PCAT Vocab list Flashcards

NK Cells
Terms Definitions
Neophyte
One who lacks experience
Bungler
One who lacks adeptness or skill
candor
frankness; the quality of being open and honest in expression
adversarial
involving conflict or opposition
extoll
to praise
juxtapose
place close together for contrasting effect
ardent
enthusiastic or passionate
elusive
difficult to find, catch or achieve
conviction
firmly held belief of opinion
ionization potential
The energy required to remove an electron and for a ion
neutralization reaction
the reaction where an acid and base react to form a salt and water
callous
showing a cruel and insensitive disregard for others
troupe
a group of performers that tour at different venues
expurgate
to remove obscenity or matter thought to be objectionable
burnish
extreme form of wiping
hone
extreme sharpening
mannerist
ostentatious
minimalist
spartan
secular
attitudes that have no religious bias
avarice
extreme greed for wealth or material gain
bristle
to stand upright away from skin, esp in anger or fear
approbation
approval or praise
apathetic
showing little or no emotion; stolid
booty
valuable stolen goods, those seized in war
croven
cowardly, lacking courage
consternation
feelings of anxiety or dismay, typically of something unexpected
cower
crouch down in fear
conjure
make something appear unexpectedly, like a magician would
cistern
a tank for storing water
expurgate
to remove matter thought to be objectionable
culprit
person responsible for a crime or other misdeed
furrow
a hole dug by a small animal
circuitous
a route longer than the most direct way
demure
reserved, modest, shy
derision
contemptuous ridicule or mockery
entomology
study of insects. a branch of zoology
impecunious
having little or no money
hovel
squalid, unpleasant house
squalid
extremely dirty or unpleasant
incredulity
a state of being unwilling or unable to believe something
jeer
to make rude and mocking remarks; typically in a loud voice
lambast
to critisize
hurricane
tropical cyclone that occurs in atlantic ocean
typhoon
tropical cyclone that occurs in the pacific ocean
spindle
kind of post that holds up a handrail
bobbin
cylinder or cone holding thread
impassive
showing now emotion, stolid
lariat
rope used for tethering; like one a cowboy would use
snare
a trap for catching birds or animals that usually consists of a noose of wire or cord
mulish
resembling a mule in being stubborn
coy
a pretense of shyness that is intended to be alluring but is often regarded as irritating
drab
lacking brightness or intrests, dull
ruse
an action intended to deceive someone
anathema
a formal curse
ingenuity
quality of being clever, original and inventive
hedge
row of small bushes planted close together, forming a boundary
enthralled
to captivate or charm
mendacity
untruthfulness
obsequious
obedient or attentive to an excessive or servile degree
prophet
makes claims to be able to make predictions
pride
a group of lions forming a social unit
poacher (poaching)
the illegal killing of plants or animals
peal
loud ringing of a bell
refuge
place of shelter, protection, or safety
revue
a light theatrical entertainment consisting of a series of short sketches, songs, and dances. Satirical
surreptitious
kept secret, especially if it would not be approved
static
unmoving, fixed
quiver
a container for arrows
Strong acids (strongest to weakest)
HI, HBR, HClO4 (perchloric acid), HCl, H2So4, p-toluenesulfonic acid
Nitrogen fixation
N2 --> NH3
Denitrification
NO3 and NO2 --> NO (nitric oxide) --> N2O (nitrous) ---> N2
Interferons
cytokines that consists of 3 types: alpha, beta, and gamma. Alpha has been used to treat cancer
Krebs cycle or citric acid cycle
takes place in the mitochondria after glycolysis. for each glucose, produces 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2, 4 CO2
nosocomial infection
occurs after treatment in a hospital but unrelated to the condition that patient was originally treated for. Pneumonia
Posterior Pituitary
GH, ACTH, LH, FSH
Anterior pituitary
Oxytocin and ADH (vassopressin)
Parathyroid
PTH raises blood calcium levels
Adrenal glands
Corisol, aldosterone, epinephrine/norepinephrine
cortisol
raises blood sugar levels, reduces immune function
aldosterone
increases Na/K reabsorption in kidneys
neutrophils
most abundant, phagocytic, protects against BACTERIAL infection
eosinophils
toxic, defense against PARASITES
basophil
contain histamine, causes inflammation
lymphocytes
T and B cells (specific immunity)
NK cells (non specific immunity)
monocytes
phagocytes, kill infected cells. leave bloodstream and become macrophages/dendritic cells
T Lymphocytes
cell mediated response, produce cytokines that protect against viral, fungal, and parasitic infections
Helper T cells
activate other T and B cells, macrophages, and NK cells
suppressor T cells
shut down other cells
cytotoxic T cells
kills virus infected or cancer cells by binding them to toxins and perforins
B Cells
5 types (AGDEM), Produce antibodies (Ig). protect against bacterial and viral infections
IgA
found in mucous membranes, respiratory tract, and digestive
IgG
Most common in serum. Protects against toxins and can cross the placenta
IgD
on surface of B cells
IgE
On surface of mast cells and basophils. Involved in allergies and protects against PARASITIC infections
IgM
Largest immunoglobulin. Mainly in bloodstream
Endospore
dormant form of bacteria that is killed by aclaving
Evolution of the brain
larger forebrain, smaller mid and hind brain
Dalton
Law of partial pressures
Boyle
P and V are inversely proportional
Charles
T and V are directly proportional
non ideal behavior for gas
low T and/or high P
Oxidation
removal of e. e is on rightside of half rxn
Reduction
addition of e. e is on leftside of half rxn
Beta Radiation
0,-1 B. emits an electron. low to moderate
Positron radiation
0,1 B. emits positive electron. low to moderate
Alpha radiation
4,2 a. emits helium nucleus. very low power
Proton radiation
1,1 p. emits a proton. low to moderate power
Neutron
1,0 n. emits a neutron. very high power
Gamma radiation
0,0 g. high energy light. high power
Gamma radiation
0,0 g. high energy light. high power
ionization energy
the minimal amount of eneregy needed to remove an electron from its ground state
electron affinity
the amount of energy required to detach an electrong form a singly charged negative iono. EA is positive when it lowers energy/exthermic
formation of ester
primary alcohol + carboxylic acid. rxn is acid catalyzed
Anti Markov addition
in presence of peroxide, HBr (only) adds to double bond in a non markov fasion. ie. adds BR to primary carbon
Alkene + carboxylic
yields ester. catalyzed by oxidizing agent
Alcohol + acid
forms carbocation intermediate and water in an elimination rxn. Followed by eliminating the H on the carbon w fewer Hs
Hydration
H goes to C with more Hs attached and OH goes to C with fewer H's attached
Mycology
study of fungi
Fatty acid + Glycerol forms...
lipids
O3 + Me - S - Me
Causes molecules to cleave at C=C
Lewis acid/base
electron acceptor/donor
Bronsted acid/base
Proton donor/acceptor
Pertusis
whooping cough
appendix
stores benneficial gut bacteria
apoptosis
programmed cell death. plays role in development
gizzard
digestion
malphigian tubules
excretion
crop
stores digested food
chortle
to chuckle, laugh in a gleeful way
allay
alleviate; diminish or put at rest
slake
to quench or satisfy a thirst
rapscallion
a mischievous person
consternation
feelings of anxiety or dismay, especially at something unexpected
inept
having or showing no skill
pugilist
a professional boxer
quarry
a place where stones are extracted
anthology
a published collection of poems or other pieces of writing
apprehension
anxiety or fear that something bad will happen
vassal
person with granted use of land
insidious
proceeding in a gradual, subtle way with harmful effects
panacea
a solution or remedie for all conditions or diseases
belie
fail to justify a claim or expectation; betray
foible
a minor weakness in someones character
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