of the whole blood that contains fibrinogen is called -
plasma.
The fluid portion of blood after clotting has taken place is called -
serum.
The difference between plasma and serum is -
plasma contains fibrinogen; serum does not.
Blood returns to the heart from the lungs into the -
left atrium.
The pulmonary - - does NOT carry oxygenated blood.
artery
A blood collection on dialysis patient with a fistula or graft should be drawn from -
the opposite arm. Never draw on the arm with a fistula or graft.
The order of which veins should be used for draw in the antecubital area is -
1) Median Cubital
2) Cephalic
3) Basilic
4) Median
The most common phlebotomy complication is -
hematoma formation.
The test with cleaning techniques similar to those for blood culture tests is -
Arterial Blood Gases.
The Allen test checks the patient for -
collateral arterial circulation.
The two arteries are occluded during the Allen Test are -
The radial and the ulnar.
The artery on the thumb side of the wrist is the -
radial.
The safe area for heel punctures in an infant is -
the most lateral portion of the plantar surface (the side of the pinkie toe).
Skin puncture blood is more likely to be contaminated by -
hemolysis.
An estimate on how much time do you have for ASAP and STAT orders is -
2-4 hours for ASAP orders, and 1 hour for a STAT order.
The amount of blood needed for blood culture draws for adults and for children are -
8-10 mL for Adults, 1-5 mL for children.
When using a butterfly needle for a blood culture test with two bottles, the - - bottle goes first.
Aerobic
Examples of tests that must be chilled immediately after collection are -
Ammonia, Catecholamines, Lactic acid, and PH\blood gasses.
Examples of tests that must be kept warm after collection are -
Cold agglutinins, Cryoglobulin.
Examples of tests that must be kept from the light are -
Bilirubin, and vitamins C, E, and K.
The two bottles used in blood culture collections are -
Aerobic and Anaerobic.
Citrate tubes must be within - - percent to full to give accurate results.
10
A phlebotomist certified by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists (ASCP) is required to maintain certification by completing and documenting continuing education. This is known as the -
Certification Maintenance Program (CMP)
NPO means -
'Non per os' or 'nothing by mouth'.
The lifespan of a red blood cell is -
100 - 120 days.
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