"World Civilizations: The Global Experience" Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Abbasid
Dynasty that succeeded the Umayyads as caliphs within Islam; came to power in 750 C.E.
Abbas the Great
Safavid ruler from 1587 to 1629; extended Safavid domain to greatest extent; created slave regiments based on captured Russians, who monopolized firearms with Safavid armies; incorporated Western military technology.
Abdallahi, Khalifa
Successor of Muhammad Achmad as leader of Mahdists in Sudan; established state in Sudan; defeated by British General Kitchener in 1598.
Abdul, Muhammad
Disciple of al-Afghani; Muslim thinker at the end of 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology, recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
Abdul Hamid
Ottoman sultan who attempted to return to despotic absolutism during reign from 1878 to 1908; nullified constitution and restricted civil liberties; deposed in coup in 1908.
Aberland, Peter
Author of "Yes and No"; university scholar who applied logic to problems of theology; demonstrated contradictions within established doctrine.
absolute monarchy
Concept of government developed during rise of nation-states in western Europe during the 17th century; featured monarchs who passed laws without parliaments, appointed professionalized state churches, imposed state economic policies.
African National Congress
Black political organization within South Africa; pressed for end to policies of apartheid; sought open democracy leading to black majority rule; until the 1900s declared illegal in South Africa.
Afrikaner National Party
Emerged as the majority party in the all-white South African legislature after 1948; advocated complete independence from Britain; favored a rigid system of racial segregation called apartheid.
Akbar
Son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create a new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
al-Afghani
Muslim thinker at the end of the 19th century; stressed need for adoption of Western scientific learning and technology; recognized importance of tradition of rational inquiry.
al-Ghazali
Brilliant Islamic theologian; struggled to fuse Greek and Quranic traditions; not entirely accepted by ulama.
al-Mahdi
Third of the Abbasid caliphs; attempted but failed to reconcile moderates among Shi'is to Abbasid dynasty; failed to resolve problem of succession.
al-Rashid, Harum
Most famous of Abbasid caliphs; renowned for sumptuous and costly living; dependent on Persian advisors early in reign; death led to civil wars over succession.
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi'is.
Ali, Muhammad
Won power struggle in Egypt following fall of Mamluks; established mastery of all Egypt by 1811; introduced effective army based of Western tactics and supply and a variety of other reforms; by 1830s was able to challange Ottoman governments in Constantinople; died in 1848.
Allah
Supreme God in strictly monotheistic Islam.
Allende, Salvador
President of Chile; nationalized industries and banks; sponsored peasant and worker expropriations of lands and foreign-owned factories; overthrown in 1973 by revolt of Chilean military with the support of the United States.
Alliance for Progress
Begun in 1961 by the United States to develop Latin America as an alternative to radical political solutions; enjoyed only limited success; failure of development programs led to renewal intervention programs.
Almohadis
A reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; later than the Almoravids; penetrated into sub-Saharan Africa.
Almoravids
A puritanical reformist movement among the Islamic Berber tribes of northern Africa; controlled gold trade across Sahara; conquered Ghana in 1076; moved southward against African kingdom of the savanna and westward into Spain.
Álvares Cabral, Pedro
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; blown off course in 1500 and landed in Brazil.
Amaru, Tupac
Mestizo leader of Indian in Peru; supported by many among lower social classes; revolt eventually failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution.
American Civil War
Fought from 1861 to 1865; first application of Industrial Revolution to warfare; resulted in abolition in slavery in the United States and reunification of North and South.
American exceptionalism
Historical argument that the development of the United States was largely distinctive; contact with Western Europe was incidental to the larger development of the United States on its own terms.
American Revolution
Rebellion of English American colonies along Atlantic seaboard between 1775 and 1783; resulted in independence for former British colonies and eventual formation of United States of America.
amigos del país
Clubs and associations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform.
anarchists
Political group that sough the abolition of all formal government; particularly prevalent in Russia; opposed tsarist autocracy; eventually became a terrorist movement responsible for assassination of Alexander II in 1881.
Anasazi
"The ancient ones"; culture located in southwestern United States; flourished from 200 to 1200 C.E.; featured large multistory adobe and stone buildings built in protected canyons or cliffs.
Anglican church
Form of Protestantism set up in England after 1534; established by Henry VIII with himself as head at least in part to obtain a divorce from his first wife; became increasingly Protestant following Henry's death.
Anschluss
Hitler's union of Germany with the German-speaking population of Austria; took place in 1938, despite complaints of other European nations.
apartheid
Policy of strict racial segregation imposed in South Africa to permit the continued dominance of whites politically and economically.
appeasement
Policy of Neville Chamberlain, British prime minister who hoped to preserve peace in the face of German aggression; particularly applied to Munich Conference agreements; failed when Hitler invaded Poland in 1939.
Aquinas, Thomas
Creator of one of the great syntheses of medieval learning; taught at University of Paris; author of several "Summas"; believed that through reason it was possible to know much about natural order, moral law, and nature of God.
Aquino, Corazon
First president of the Philippines in the post-Marcos era of the late 1980s; husband was assassinated by thugs in pay of Marcos regime; one of the key leaders in the popular movement that toppled the dictator.
arabic numerals
Actually an Indian system of numerical notation transported by Arabs to West; central to two scientific revolutions.
Aragon
Along with Castile, a regional kingdom of the Iberian Peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Arevalo, Juan José
Elected president of Guatemala in 1944; began series of Socialist reforms including land reform; Nationalist program directed against foreign-owned companies such as United Fruit Company.
Argentine Republic
Replaced state of Buenos Aires in 1862; result of compromise between centralists and federalists.
Asante Empire
Established in Gold Coast among Akan people settled around Kumasi; dominated by Oyoko clan; many clans linked under Osei Tutu after 1650.
asantehene
Title taken by rule of Asante Empire; supreme civil and religious leader; authority symbolized by golden stool.
Ashikaga, Takuaji
Member of the Minamoto family; overthrew the Kamakura regime and established the Ashikaga Shogunate from 1336-1573; drove emperor from Kyoto to Yoshino.
Asian sea trading network
Prior to intervention of Europeans, consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; and China based on paper, porcelain, and silks.
Atlantic Charter of 1941
World War II alliance agreement between the United States and Britain; included a clause that recognized the right of all people to choose a form of government under which they live; indicated a sympathy for decolonization.
Atlantic colonies
British colonies in North America; originally restricted to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean from New England to Georgia.
audiencia
Royal court of appeals established in Spanish colonies of New World; there were ten in each viceroyalty; part of colonial administrative system; staffed by professional magistrates.
Aurangzeb
Son and successor of Shah Jahan in Mughal India; determined to extend Mughal control over whole of subcontinent; wished to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare exhausted empire despite military success; died in 1707.
ayan
The wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule.
ayllus
Households in Andean societies that recognized some form of kinship; traced descent from some common, sometimes mythical ancestor.
Aztecs
The Mexica; one of the nomadic tribes that used political anarchy after fall of Toltecs to penetrate into sedentary agricultural zone of Mesoamerican plateau; established empire after around shores of Lake Texoco.
Babur
Founder of Mughal dynasty in India; descended from Turkic warriors; first led invasion of India in 1526; died in 1530.
Baghdad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in Iraq near ancient Persian capital of Ctesiphon.
Baibars
Commander of Mameluk forces at Ain Jalut; originally enslaved by Mongols and sold to Egyptians.
Bakr, Aby
One of Muhammad's earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Islamic community.
bakufu
Military government established by the Minamoto following the Gempei Wars; centered at Kamakura; retained emperor, but real power resided in military government and samurai.
Balboa, Vasco de
First Spanish captain to begin settlement on the mainland of Mesoamerica in 1509; initial settlement eventually led to conquest of Aztec and Inca empires by other captains.
Balfour Declaration
British minister's promise of support for the establishment of Jewish settlement in Palestine during World War I; issued in 1917.
Balkan
Peninsula located in south-eastern Europe, including Macedonia and Greece, plus what became Bulgaria; controlled by the Byzantine Empire.
Balkan nationalism
Movements to create independent nations within the Balkan possessions of the Ottoman Empire; provoked a series of crises within the European alliance system; eventually led to World War I.
banana republics
Term given to conservative governments supported or created by the United States government in Latin America; believed to be either corrupt or subservient to U.S. interests.
Bangladesh
Founded as an independent nation in 1972; formerly East Pakistan.
banner armies
Eight armies of the Manchu tribes identified by separate flags; created by Nurhaci in early 17th century; utilized to defeat Ming emperor and established Qing dynasty.
Batavia
Dutch fortress located after 1620 on the island of Java.
Batista, Fulgencio
Dictator of Cuba from 1934 to 1944; returned to presidency in 1952; ousted from government by revolution led by Fidel Castro.
Battle of River Zab
Victory of Abbasids over Umayyds; resulted in conquest of Syria and capture of Umayyad capital.
Battle of Siffin
Fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali's party.
Batu
Ruler of Golden Horde; one of Chinggis Khan's grandson's; responsible for invasion of Russia beginning in 1236.
bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Belgian Revolution of 1830
Produced Belgian independence from the Dutch; established a liberal constitutional monarchy.
Belisarius
One of Justinian's most important military commanders during period of reconquest of western Europe; commanded in North Africa and Italy.
Benedict of Nursia
Founder of monasticism in what had been the western half of the Roman Empire; established Benedictine Rule in the 6th century; paralleled development of Basil's rules in Byzantine Empire.
Benin
City state formed in 14th century under Ewuare the Great (1400-1473); control extended from Niger River to coast near modern Lagos. A large and powerful kingdom of West Africa near the coast (in present-day Nigeria), the city-state came into contact with the Portuguese in 1485 but remained relatively free of European influence; remained an important commercial and political entity until the 19th century.
Berke
Ruler of the Golden Horde; converted to Islam; his threat to Hulegu combined with the growing power of Mameluks in Egypt forestalled further Mongol conquests in the Middle East.
Berlin Wall
Built in 1961 to halt the flow of immigration from East Berlin to West Berlin; immigration was in response to lack of consumer goods and close Soviet control of economy and politics. Wall was torn down at the end of the Cold War in 1991.
St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Emphasized role of faith in preference to logic; stressed importance of mystical union with God; successfully challenged Abelard and had him driven from the universities.
bhaktic cults
Groups dedicated to gods and goddesses; stressed the importance of strong and emotional bonds between devotees and the god or goddess who was the object of their veneration; most widely worshipped gods were Shiva and Vishnu.
Bhutto, Benazir
Twice prime minister of Pakistan in the 1980s and 1990s; first ran for office to avenge her father's execution by the military clique then in power.
Biafra
Founded as an independent nation in eastern Nigeria, where the Ibo people were the most numerous; suppressed as an independent state and reincorporated in Nigeria in 1970.
Bismark, Otto von
Conservative prime minister of Prussia; architect of German unification under Prussian king in the 1870; utilized liberal reforms to attract support for conservative causes.
Black Death
Plague that struck Europe in the 14th century; significantly reduced Europe's population; affected social structure.
Blitzkrieg
German term for lightning warfare; involved rapid movement of troops, tanks, and mechanized carriers; resulted in early German victories over Belgium, Holland, and France in the World War II.
bodhisattvas
Buddhist holy men; built up spiritual merits during their lifetime; prayers even after death could aid people to achieve reflected holiness.
Boer republics
Transvaal and Orange Free State in southern Africa; established to assert independence of Boers from British colonial government in Cape Colony in 1850s; discovery of diamonds and precious metals caused British migration into the Boer areas in 1860s.
Boer War
Fought between 1899 and 1902 over the continued independence of Boer republics; resulted in British victory, but began the process of decolonization in South Africa.
Boers
Dutch settlers in Cape Colony.
Bolívar, Simon
Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of independence state of Gran Colombia.
Bolshevik Revolution
After initial revolution in March 1917 had set up a liberal regime in Russia, the well-organized Bolshevik faction of the communist party, under Lenin, seized power in November (October by the Russian calendar, hence often called the October Revolution); the Bolsheviks capitalized on worker strikes and widespread discontent with Russia's continued participation in World War I; quickly moved to set up a new political and social regime.
Bolsheviks
Literally, the majority party; the most radical branch of the Russian Marxist movement; led by V.I. Lenin and dedicated to his concept of social revolution; actually a minority in the Russian Marxist political scheme until its triumph in the 1917 revolution.
Bonaparte, Napolean
Rose within the French army during the wars of the French Revolution; eventually became general; led a coup that ended the French Revolution and established the French empire under his rule; defeated and deposed in 1815.
Boxer Rebellion
Popular outburst in 1898 aimed at expelling foreigners from China; failed because of intervention of armies of Western powers in China; defeat of Chinese enhanced control by Europeans and the power of provincial officials.
boyars
Russian aristocrats; possessed less political power than did their counterparts in western Europe.
Brahama
Holy essence in Hinduism that informs all life.
Brest-Litovsk Treaty
Signed between the revolutionary government of Russia and Germany in March 1918; Russia withdrew from World War I and granted substantial territories to Germany in return for peace.
British East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in India; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
British Raj
Government of the British East Company; developed as a result of the rivalry between France and Britain in India.
Bulgaria
Slavic kingdom established in northern portions of Balkan peninsula; constant source of pressure on Byzantine Empire; defeated by Emperor Basil II in 1014.
bushi
Regional warrior leaders in Japan; ruled small kingdoms from fortresses; administrated the law, supervised public works projects, and collected revenues; built up private armies.
Buyids
Regional splinter dynasty of the mid-10th century; invaded and captured Baghdad; ruled Abbasid Empire under name of sultan; retained Abbasids as a figureheads.
Byzantine Empire
Eastern half of Roman Empire following collapse of western half of old empire; retained Mediterranean culture, particularly Greek; laster lost Palestine, Syria, and Egypt to Islam; capital at Constantinople.
Calcutta
Headquarters of British East India Company in Bengal in Indian subcontinent; located on Ganges; captured in 1756 during early part of Seven Years' War; later became administrative center for all of Bengal.
caliph
The political and religious successor to Muhammad.
calpulli
Seven clans in Aztec society, later expanded to more than sixty; divided into residential groupings that distributed land and provided labor and warriors.
Calvin, Jean
French Protestant (16th century) who stressed doctrine of predestination; established center of his group at Swiss canton of Geneva; encouraged ideas of wider access to government, wider public education; Calvinism spread from Switzerland to northern Europe and North America.
candomble
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
cannibal kingdom
Modern interpretation of Aztec society created by Marvin Harris; based on observation that Mesoamerica lacked cattle and sheep that replaced human sacrifice in the Old World.
Canton
One of two port cities in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.
Cape Colony
Dutch colony established at Cape of Good Hope in 1652 initially to provide a coastal station for the Dutch seaborne empire; by 1770 settlements had expanded sufficiently to come into conflict with Bantus.
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
capitaincies
Strips of land along Brazilian coast granted to minor Portuguese nobles for development; enjoyed limited success in developing the colony.
caravels
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
Cárdenas, Lázaro
President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940; responsible for redistribution of land, primarily to create ejidos, or communal farms; also began program of primary and rural education.
Caribbean
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda, system of colonial management, initiated here.
Carolingians
Royal house of Franks after 8th century until their replacement in 10th century.
Casa de Contratación
Spanish Board of Trade operated out of Seville; regularized commerce with New World; supplied colonial provisions.
castas
People of mixed origin in Spanish colonial society; relegated to secondary status in social system; constituted potentially revolutionary group.
Castile
Along with Aragon, a regional kingdom of the Iberian peninsula; pressed reconquest of peninsula from Muslims; developed a vigorous military and religious agenda.
Castro, Fidel
Cuban revolutionary; overthrew dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1958; initiated series of reforms to establish Socialist reforms; came to depend almost exclusively on USSR.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightenment rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Catholic Reformation
Restatement of traditional Catholic beliefs in response to Protestant Reformation (16th century); established councils that revived Catholic doctrine and refuted Protestant beliefs.
caudillos
Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
Cavour, Count Camillo di
Architect of Italian unification in 1858; formed an alliance with France to attack Austrian control of Northern Italy; resulted in creation of constitutional monarchy under Piedmontese king.
centralists
Latin American politicians who wished to create strong, centralized national governments to impose their concept of rule; often supported by politicians who described themselves as conservatives.
Chabi
Influential wife of Kubilai Khan; promoted interests of Buddhists in China; indicative of refusal of Mongol women to adopt restrictive social conventions of Chinese.
Chaldiran
Site of battle between Safavids and Ottomans; checked western advance of Safavid Empire.
Chams
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; driven into the highlands by the successful Vietnamese drive to the south.
Chan Buddhism
Known as Zen in Japan; stressed mediation and appreciation of natural and artistic beauty; popular with members of elite Chinese society.
Chandragupta Maurya
Founder of Maurya dynasty; established first empire in Indian subcontinent; first centralized government since Harappan civilization.
Changan
Capital of Tang dynasty; population of two million, larger than any other city in the world at that time.
Charlemagne
Charles the Great; Carolingian monarch who established substantial empire in France and Germany c. 800.
Charles III
Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
Chartist movement
Attempt by artisans and workers in Britain to gain the vote during the 1840s; demands for reform beyond the Reform Act of 1832 were incorporated into a series of petitions; movements failed.
Cheng Ho
Admiral (a Moslim Chinese) who commanded the great Indian Ocean expeditions, between 1405 and 1433.
Chernobyl
Massive meltdown in a Soviet nuclear reactor in 1986, causing widespread radiation damage.
Chiang Ching-kuo
Son and successor of Chiang Kaishek as rule of Taiwanese government in 1978; continued authoritarian government; attempted to lessen gap between followers of his father and indigenous islanders.
Chiang Kai-shek
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yatsen as the leader of Guomindang or Nationalist Party in China in the mid-1920s; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II.
Chichen Itzá
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by Toltecs c. 1000 and ruled by Toltec dynasties; architecture featured pyramid of Feathered Serpent (Quetzalcoatl).
chichimecs
American hunting-and-gathering groups; largely responsible for the disruption of early civilizations in Mesoamerica.
Chimu state
Regional Andean chiefdom that flourished from 800 ti 1465 C.E.; fell to Incas.
chinampas
Bed of aquatic weeds, mud, and earth placed in frames made of cane and rooted in lakes to create "floating islands"; system of irrigated agriculture utilized by Aztecs.
Chinggis Khan
Born in 1170s in decades following death of Kabul Khan; elected khagan of all Mongol tribes in 1206; responsible for conquest of northern kingdoms of China, territories as far west as the Abbasid regions; died in 1227, prior to conquest of most of Islamic world.
Chongzhen
Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen invasion of the Forbidden City at Beijing.
Choson
Earliest Korean kingdom; conquered by Han emperor in 109 B.C.E.
Christian Democratic Movement
Political movement common to many Western European nations after World War II; wedded to democratic institutions and moderate social reform.
Churchill, Winston
British prime minister during World War II; responsible for British resistance to German air assaults.
cientificos
Advisors of the government of Porfirio Díaz who were strongly influenced by positivist ideas; permitted government to project image of modernization.
civilization
Historians use this term in two ways. First, to describe a society organized with cities, writing and a formal structure. Second, to describe a particular such society, e.g., Chinese civilization that has distinctive, shared institutions and culture. Both uses of the term generate debate.
Cixi
Ultraconservative dowager empress who dominated the last decades of the Qing dynasty; supported Boxer Rebellion in 1898 as a means of driving our Westerners.
Classic
Period in Americas from 150 to 900 C.E.; period of greatest cultural achievement.
Clive, Robert
Architect of British victory at Plassey; established foundations of British Raj in northern India (18th century).
Clovis
Early Frankish King; converted Franks to Christianity c. 496; allowed establishment of Frankish kingdom.
cold war
The state of relations between the United States and its allies and the Soviet Union and its allies between the end of World War II to 1990; based on creation of political spheres of influence and a nuclear arms race rather than actual warfare.
collectivization
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regimes.
Columbian exchange
Biological and ecological exchange that took place following Spanish establishment of colonies in New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to New World; animals, plants, and diseases of two hemispheres were transferred.
Columbus, Christopher
Genoese captain in service of king and queen of Castile and Aragon; successfully sailed to New World and returned in 1492; initiated European discoveries in Americas.
Comintern
International office of communism under USSR dominance established to encourage the formation of Communist parties in Europe and elsewhere.
commercio libre
Policy established during reign of Charles III; opened trade in ports of Spain and Indies to all Spanish merchants; undercut monopoly of consulados.
Communist Party of Vietnam
Originally a wing of nationalist movement; became primary nationalist party after decline of VNQDD in 1929; led in late 1920s by Nguyen Ai Quoc, alias Ho Chi Minh.
compradors
Wealthy new group of Chinese merchants under the Qing dynasty; specialized in the import-export trade on China's south coast; one of the major links between China and the outside world.
Comte, Auguste
French philosopher (19th century); founder of positivism, a philosophy that stressed observation and scientific approaches to the problems of society.
Comunero Revolt
One of popular revolts against Spanish colonial rule in New Granada (Colombia) in 1781; suppressed as a result of divisions among rebels.
Congress of Soviets
Lenin's parliamentary institution based on the soviets and Bolshevik domination; replaced the initial parliament dominated by the Social Revolutionary party.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars (1815) to restore political stability in Europe and settle diplomatic disputes.
consulado
Merchant guild of Seville; enjoyed virtual monopoly rights over goods shipped to America and handled much of the silver received in return.
consuls
Two chief executives or magistrates of the Roman republic; elected by an annual assembly dominated by aristocracy.
contested settler societies
Featured large-scale European settlement despite the existence of large, indigenous populations; generally resulted in clashes over land rights, resource control, social status, and differences in culture; typical of South Africa, New Zealand, Kenya, Algeria, and Hawaii.
Cook, Captain James
Made voyages to Hawaii from 1777 to 1779 resulting in opening of islands to the West; convinced Kamehameha to establish unified kingdom in the islands.
Copernicus
Polish monk and astronomer (16th century); disproved Hellenistic belief that the earth was at the center of the universe.
Copts
Christian sect of Egypt; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule.
core nations
Nations, usually European, that enjoyed profit from world economy; controlled international banking and commercial services such as shipping; exported manufactured goods for raw materials.
Cornwallis, Lord Charles
Reformer of the East India Company administration of India in the 1790s; reduced power of local British administrators; checked widespread corruption.
Coronado, Francisco Vázquez de
Leader of Spanish expedition into northern frontier region of New Spain; entered what is now United States in search of mythical cities of gold.
corporatism
Political ideology that emphasized the organic nature of society and made the state a mediator, adjusting the interests of different social groups; appealed to conservative groups in European and Latin American societies and to the military.
Cortés, Hernán
Led expedition of 600 to coast of Mexico in 1519; conquistador responsible for defeat of Aztec Empire; captured Tenochtitlan.
cossacks
Peasants recruited to migrate to newly seized lands in Russia, particularly in south; combined agriculture with military conquests; spurred additional frontier conquests and settlements.
Council of People's Commissars
Government council composed of representatives from soviets across Russia and headed by Lenin; form of government initially established after November 1917.
Council of the Indies
Body within the Castilian government that issued all laws and advised king on all matters dealing with the Spanish colonies of the New World.
Creole slaves
American-born descendants of "salt water" slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Creoles
White born in the New World; dominated local Latin American economies; ranked just beneath peninsulares.
Crimean War
Fought between 1854 and 1856; began as Russian attempt to attack Ottoman Empire; opposed by France and Britain as well; resulted in Russian defeat in the face of Western industrial technology; led to Russian reforms under Tsar Alexander II.
Cristeros
Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
Cromer, Lord
British adviser in khedival Egypt; pushed for economic reforms that reduced but failed to eliminate the debts of the khedival regime.
Crusades
Series of military adventures initially launched by western Christians to free Holy Land from Muslims; temporarily succeeded in capturing Jerusalem and establishing Christian kingdoms; later used from other purposes such as commercial wars and extermination of heresy.
cubist movement
20th-century art style; best represented by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso; rendered familiar objects such as geometrical shapes.
Cultural Revolution
Movement initiated in 1965 by Mao Zedong to restore his dominance over pragmatists; used mobs to ridicule Mao's political rivals; campaign was called off in 1968.
Cyril
Along with Methodius, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Cyrus the Great
Established massive Persian Empire by 550 B.C.E.; successor state to Mesopotamian empires.
de Gama, Vasco
Portuguese captain who first reached India in 1497; established early Portuguese dominance in Indian Ocean.
Dahomey
Kingdom developed among Fon or Aja peoples in 17th century; center at Abomey 70 miles from coast; under King Agaja expanded to control coastline and port of Whydah by 1727; accepted Western firearms and goods in return for African slaves.
daimyos
Warlord rulers of 300 small states following Onin War and disruption of Ashikaga Shogunate; holdings consolidated into unified and bounded ministates.
Damascus
Capital of Umayyad caliphate.
Darwin, Charles
Biologist who developed theory of evolution of species (1859); argued that all living species evolved into their present form through the ability to adapt in a struggle for survival.
Decembrist uprising
Political revolt in Russia in 1825; led by middle-level army officers who advocated reforms; put down by Tsar Nicholas I.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
Adopted during the liberal phase of the French Revolution (1789); stated that the fundamental equality of all French citizens; later became a political source for other liberal movements.
Deism
Concept of God current during the scientific revolution; role of divinity was to set natural laws in motion, not to regulate once process was begun.
De Klerk, F.W.
White South African prime minister in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Working with Nelson Mandela and the African National Congress, he successfully dismantled the apartheid system and opened the way for a democratically elected government that represented all South Africans for the first time.
de la Cruz, Sor Juana Inés
Author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters.
Demak
Most powerful of the trading states on north coast of Java; converted to Islam and served as point to dissemination to other ports.
demographic transition
Shift to low birth rate, low infant death rate, stable population; first emerged in Western Europe and U.S. in late 19th century.
demography
The study of population.
Deng Xiaoping
One of the more pragmatic, least ideological of the major Communist leaders of China; joined the party as a young man in the 1920s, survived the legendary Long March and persecution during the Cultural Revolution of the 1970s, and emerged as China's most influential leader in the early 1980s.
dependency theory
Belief that development and underdevelopment were not stages but part of the same process; that development and growth of some areas such as Western Europe were achieved at the expense of underdevelopment of dependent regions such as Latin America.
Descartes, René
Established importance of skeptical review of all received wisdom (17th century); argued that human reason could then develop laws that would explain the fundamental workings of nature.
Deshima
Island port in Nagasaki Bay; only port open to non-Japanese after closure of the islands in the 1640s; only Chinese and Dutch ships were permitted to enter.
dharma
The caste position and career determined by a person's birth; Hindu culture required that one accept one's social position and perform occupation to the best of one's ability in order to have a better situation in the next life.
dhimmi
Literally "people of the book"; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus.
dhows
Arab sailing vessels with triangular or lateen sails; strongly influenced European ship design.
Díaz, Porfirio
One of Juárez's generals; elected president of Mexico in 1876; dominated Mexican politics for 35 year; imposed strong central government.
Diem, Ngo Dinh
Political leader of South Vietnam; established as president with United States support in the 1950s; opposed Communist government of North Vietnam; overthrown by military coup supported by United States.
Dien Bien Phu
Most significant victory of the Viet Minh over French colonial forces in 1954; gave the Viet Minh control of northern position of Vietnam.
Diet
Japanese parliament established as part of the new constitution of 1889; part of Meji reforms; could pass laws and approve budgets; able to advise government, but not to control it.
Din-i-Ilahi
Religion initiated by Akbar in Mughal India; blended elements of many faiths of the subcontinent; key to efforts to reconcile Hindus and Muslims in India but failed.
Dinshawai incident
Clash between British soldiers and Egyptians villagers in 1906; arose over hunting accident along Nile River where wife of prayer leader of mosque was accidently shot by army officers hunting pigeons; led to Egyptian protest movement.
Disraeli, Benjamin
Leading conservative political figure in Britain in the second half of the 19th century; took initiative of granting vote to working-class males in 1867; typical of conservative politician making use of popular politics.
Duarte, Eva
Also known as Evita Perón; first wife of Juan Perón; became public spokesperson for Perón among the poor until her death in 1952.
duma
National parliament created in Russia in the aftermath of the Revolution of 1905; progressively stripped of power during the reign of Tsar Nicholas II; failed to forestall further revolution.
Dutch East India Company
Joint stock company that obtained government monopoly over trade in Asia; acted as virtually independent government in regions it claimed.
Dutch Studies
Group of Japanese scholars interested in implications of Western science and technology beginning in the 18th century; urged freer exchange with West; based studies on few Dutch texts available in Japan.
Dutch trading empire
Based on control of fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of limited number of products- particularly spices.
East African trading ports
Urbanized commercial centers sharing common Bantu-based and Arabic-influenced Swahili language and other cultural traits; included Mogadishu, Mombasa, Malindi, Kilwa, Pate, and Zanzibar.
eastern bloc
Nations favorable to the Soviet Union in Eastern Europe during the cold war - particularly Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Rumania, Hungary, and East Germany.
eastern front
Most mobile of the fronts established during World War I; lacked trench warfare because of length of front extending from the Baltic to southern Russia; after early success, military defeats led to the downfall of the tsarist government in Russia.
edict of Nantes
Grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598; granted only after lengthy civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions.
Edo
Tokugawa capital city; modern-day Tokyo; center of the Tokugawa shogunate.
effendi
Class of prosperous business and professional urban families in khedival Egypt; as a class generally favored Egyptian independence.
Einstein, Albert
Developed mathematical theories to explain the behavior of planetary movement of electrical particles; after 1990 issued theory of relativity.
El Mina
Most important of early Portuguese trading factories in forest zone of Africa.
emancipation of the serfs
Tsar Alexander II ended rigorous serfdom in Russia in 1861; serfs obtained no political rights; required to stay in villages until they could repay aristocracy for land.
encomendero
Holder of an encomienda; able to use Indians as workers or to tax them.
encomiendas
Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquers and settlers in Mesoamerican and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
English Civil War
Conflict from 1640 to 1660; featured religious disputes mixed with constitutional issues concerning the powers of the monarchy; ended with restoration of the monarchy in 1660 following execution of previous king.
Enlightenment
Intellectual movement centered in France during the 18th century; featured scientific advance, application of scientific methods to study human society; belief that rational laws could describe social behavior.
Ethiopian kingdom
A Christian kingdom that developed in the highlands of eastern Africa under the dynasty of King Lalaibela; retained Christianity in the face of Muslim expansion elsewhere in Africa.
eunuchs
Castrated males used within the households of Chinese emperors, usually to guard the emperors' concubines; became political counterbalance to powerful martial relatives during Later Han.
European Economic Community
The Common Market; an alliance of six European nations (Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) set up to begin creation of a single economic entity across national boundaries in 1958; later joined by Britain, Ireland, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, Austria, and Finland; during the early 1990s, the Community changed its name to the European Union and planned further economic integration.
European-style family
Originated in the 15th century among the peasant and artisans of Western Europe, featuring late marriage age, emphasis on nuclear family, and a large minority who never married.
factories
Portuguese trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
factory system
Not to be confused with the fortified ports of the commercial revolution; intensification of processes of production at single sites during the Industrial Revolution; involved greater organization of labor and firmer discipline.
fascism
Political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction.
fazendas
Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
Federal Republic of Germany
Eventual name of postwar West Germany; created by the merging of the zones of occupation held by France, Britain, and the United States.
federalists
Latin American politicians who wanted policies, especially fiscal and commercial regulation, to be set by regional governments rather then centralized national administrations; often supported by politicians who described themselves as liberals.
feminist movements
Sought various legal and economic gains for women, including equal access to professions and higher education; came to concentrate on right to vote; won support particularly from middle-class women; active in Western Europe at the end of the 19th century; revived in light of other issues in the 1960s.
Ferdinand of Aragon
Along with Isabella of Castile, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Isabella create united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
feudalism
The social organization created during the Middle Ages by exchanging grants of land of fiefs in return for formal oaths of allegiance and promises of loyal service; typical of Zhou dynasty; greater lords provided protection and aid to lesser lords in return for military service.
five-year plans
Stalin's plans to hasten industrialization of USSR; constructed massive factories in metallurgy, mining and electric power; led to massive state-planned industrialization at cost of availability of consumer products.
flying money
Chinese credit instrument that provided credit vouchers to merchants to be redeemed at the end of the voyage; reduced danger of robbery; early form of currency.
foot-binding
Practice in Chinese society to mutilate women's feet in order to make them smaller; produced pain and restricted women's movement; made it easier to confine women to the household.
Francia, Dr. José Rodríguez de
Ruler of independent Paraguay; ruled country as dictator until 1840.
Francis I
King of France in the 16th century; regarded as Renaissance monarch; patron of arts; imposed new controls on Catholic church; ally of Ottoman sultan against holy Roman emperor.
Frederick the Great
Prussian king of the 18th century; attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany; built on military and bureaucratic foundations of his predecessor; introduced freedom of religion; increased state control of economy.
Free Officers movement
Military nationalist movement in Egypt founded in the 1930s; often allied with the Muslim Brotherhood; led coup to seize Egyptian government from khedive in July 1952.
French Revolution
Revolution in France between 1789 and 1800; resulted in overthrow of Bourbon monarchy and old regimes; ended with establishment of French Empire under Napoleon Bonaparte; source of many liberal movements and constitutions in Europe.
French Revolution of 1830
Second rebellion against Bourbon monarchy; essentially a liberal movement resulting in the creation of a bourgeois government under a moderate monarchy.
French Revolution 1848
Overthrew the monarchy established in 1830; briefly established a democratic republic; failure of the republic led to the reestablishment of the French Empire under Napoleon III in 1850.
Freud, Sigmund
Viennese physician (19th-20th centuries); developed theories of the working of the human unconscious; argued that behavior is determined by impulses.
Fujiwara
Japanese aristocratic family in mid-9th century; exercised exceptional influence over imperial affairs; aided in decline of imperial power.
Fulani
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto.
Galileo
Published Copernicus's findings (17th century); added own discoveries concerning laws of gravity and planetary motion; condemned by the Catholic church for his work.
galleons
Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Gálvez, José de
Spanish minister of the Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate Creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendants for local government.
Gandhi, Indira
Daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru (no relation to Mahatma Gandhi); installed as a figurehead prime minister by the Congress Party bosses in 1966; a strong-willed and astute politician, she soon became the central figure in India politics, a position she maintained through the 1970s and passed on to her sons.
Gang of Four
Jiang Qing and four political allies who attempted to seize control of Communist government in China from the pragmatists; arrested and sentenced to life imprisonment in 1976 following Mao Zedong's death.
gauchos
Bands of mounted rural workers in the region of the Rio de la Plata; aided local caudillos in splitting apart the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata after 1816.
German Democratic Republic
Communist regime set up in the Soviet-occupied zone of Germany (East Germany) in 1949; became one of the most rigid members of the Soviet alliance system; regime collapsed from internal pressure in 1989, and was soon unified with West Germany.
Gempei Wars
Waged for five years from 1180, on Honshu between Taira and Minamoto families; resulted in destruction of Taira.
Gestapo
Secret police in Nazi Germany, known for brutal tactics.
Ghana
First great sub-Saharan state; created by Soninke people; by 9th century C.E. a major source of gold in the Mediterranean world.
Giap, General Vo Nguyen
Chief military commander of the Viet Minh; architect of the Vietnamese victory over the French at Dien Bien Phu in 1954.
glasnost
Policy of political liberation in Soviet Union in the late 1980s.
Glorious Revolution
English overthrow of James II in 1688; resulted in affirmation of parliament as having basic sovereignty over the king.
Goa
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on western India coast, 16th century ff.; sites for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network.
Golden Horde
One of the four regional subdivisions of the Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan's death; territory covered much of what is today south central Russia.
Good Neighbor Policy
Established by Franklin D. Roosevelt for dealing with Latin America in 1933; intended to halt direct intervention in Latin American politics.
Gorbachev, Mikhail
USSR ruler after 1985; renewed attacks on Stalinism; urged reduction in nuclear armament; proclaimed policies of glasnost and perestroika.
Gothic
An architectural style developed during the Middle Ages in western Europe; featured pointed arches and flying buttresses as external supports on main walls.
Government of India Act of 1935
British agreed to retain control of the central administration in return for turning over the provincial government to Indian leaders chose by expanded electorate.
Gran Colombia
Independent state created in South America as a result of military success of Simon Bolívar; existed only until 1830, at which time Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador became separate states.
Great Depression
International economic crisis following the First World War; began with collapse of American stock market in 1929; actual causes included collapse of agriculture prices in 1920s; included collapse of banking houses in the United States and Western Europe, massive unemployment; contradicted optimistic assumptions of 19th century.
Great Leap Forward
Economic policy of Mao Zedong introduced in 1958; proposed industrialization of small-scale projects integrated into peasant communes; led to economic disaster; ended in 1960.
Great Mahele
Hawaiian edict issued in 1848; imposed Western concept of property on Hawaiian land previously shared by Hawaiians; much of private property sold off to Western commercial interests by Hawaiian monarchy.
Great Trek
Movement of Boer settlers in Cape Colony of southern Africa to escape influence of British colonial government in 1834; led to settlement of regions north of Orange River and Natal.
Great Zimbabwe
Bantu confederation of Shona-speaking peoples located between Zambezi and Limpopo rivers; developed after 9th century; featured royal courts built of stone; created centralized state by 15th century; king took title of Mwene Mutapa.
Greek fire
Byzantine weapon consisting of mixture of chemicals that ignited when exposed to water; utilized to drive back the Arab fleets that attacked Constantinople.
Greek Revolution
Rebellion in Greece against the Ottoman Empire in 1820; key step in gradual dismantling the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans.
Green Revolution
Introduction of improved seed strains, fertilizers, and irrigation as a means of producing higher yields in crops such as rice, wheat, and corn; particularly important in the densely populated countries of Asia, 1960s ff.
Gregory VII
Pope during the 11th century who attempted to free Church from interference of feudal lords; quarreled with Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV over practice of lay investiture.
griots
Professional oral historians who served as keepers of traditions and advisors to kings within the Mali Empire.
guano
Bird dropping utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery.
Guevara, Ernesto "Che"
Argentine revolutionary; aided Fidel Castro in overthrow of Fulgencio Batista; died while directing guerrilla movement in Bolivia in 1967.
guilds
Sworn associations of people in the same business or trade in a single city; stressed security and mutual control; limited membership, regulated apprenticeship, guaranteed good workmanship; often established franchise within cities.
guillotine
Introduced as a method of humane execution; utilized to execute thousands during the most radical phase of the French Revolution known as the Reign of Terror.
Guomindang
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925.
Gutenberg, Johannes
Introduced movable type to western Europe in 15th century; credited with greatly expanded availability of printed books and pamphlets.
Habsburg, Archduke Maximilian von
Proclaimed emperor of Mexico following intervention of France in 1862; ruled until overthrow and execution by liberal revolutionaries under Bentio Juárez in 1867.
haciendas
Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
hadiths
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad.
Hagia Sophia
New church constructed in Constantinople during reign of Justinian.
hajj
Pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to worship at the Ka'ba.
Hajjaj
Umayyad viceroy for eastern provinces; launched punitive campaign against king of Sind in India that resulted in first Islamic conquest in subcontinent.
Hammurabi
The most important ruler of the Babylonian empire; responsible for codification of law.
Hangzhou
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded one million.
Hanseatic League
An organization of cities in northern Germany for the purpose of establishing a commercial alliance.
Harsha
Descendant of Guptas in India; briefly constructed a loose empire in northern India between 616 and 657 C.E.
Harvey, John
English physician (17th century) who demonstrated circular movement of blood in animals, function of heart as a pump.
Hausa states
Combined Muslim and pagan traditions; emerged following the demise of Songhay Empire among the Hausa peoples of northern Nigeria, based on cities such as Kano.
Haya de la Torre, Victor Raul
Peruvian politician; founder of APRA (American Popular Revolutionary Alliance) in 1924; aimed at establishing an international party through the Western Hemisphere.
Heian
Capital city of Japan under the Yamato emperors, later called Kyoto; built in order to escape influence of Buddhist monks; patterned after ancient imperial centers of China; never fully populated.
Henry the Navigator
Portuguese prince responsible for direction of series of expeditions along the African coast in the 15th century; marked beginning of Western European expansion.
Herzel, Theodor
Austrian journalist and Zionist; formed World Zionist Organization in 1897; promoted Jewish migration to Palestine and formation of a Jewish state.
Hidalgo, Father Miguel de
Mexican priest who established independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.
Hideyoshi, Toyotomi
General under Nobunaga; succeeded as leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of daimyos; constructed a series of alliances that made him military master of Japan in 1590; died in 1598.
hijra
Flight of Muhammad and followers in 622 C.E. from Mecca to Yathrib or Medina; marks the first of Islamic calendar.
Hiroshima
One of two Japanese cities on which the United States dropped atomic bombs in 1945; devastation of these cities caused Japanese surrender without invasion of home islands.
Hispaniola
First island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards; settlement founded by Columbus on second voyage to New World; Spanish base of operations for further discoveries in New World.
Hitler, Adolf
Nazi leader of fascist Germany from 1933 to his suicide in 1945; created a strongly centralized state in Germany; eliminated all rivals; launched Germany on aggressive foreign policy leading to World War II; responsible for attempted genocide of European Jews.
Hojo
Warrior family closely allied with Minamoto; dominated Kamakura regime and manipulated Minamoto rulers; claimed to rule in name of emperor Kyoto.
Holocaust
Term for Hitler's attempted genocide of all European Jews during World War II; resulted in deaths of 6 million Jews.
Holy Alliance
Alliance among Russia, Prussia, and Austria in defense of religion and established order; formed at Congress of Vienna by most conservative monarchies of Europe.
holy Roman emperors
Emperors in northern Italy and Germany following split of Charlemagne's empire; claimed title of emperor c. 10th century; failed to develop centralized monarchy in Germany.
homelands
Under apartheid, areas in South Africa designated for ethnolinguistic groups within the black African population; such areas tend to be overpopulated and poverty-stricken.
Homo sapiens sapiens
The human species man that emerged as most successful at the end of Paleolithic period.
Hong Kong
British colony on Chinese mainland; major commercial center; agreement reached between Britain and People's Republic of China returned colony to China in 1997.
Hong Xiuquan
Leader of the Taiping rebellion; converted to specifically Chinese form of Christianity; attacked traditional Confucian teachings of Chinese elite.
Hongwu
First Ming emperor in 1368; originally of peasant lineage; original name Zhu Yuanzhang; drove out Mongol influence; restored position of scholargenty.
Hopewell culture
Second of the mount-building cultures; lasted from c. 200 to 500 C.E.; more complex than Adena culture.
huacas
Sacred spirits and powers that resided or appeared in caves, mountains, rocks, river, and other natural phenomena; typical of Andean societies.
Huancavelica
Location of greatest deposit of mercury in South America; aided in American silver production; linked with Potosí.
Huari
Along with Tihuanaco, large center for regional chiefdoms between 300 and 900 C.E.; located in southern Peru; featured large ceremonial center supported by extensive irrigated agriculture; established widely diffused religious and artistic symbols spread all over Andean zone.
Huerta, General Victoriano
Attempted to reestablish centralized dictatorship in Mexico following the removal of Madero in 1913; forced from power in 1914 by Villa and Zapata.
Huitzilopochtli
Aztec tribal patron god; central figure of cult of human sacrifice and warfare; identified with old sun god.
Hulegu
Ruler of Ilkhan khanate; grandson of Chinggis Khan; responsible for capture and destruction of Baghdad.
humanism
Focus on humankind as center of intellectual and artistic endeavor; method of study that emphasized the superiority of classical forms over medieval styles, in particular the study of ancient languages.
human rights
Certain universal rights many argue should be enjoyed by all people because they are justified by a moral standard that stands above the laws of any individual nation.
Humayan
Son and succesor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter.
Hundred Years' War
Conflict between England and France from 1337 to 1453; fought over lands England possessed in France and feudal rights versus the emerging claims and national states.
Hussein, Saddam
Military ruler of Iraq; led Iraq in ten-year war with Iran; attempted to annex Kuwait to Iraq in 1990; defeated coalition of American, European, and Arab forces in 1991 in Persian Gulf War.
Hyundai
Example of huge industrial groups that wield great power in modern Korea; virtually governed Korea's southeastern coast; vertical economic organization with ships, supertankers, factories, schools, and housing units.
Ibn Batuta
Arabic traveler who described African societies and cultures in his travel records.
Ibn Khaldun
A Muslim historian; developed concept that dynasties of nomadic conquerors had a cycle of three generations - strong, weak, dissolute.
iconoclasm
Religious controversy within the Byzantine Empire in the 8th century; emperor attempted to suppress veneration of icons; literally "breaking of images"; after long struggle, icon veneration was restored.
icons
Images of religious figures that became objects of veneration within Christianity of the Byzantine Empire; particularly prevalent in Eastern monasticism.
ideographic writing
Pictographic characters grouped together to create new concepts; typical of Chinese writing.
Ieyasu, Tokugawa
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa shogunate; established political unity in Japan.
Ifriqiya
The Arabic term for eastern North Africa.
Ilkhan Empire
One of four regional khanates, or subdivisons of the Mongol Empire after Chinggis Khan's death; located south of the Golden Horde; eventually conquered much of territory of Abbasid Empire.
imams
According to Shi'ism, rulers who could trace descent from Ali.
import substitution industrialization
Typical of Latin American economies; production of goods during the 20th century that had previously been imported; led to light industrialization.
Inca
Group of clans centered at Cuzco that were able to create empire in Andean civilization c. 1438.
Inca socialism
A view created by Spanish authors to describe Inca society as a type of utopia; image of the Inca Empire as a carefully organized system in which every community collectively contributed to the whole.
Indian
Misnomer created by Columbus referring to indigenous peoples of New World; implies social and ethic commonality among Native Americans that did not exist; still used to apply to Native Americans.
Indian National Congress Party
Grew out of regional associations of Western-educated Indians; originally centered in cities of Bombay, Poona, Calcutta, and Madras; became political party in 1885; focus of nationalist movement in India; governed through most of postcolonial period.
Indies piece
Term utilized with the complex exchange system established by the Spanish for African trade; referred to the value of an adult male slave.
Industrial Revolution
Series of changes in economy of Western Europe between 1740 and 20th century stimulated by rapid population growth, increase in agricultural productivity; commercial revolution of 17th century, and development of new means of transportation; in essence involved technological change and the application of machines to the process of production.
intelligentsia
Russian term denoting articulate intellectuals as a class; 19th-century group bent on radical in Russian political and social system; often wished to maintain a Russian culture distinct from that of the West.
internationalization
Idea that people should unite across national boundaries; gained popularity during the mid-19th century; led to establishment of International Red Cross, Telegraphic Union, Postal Union, series of international fairs.
investiture
Practice of state appointment of bishops; Pope Gregory VII attempted to ban the practice of lay investiture, leading to war with Holy Roman Emperor IV.
iron curtain
Phrase contained by Winston Churchill to describe the division between free and communist societies taking shape in Europe after 1946.
Isabella de Castile
Along with Ferdinand of Aragon, monarch of largest Christian kingdoms in Iberia; marriage to Ferdinand created united Spain; responsible for reconquest of Granada, initiation of exploration of New World.
Isandhlwana
Location of battle fought in 1879 between British and Zulu armies in South Africa; resulted in defeat of British; one of few victories of African forces over Western Europeans.
Isfahan
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah's plan; example of Safavid architecture.
Islam
Major world religion having its origins in 610 C.E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally "submission"; based on prophecy of Muhammad.
Isma'il
Sufi commander who conquered city of Tabriz in 1501; first Safavid to be proclaimed shah or emperor.
isolationism
United States foreign policy after World War I, in which U.S. refused to join the League of Nation or engage in diplomatic alliances; lasted until U.S. entry into World War II.
Italian front
Front established in World War I; generally along Italian border with Austria-Hungary; also produced trench warfare; somewhat greater mobility than on western front.
Iturbide, Augustín de
Conservative Creole officer in Mexican army who signed agreement with insurgent forces of independence; combined forces entered Mexico City in 1821; later proclaimed emperor of Mexico until its collapse in 1824.
Ivan III
Also known as Ivan the Great; prince of Duchy of Moscow; claimed descent from Rurik; responsible for freeing Russia from Mongols after 1462; took title of tsar or Caesar - equivalent of emperor.
Ivan IV
Also known as Ivan the Terrible; confirmed power of tsarist autocracy by attacking authority of boyars (aristocrats); continued policy of Russian expansion; established contacts with Western European commerce and culture.
Janissaries
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
Jesuits
A new religious order founded during the Catholic Reformation; active in politics, education, and missionary work; sponsored missions to South America, North America and Asia.
Jiang Qing
Wife of Mao Zeodong; one of Gang of Four; opposed pragmatists and supported Cultural Revolution of 1965; arrested and imprisoned for life in 1976.
jihad
Islamic holy war.
Jinnah, Muhammad Ali
Muslim nationalist in India; originally a member of the Nationalist Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan.
jinshi
Title granted to those students who passed the most difficult Chinese examination on all of Chinese literature; became immediate dignitaries and eligible for high office.
jizya
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories.
João VI, Dom
Portuguese monarch who established seat of government in Brazil from 1808 to 1820 as a result of Napoleonic invasion of Iberian peninsula; made Brazil seat of empire with capital at Rio de Janerio.
Juárez, Benito
Indian governor of state of Oaxaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.
Ju Yuanzhang
Chinese peasant who led successful revolt against Yuan; founded in Ming dynasty.
junks
Chinese ships equipped with watertight bulkheads, sternpost rudders, compasses, and bamboo fenders; dominant force in Asian seas east of the Malayan peninsula.
Jurchens
Founders of the Qin kingdom that succeeded the Liao in northern China; annexed most of the Yellow River basin and forced Song to flee to south.
Justinian
Eastern Roman emperor between 527 and 565 C.E.; tried to restore unity of old Roman Empire; issued most famous compilation of Roman law.
juula
Malinke merchants; formed small partnerships to carry our trade throughout Mali Empire; eventually spread throughout much of West Africa.
Ka'ba
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
Kabir
Muslim Mystic during 15th century; played down the importance of ritual differences between Hinduism and Islam.
Kama-sutra
Written by Vatsayana during Gupta era; offered instructions on all aspects of life for higher caste males including grooming, hygiene, etiquette, selection of wives, and instruction on love-making.
Kamehameha I
Fought series of wars backed by British weapons and advisors resulting in unified Hawaiian kingdom by 1810; as king he promoted economic change encouraging Western merchants to establish export trade in Hawaiian goods.
Kanauj
Capital of Harsha's empire; featured formidable walls, palatial homes, and beautiful gardens.
Kangxi
Confucian scholar and Manchu emperor of Qing dynasty from 1661 to 1722; established high degree of Sintification among the Manchus.
Karakorum
Capital of the Mongol Empire under Chinggis Khan.
Karbala
Site of defeat and death of Husayan, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi'i resistance to Umayyad caliphate.
Kellogg-Briand Pact
A treaty coauthored by American and French leaders in 1928; in principle outlawed war forever; ratified subsequently by other nations.
Kenyatta, Jomo
Leader of the nonviolent nationalist party in Kenya; organized the Kenya Africa Union (KAU); failed to win concessions because of resistance of white settlers; came to power only after suppression of the Land Freedom Army, or Mau Mau.
Kerensky, Alexander
Liberal revolutionary leader during the early stages of the Russian Revolution of 1917; sought development of parliamentary rule, religious freedom.
Keynes, John
British economist who stressed importance of government spending to compensate for loss of purchasing power during a depression; played role in the policies of the American New Deal and European economic planning after World War II.
khagan
Title of the supreme ruler of the Mongol tribes.
khanates
Four regional Mongol kingdoms that arose following the death of Chinggis Khan.
Khartoum
River town that administrative center of Egyptian authority in Sudan.
khedives
Descendants of Muhammad Ali in Egypt after 1867; formal rulers of Egypt despite French and English intervention until overthrown by military coup in 1952.
Khmers
Indianized rivals of the Vietnamese; moved into Mekong River delta region at time of Vietnamese drive to the south.
Khomeini, Ayatollah
Religious ruler of Iran following revolution of 1979 to expel the Pahlavi shah of Iran; emphasized religious purification; tried to eliminate Western influences and establish purely Islamic government.
Khrushchev, Nikita
Stalin's successor as head of USSR; attacked Stalinism in 1956 for concentration of power and arbitrary dictatorship; failure of Siberian development program and antagonism of Stalinists led to downfall.
Kiev
Trade city in southern Russia established by Scandinavian traders in 9th century; became focal point for kingdom of Russia that flourished to 12th century.
Koguryo
Tribal people of northern Korea; established independent kingdom in the northern half of the peninsula; adopted cultural Sinification.
Kongo
Kingdom, based on agriculture, formed on lower Congo River by late 15th century; capital at Mbanza Kongo; ruled by hereditary monarchy.
Korean War
Fought from 1950 to 1953; North supported by USSR and later People's Republic of China; South supported by United States and small international United Nations force; ended in stalemate and continued division of Korea.
Korekiyo Takahashi
Minister of finance in Japan during the 1930s; increased government spending to provide jobs; created export boom and elimination of military spending.
Kubilai Khan
Grandson of Chinggis Khan; commander of the Mongol forces responsible for the conquest of China; became khagan in 1260; established Sinicized Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1271.
kulaks
Agricultural entrepreneurs who utilized the Stolypin and later NEP reforms to increase agriculture production and buy additional land.
kuriltai
Meeting of all Mongol chieftains at which the supreme ruler of all tribes was selected.
Kush
An African state that developed along the upper reaches of the Nile c. 1000 B.C.E.; conquered Egypt and ruled it for several centuries.
La Reforma
The name given to the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of Santa Anna.
lançados
Collection points of Portuguese trade in the interior of Africa; provided essential links between economies of African interior and factories on the coast.
Land Freedom Army
Radical organization for independence in Kenya; frustrated by failure of nonviolent means; initiated campaign of terror in 1952; referred to by British as the Mau Mau.
Las Casa, Bartolomé de
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American population of the Spanish colonies; opposed forced labor and advocated Indian rights.
League of Nations
International and peace organization created in the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I; one of the chief goals of President Woodrow Wilson of the United States in peace negotiations; the United States was never a member.
Lee Kuan Yew
Ruler of Singapore from independence in 1959 to present; established tightly controlled authoritarian government; ruled through People's Action party to suppress political diversity.
Legalists
Chinese school of political thought; served Qin dynasty and subsequent dynasties; stressed need for the absolute power of the emperor; power enforced through strict application of laws.
Lepanto
Naval battle between the Spanish and Ottoman Empire resulting in a Spanish victory in 1571; demonstrated European naval superiority over Muslims.
Lesotho
Southern African state that survived mfecane; not based on Zulu model; less emphasis on military organization, less authoritarian government.
letrados
University-trained lawyers from Spain in the New World; juridical core of Spanish colonial bureaucracy; exercised both legislative and administrative functions.
liberal
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe during the 19th century; stressed limited state interference in individual life, representation of propertied people in government; urged importance of constitutional rule and parliaments.
Liberal Democratic Party
Monopolized Japanese government from its formation in 1955 into the 1990s; largely responsible for the economic reconstruction of Japan.
liberation theology
Combined Catholic theology and Socialist principles in effort to bring about improved conditions for the poor in Latin America (20th century).
Li Bo
Most famous poet of the Tang era; blended images of the mundane world with philosophical musings.
Li Dazhao
Chinese intellectual who gave serious attention to Marxist philosophy; headed study circle at the University of Beijing; saw peasants as vanguard of revolutionary communism in China.
Lin Zexu
Distinguished Chinese official during the early 19th century; charged with stamping out the opium trade in southern China; ordered blockade of European trading in areas in Canton and confiscation of opium; sent into exile following the Opium War.
Li Yuan
Also known as Duke of Tang; minister for Yangdi; took over empire following assassination of Yangdi; first emperor of Tang dynasty; took imperial title of Gaozu.
Locke, John
English philosopher during 17th century; argued that people could learn everything through senses; argued that power of government came from the people, not the divine right of kings; offered possibility of revolution to overthrow tyrants.
Long March
Communist escape from Hunan province during civil war with Guomindang in 1934; center of Communist power moved to Shaanxi province; firmly established Mao Zedong as head of the Communist party in China.
Louis XIV
French monarch of the late 17th century who personified absolute monarchy.
Louis XVI
Bourbon monarch of France who was executed during the radical phase of the French Revolution.
L'Overture, Toussaint
Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
Loyang
Along with Xian, capital of the Zhou dynasty.
Luanda
Portuguese factory established in 1520s south of Kongo; became basis for Portuguese colony in Angola.
Luddites
Workers in Britain (1810-1820) who responded to replacement of human labor by machines during the Industrial Revolution by attempting to destroy the machines; named after a mythical leader, Ned Ludd.
Luo
Nilotic people who migrated from Upper Nile valley; established dynasty among existing Bantu population in lake region of central eastern Africa; center at Bunyoro.
Luther, Martin
German monk; initiated Protestant Reformation in 1517 by nailing 95 theses to door of Wittenberg castle; emphasized primacy of faith over works stressed in Catholic Church; accepted state control of Church.
Luzon
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Macao
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty.
MacArthur, General Douglas
American commander in Pacific campaign of World War II; headed American occupation government of Japan after the war; later commanded international forces during Korean War.
Machiavelli, Niccolo
Author of "The Prince" (16th century); emphasized realistic discussions of how to seize and maintain power; one of most influential authors of Italian Renaissance.
Madero, Francisco
Moderate democratic reformer in Mexico; proposed moderate reforms in 1910; arrested by Porfirio Díaz; initiated revolution against Díaz when released from prison; temporarily gained power, but removed and assassinated in 1913.
Magellan, Ferdinand
Spanish captain who in 1519 initiated first circumnavigation of the globe; died during the voyage; allowed Spain to claim Philippines.
Maghrib
The Arabic word for western North Africa.
Magna Carta
Great Charter issued by King John of England in 1215; confirmed feudal rights against monarchial claims; represented principle of mutual limits and obligations between rulers and feudal aristocracy.
Mahabharata
Indian epic; written down in the last centuries B.C.E.; previously handed down in oral form.
Mahdi Muhammad Achmad
Head of a Sudanic Sufi brotherhood; claimed descent from Prophet; proclaimed both Egyptians and British as infidels; launched revolt to purge Islam of impurities; took Khartoum in 1883.
Mahayana Buddhism
Chinese version of Buddhism; placed considerable emphasis on Buddha as god or savior.
Mahmud II
Ottoman sultan; built a private, professional army; fomented revolution of Janissaries and crushed them with private army; destroyed power of Janissaries and their religious allies; initiated reform of Ottoman Empire on Western precedents.
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of dynasty; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Malacca
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; traditionally a center for trade among the southeastern Asian islands.
Mali
Empire centered between the Senegal and Niger rivers; creation of Malinke people; broke away from control of Ghana in 13th century.
Mameluks
Muslim slave warriors; established a dynasty in Egypt; defeated the Mongols at Ain Jalut in 1260 and halted Mongol advance.
mana
Power of ali'i; emanated from their lineages and enabled them to extract labor or tribute from their subjects.
Manchus
Jurchen people from region to the northeast of the Chinese empire; seized power following collapse of Ming dynasty; established Qing dynasty, last of imperial houses.
mandates
Governments entrusted to European nations in the Middle East in the aftermath of World War I; Britain occupied mandates in Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, and Palestine after 1922.
Mandate of Heaven
The divine source for political legitimacy of Chinese rulers; established by Zhou to justify overthrow of Shang.
Mandela, Nelson
Long-imprisoned leader of the African National Congress party; worked with the ANC leadership and F.W. De Klerk's supporters to dismantle the apartheid system from the mid-1980s onward; in 1994, became the first black prime minister of South Africa after the ANC won the first genuinely democratic elections in the country's history.
manifest destiny
Belief of the government of the United States that it was destined to rule the continent from coast to coast; led to annexation of Texas and Mexican-American War.
manorialism
System that described economic and political relations between landlord and their peasant laborers during the Middle Ages; involved a hierarchy of reciprocal obligations that exchanged labor or rents for access to land.
Maoris
Residents of New Zealand; migrated to New Zealand from Society Islands as early as 8th century C.E.
Mao Zedong
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap Forward in 1958.
Marquis of Pombal
Prime minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
Marshall Plan
Program of substantial loans initiated by the United States in 1947; designed to aid Western nations in rebuilding from the war's devastation; vehicle for American economic dominance.
Martel, Charles
Carolingian monarch of Franks; responsible for defeating Muslims in battle of Tours in 732; ended Muslim threat to Western Europe.
Marx, Karl
German socialist of the mid-19th century; blasted early socialist movements as utopian; saw history as defined by class struggle between groups out of power and those controlling the means of production; preached necessity of social revolution to create proletarian dictatorship.
mask of Ferdinand
Term given to movements in Latin America allegedly loyal to the displaced Bourbon king of Spain, Ferdinand VII; actually Creole movements for independence.
mass leisure culture
An aspect of the laster Industrial Revolution; based on newspapers, music halls, popular theater, vacation trips, and team sports.
Mass Line
Economic policy of Mao Zedong; led to formation of agricultural cooperatives in 1955; cooperatives became farming collectives in 1956.
Mataram
Kingdom that controlled interior region of Java in 17th century; Dutch East India Company paid tribute to the kingdom for rights of trade at Batavia; weakness of kingdom after 1670s allowed Dutch to exert control over all of Java.
mawali
Non-Arab converts to Islam.
May Fourth movement
Resistance to Japanese encroachments in China began on this date in 1919; spawned movement of intellectuals aimed at transforming China into a liberal democracy; rejected Confucianism.
Mecca
City located in mountainous region along Red Sea in Arabian peninsula; founded Umayyad clan of Quraysh; site of Ka'ba; original home of Muhammad; location of chief religions pilgrimage point in Islam.
Medina
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra).
Mehmed II
Ottoman sultan called the "Conqueror"; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
mercantilism
Economic theory that stressed governments' promotion of limitation of imports from other nations and internal economies in order to improve tax revenue; popular during 17th and 18th centuries in Europe.
Mesolithic, or Middle Stone Age, 12,000-8,000 B.C.E.
Marked by advances in the deliberate crafting of stone and bone tools, boats, plus the early domestication of animals.
Mesopotamia
Literally "between the rivers"; the civilizations that arose in the alluvial plain of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys.
mestizos
People of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Mesoamerica and South America; particularly prevalent in areas colonized by Spain; often part of forced labor system.
Methodius
Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.
Metropolitan
Head of the Russian Orthodox church; located at Moscow.
Mexican-American War
Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces; loss of about one-half of Mexico's national territory to the United States.
Mexican Constitution of 1917
Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions of clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
Mexico Revolution
Fought over a period of almost ten years from 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
Mexico City
Capital of New Spain; built on ruins of Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
mfecane
Wars of 19th century in southern Africa; created by Zulu expansion under Shaka; revolutionized political organization of southern Africa.
Middle Ages
The period in western European history from the decline and fall of the Roman Empire until the 15th century.
Middle Passage
Slave voyage from Africa to the Americas (16th-18th centuries); generally a traumatic experience for black slaves; although it failed to strip Africans of their culture.
Minas Gerais
Region of Brazil located in mountainous interior where gold strikes were discovered in 1695; became location for gold rush.
Mindanao
Southern island of Philippines; a Muslim kingdom that was able to successfully resist a Spanish conquest.
Ming dynasty
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Minh Mang
Second emperor of a united Vietnam; successor of Nguyen Anh; ruled from 1820 to 1841; sponsored emphasis of of Confucianism; persecuted Catholics.
Ministry of Rites
Administered examinations to students from Chinese government schools or those recommended by distinguished scholars.
miscegnation
Practice of interracial marriage or sexual contact; found in virtually all colonial ventures.
Mississippian culture
Last of the mound-building cultures of North America; flourished between 800 and 1300 C.E.; featured large towns and ceremonial centers; lacked stone architecture of Central America.
mita
Labor extracted for lands assigned to the state and the religion; all communities were expected to contribute; an essential aspect of Inca imperial control.
mitmaq
Inca colonists in new regions; could be Quechua-speakers; used to pacify new conquest or conquered population moved to new home.
Moctezuma II
Last independent Aztec emperor; killed during Hernán Cortés' conquest of Tenochtitlan.
modernization theory
The belief that the more industrialized, urban, and modern a society became, the more social change and improvement were possible as traditional patterns and attitudes were abandoned or transformed; used as a blueprint for development in Latin America.
moldboard
Heavy plow introduced in northern Europe during the Middle Ages; permitted deeper cultivation of heavier soils; a technological innovation of the medieval agricultural system.
Mongols
Central Asian nomadic peoples; smashed Turko-Persian kingdoms; captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed last Abbasid caliph.
Monroe Doctrine
American declaration stated in 1823; established that any attempt of a European country to colonize in the Americas would be considered an unfriendly act by the United States; supported by Great Britain as a means to opening Latin American trade.
Montagu-Chelmsford reforms
Increased the powers of Indian legislators at the all-India level and placed much of the provincial administration of India under local ministries controlled by legislative bodies with substantial number of elected Indians; passed in 1919.
Morley-Minto reforms of 1909
Provided educated Indians with considerably expanded opportunities to elect and serve on local and all-Indian legislative councils.
Mu'awiya
Leader of the Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civil war with Ali.
Mughal Empire
Established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Muhammad
Prophet of Islam; born c. 570 to Banu Hashim clan of Quraysh tribe in Mecca; raised by father's family; received revelations from Allah in 610 C.E. and thereafter; died in 632.
Muhammad ibn Qasim
Arab general; conquered Sind in India; declared the region and the Indus valley to be part of Umayyad Empire.
Muhammad of Ghur
Military commander of Persian extraction who ruled small mountain kingdom in Afghanistan; began process of conquest to establish Muslim political control of northern India; brought much of Indus valley, Sind, and northwestern India under his control.
Muhammad Shah II
Turkic ruler of Muslim Khwarazm kingdom; attempted to resist Mongol conquest; conquered in 1220.
Muhammad the Great
Extended the boundaries of the Songhay Empire; Islamic ruler of the mid-16th century.
Mullahs
Local mosque officials and prayer leaders with the Safavid Empire; agents of Safavid religious campaign to covert all of population to Shi'ism.
Munich Conference
Meeting concerning Germany's occupation of portions of Czechslovakia in 1938; after receiving Hitler's assurance that he would take no more land, Western leaders agreed to the division of Czechslovakia.
Murad
Head of the coalition of Mameluk households in Egypt; opposed Napoleonic invasion of Egypt and suffered devastating defeat; failure destroyed Mameluk government in Egypt and revealed vulnerability of Muslim core.
Muslims
Followers of Islam.
Muslim Brotherhood
Egyptian nationalist movement founded by Hasan al-Banna in 1928; committed to fundamentalist movement in Islam; fostered strikes and urban riots against the khedival government.
Muslim League
Founded in 1906 to better support demands of Muslims for separate electorates and legislatives seats in Hindu-dominated India; represented division within India nationalist movement.
Mussolini, Benito
Italian Fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories.
Mvemba, Nzinga
King of Kongo south of Zaire River from 1507 to 1543; converted to Christianity and took title of Alfonso I; under Portuguese influence attempted to Christianize all of kingdom.
nabobs
Name given to British representatives of the East India Company who went briefly to India to make fortunes through graft and exploitation.
Nadir Khan Afshar
Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom.
Nagasaki
Long a port open to Dutch traders; one of two Japanese cities on which the United States dropped atomic bombs in 1945; devastation of these cities caused Japanese surrender without invasion of home islands.
Nahuatl
Language spoken by the Toltecs and Aztecs.
Nasser, Gamal Abdul
Took power in Egypt following a military coup in 1952; enacted land reforms and used state resources to reduce unemployment; ousted Britain from the Suez Canal zone in 1956.
Natal
British colony in South Africa; developed after Boer trek north from Cape Colony; major commercial outpost at Durban.
National Liberation Front (FLN)
Radical nationalist movement in Algeria; launched sustained guerilla war against France in the 1950s; success of attacks led to independence of Algeria in 1958.
National Socialist Party
Also known as the Nazi party; led by Adolf Hitler in Germany; picked up political support during the economic chaos of the the Great Depression; advocated authoritarian state under a single leader, aggressive foreign policy to reverse humiliation of the Treaty of Versailles; took power in Germany in 1933.
nationalism
Political viewpoint with origins in Western Europe in the 19th century; often allied with one of other "isms"; urged importance of national unity; valued a collective identity based on culture, race, or ethnic origin.
négritude
Literary movement in Africa; attempted to combat racial stereotypes of African culture; celebrated the beauty of black skin and African physique; associated with origins of African nationalist movements.
Nehru, Jawaharlal
One of Gandhi's disciples; governed India after independence (1947); committed to program of social reform and economic development; preserved civil rights and democracy.
neocolonial economy
Economy that results from continued dominance of the first- and second-world nations of the world's economy; ability of the first- and second-world nations to maintain economic colonialism without political colonialism.
Neolithic Age
The New Stone Age between 8000 and 5000 B.C.E.; period in which adaptation of sedentary agriculture occurred; domestication of plants and animals accomplished.
Nestorians
A Christian sect found in Asia; tended to support Islamic invasions of this area in preference to Byzantine rule; cut off from Europe by Muslim invasions.
New Deal
President Franklin Roosevelt's precursor of the modern welfare state (1933-1939); programs to combat economic depression enacted a number of social insurance measures and used government spending to stimulate the economy; increased power of the state and the state's intervention in the United States social and economic life.
New Economic Policy
Initiated by Lenin in 1921; state continued to set basic economic policies, but efforts were now combined with individual initiative; policy allowed food production to recover.
new feminism
New wave of women's rights agitation dating from 1949; emphasized more literal equality that would play down domestic rules and qualities for women; promoted specific reforms and redefinition of what it meant to be female.
New France
French colonies in North America; extended from St. Lawrence River along Great Lakes and down Mississippi River valley system.
New Spain
Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica; included most of central Mexico; based on imperial system of Aztecs.
New Youth
Marxist periodical in China; did much to spread the ideas of Marx and Lenin among the politically active youth of China's coastal cities.
Newton, Isaac
English scientist during the 17th century; author of "Principia"; drew various astronomical and physical observations and wider theories together in a neat framework of natural laws; established principles of motion; defined forces of gravity.
Nezhualcoyotl
Leading Aztec king of the 15th century.
Nguyen
Rival Vietnamese dynasty that arose in southern Vietnam to challenge traditional dynasty of Trinh in north at Hanoi; kingdom centered on Red and Mekong rivers; capital at Hue.
Nguyen Anh
Last surviving member of Nguyen dynasty following Tayson Rebellion in Vietnam; with French support retook southern Vietnam; drove Tayson from northern Vietnam by 1802; proclaimed himself emperor with capital at Hue.
Nkrumah, Kwame
African nationalist during period of decolonization; responsible for creation of first independent, black African state of Ghana in 1957; established power through his own party, the Convention Peoples party.
Nobili, Robert di
Italian Jesuit missionary; worked in India during the early 1600s; introduced strategy to convert elites first; strategy later widely adopted by Jesuits in various parts of Asia; mission eventually failed.
Nobunaga
Japanese daimyo; first to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed last of Ashikaga shoguns; unified much of central Honshu under his command; killed in 1582.
Nok
Culture featuring highly developed art style flourishing between 500 B.C.E. and 200 C.E.; located in forests of central Nigeria.
Nonalignment
Policies of countries like India, 1950s-1980s, that sought to avoid taking sides in the cold war.
North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
Agreement that created an essentially free trade zone among Mexico, Canada, and the United States, in all hope of encouraging economic growth in all three nations; after difficult negotiations, went into effect January 1, 1994.
North Atlantic Trade Organization (NATO)
Created in 1949 under United States leadership to group most of the Western Europe powers plus Canada in a defensive alliance against possible Soviet aggression.
Northern Renaissance
Cultural and intellectual movement of northern Europe; began later than Italian Renaissance c. 1450; centered in France, Low Countries, England, and Germany; featured greater emphasis on religion than Italian Renaissance.
Nur Jahan
Wife of Jahangir; amassed power in court and created faction of male relatives who dominated Mughal empire during later years of Jahangir's reign.
Nurhaci
Architect of Manchu unity; created distinctive Manchu banner armies; controlled most of Manchuria; adopted Chinese bureaucracy and court ceremonies in Manchuria; entered China and successfully captured Ming capital at Beijing.
obeah
African religious ideas and practices in the English and French Caribbean islands.
Obregón, Alvaro
Emerged as leader of the Mexican government in 1915; elected president in 1920.
obrok
Labor obligations of Russian peasants to either their aristocratic landlords or to the state; typical of increased labor burdens placed on Russian peasantry during the 18th century.
Ogedei
Third son of Chinggis Khan; succeeded Chinggis Khan as khagan of the Mongols following his father's death.
Old Believers
Russians who refused to accept the ecclesiastical reforms of Alexis Romanov (17th century); many exiled to Siberia or southern Russia, where they became part of Russian colonization.
Onin War
War between the rival heirs of Ashikaga Shogunate; fought between 1467 and 1477; led to warfare between rival headquarters and Kyoto and destruction of old capital.
Opium War
Fought between the British and Qing China beginning in 1839; fought to protect British trade in opium; resulted in resounding British victory, opening of Hong Kong as British port of trade.
Orabi, Ahmad
Student of Muhammad Abduh; led revolt in 1882 against Turkish influence in Egyptian army; forced khedive to call on British army for support.
Ormuz
Portuguese factory or fortified trade town located at southern end of Persian Gulf; site for forcible entry into Asian sea trade network.
Orozco, José Clemente
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Ottoman Empire
Turkic empire established in Asia minor and eventually extending throughout Middle East; responsible for conquest of Constantinople and end of the Byzantine Empire on 1453; succeeded Seljuk Turks following retreat of the Mongols.
Ottoman Society for Union and Progress
Organization of political agitators in opposition to rule of Abdul Harmid; also called the "Young Turks"; desired to restore 1876 constitution.
Ottomans
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
Pachacuti
Ruler of Inca society from 1438 to 1471; launched a series of military campaigns that gave Incas control of the region from Cuzco to the shores of Lake Titicaca.
Pacific Rim States
Japan, South Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan; typified by rapid growth rates; expanding exports, and industrialization; either Chinese or strongly influenced by Confucian values; considerable reliance on government planning and direction, limitations on dissent and instability.
Palmares
Kingdom of runaway slaves with a population of 8,000 to 10,000 people; located in Brazil during the 17th century; leadership was Angolan.
Panama Canal
An aspect of American intervention in Latin America; resulted from United States support for a Panamanian independence movement in return for a grant to exclusive rights to a canal across the Panama isthmus; provide short route from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean; completed 1914.
parliaments
Bodies representing privileged groups; institutionalized feudal principle that rulers should consult with their vassals; found in England, Spain, Germany, and France.
Parliamentary monarchy
Originated in England and Holland, 17th century, with kings partially checked by significantly legislative powers in parliaments.
partition of Poland
Three separate divisions of Polish territory among Russian, Prussia, and Austria in 1772, 1793, and 1795; eliminated Poland as independent state; part of expansion of Russian influence in Eastern Europe.
Pasteur, Louis
Discoverer of germs; discovery led to more conscientious sanitary regulation by the 1880s.
patriarchal
Societies in which women defer to men; societies run by men and based on the assumption that men naturally directed political, economic, and cultural life.
Paulistas
Backwoodsmen from São Paulo in Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during 17th century.
Pearl Harbor
American naval base in Hawaii; attack by Japanese on this facility in December 1941 crippled American fleet in the Pacific and caused entry of United States into World War II.
Pedro I, Dom
Son and successor of Dom João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil.
peninsulares
People living in New World Spanish colonies but born in Spain.
People's Democratic Republic of Korea
Northern half of Korea dominated by USSR; long headed by Kim Il-Sung; attacked south in 1950 and initiated Korean War; retained independence as a Communist state after the war.
People's Liberation Army
Chinese Communist army; administered much of country under People's Republic of China.
People's Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
perestroika
Policy of Mikhail Gorbachev calling for economic restructuring in the USSR in the last 1980s; more leeway for private ownership and decentralized control in industry and agriculture.
period of the Six Dynasties
Era from 220 to 589 C.E.; featured endless wars fought by the patchwork of regional kingdoms that followed the fall of the Han in China.
Perón, Juan de
Military leader in Argentina who became dominant political figure after military coup in 1943; used position as Minister of Labor to appeal to working groups and the poor; became president in 1946; forced into exile in 1955; returned and won presidency in 1973.
Perry, Matthew
American commodore who visited Edo Bay with American fleet in 1853; insisted on opening ports to American trade on threat of naval bombardment; won rights for American trade with Japan in 1854.
Persian Gulf War
1991 war led by United States and various European and Middle Eastern allies, against Iraqi occupation of Kuweit. The war led to Iraqi withdrawal and a long confrontation with Iraq about armaments and political regime.
Peter I
Also known as Peter the Great; son of Alexis Romanov; ruled from 1689 to 1725; continued growth of absolutism and conquest; included more definite interest in changing selected aspects of economy and culture through imitation of Western European models.
Petarch, Francesco
One of the major literary figures of the Western Renaissance; and Italian author and humanist.
Pharaoh
Title of kings of ancient Egypt.
Pinsker, Leon
European Zionist who believed that Jewish assimilation into Christian European nations was impossible; argued for return to Middle Eastern Holy Land.
Pizzarro, Francisco
Led conquest of Inca Empire of Peru beginning in 1535; by 1540, most of Inca possessions fell to the Spanish.
Plassey
Battle in 1757 between troops of the British East India Company and an Indian army under Sirãj-ud-daula, ruler of Bengal; British victory resulted in control of northern India.
pochteca
Special merchant class in Aztec society.
polis
City-state form of government; typical of Greek political organization from 800 to 400 B.C.E.
Politburo
Executive committee of the Soviet Communist party; 20 members.
Popular Front
Combination of Socialist and Communist political parties in France; won election in 1936; unable to take strong measures of social reform because of continuing strength of conservatives; feel from power in 1938.
population revolution
Huge growth in population in Western Europe beginning about 1730; prelude to Industrial Revolution; population of France increased 50 percent, England and Prussia 100 percent.
positivism
French philosophy based on observation and scientific approach to problems of society; adopted by many Latin American liberals in the aftermath of independence.
Potosí
Mine located in upper Peru (modern Bolivia); largest of New World silver mines; produced 80 percent of all Peruvian silver.
Potsdam Conference
Meeting among leader of the United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union just before the end of World War II in 1945; Allies agreed upon Soviet domination in Eastern Europe; Germany and Austria to be divided among victorious Allies.
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