China since 1900 GCSE modern world history course Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Unequal treaties, 1800s
Foreign invaders take control of China's trade in "treaty ports"
In 1908:
Empress Dowager Cixi dies, 2-year old Puyi given the title of emperor, Prince Chun given power to rule.
Prince Chun is:
Conservative. Appoints politicians who dislike change. Dismisses powerful officials including Yuan Shikai.
In September 1911:
Rebellion begins when police fire on a crowd of demonstrators.
Sun Yatsen's organisation:
The Sworn Chinese Brotherhood, who attempt to spread rebellion.
By 1911 Sun Yatsen:
Had attempted to overthrown the goverment ten times but failed.
October 10 1911=
The Double Tenth, ie Wuchang Rebellion
The Wuchang Rebellion
Soldiers of the New army in Wuchang join the rebellion, and with armed help rebellion spreads throughout china and becomes a full-scale revolution
By the end of November 1911
15 of China's 18 provinces joined the revolution
In Nanjing
Rebels formed a provisional government opposed to Manchus in Bejing
Yuan Shikai is recalled from retirement by Manchus, and
defeats the rebels easily.
BUT then he makes a deal with the rebels saying
If they make him president, he'll make Prince Chun resign.
On 24th December 1911
Sun Yatsen returns from a fundraising tour and a week later is elected presiden
Yuan Shikai VS Sun Yatsen. Sun has rebels' support BUT
Yuan wins because he has military support.
February 1912
Assembly in Nanjing elects Yuan Shikai president.
12 February 1912
Prince Chun & Pu Yi abdicate.
1912-1916
Presidency of Yuan Shikai
1913
Elections for National Assembly held.
Sun Yatsen's new party of 1913
Guomindang, who win majority of seats in national assembly.
1914
January - Yuan Shikai dissolves NA, who were inefficient, corrupt and slow. Rules as dictator. 12/18 provinces under his control by the end of 1914.
1915
21 demands; Yuan Shikai makes himself emperor.
Christmas 1915
Yunnan province rebels against Yuan Shikai. As he's generally unpopular, he stops trying to be emperor.
1916
Yuan dies of stroke, but people say it's of a *broken heart*
1916-1927
WARLORDS.
The biggest 3 warlords
Zhang Zuoling, Feng, and Yan [all controlled large areas in the north]
Key features of the warlords
They were military dictators, always at war, meaning:
1) High taxes
2) Peasants enlisted into their armies
3) Many v. severe
May 4 1919
May 4th movement, response to Paris Peace conference at the end of the war.
What China expected but DIDN'T GET t in the paris peace conference
Withdrawal of 1) Unequal treaties,
2) 21 demands
3) Return of Kiaochow, a german-controlled port seized by the japanese during the war.
The 21 demands
Made in 1915 by Japanese, demanding control of factories, railways and ports.
What actually happened on May 4th
10 000 Beijing students and school pupils organise a massive demonstration which spreads throughout country. Boycott of japanese goods. Strikes continue throughout may 1919
New Tide movement
1916. Aims to simplify China's language, and introduce:
1) Freedom
2) Equal rights
3) Scientific progress
1921, Bejing
Chinese Communist Party set up. Mao is there, but not prominent.
Province where GMD has control
Guangdong
1924, GMD's 3 principles
People's livelihood, democratic government and national freedom.
Who helps the GMD?
Russians, who send agents etc. to help and also sell them rifles. Also CCP joins in and helps.
March 1925
Sun Yatsen dies of cancer.
July 1926
Chiang Kaishek begins a March to the North, sending agents to win support and promise national revolution. Gets much support.
1927 Nanjing
captured by GMD, Nationalist Government set up.
Shanghai massacre
Chiang Kaishek [who does NOT like communists] kills all the communists in shanghai, which splits up the CCP-GMD alliance. Communists expelled from cities, retreat to Jiangxi province.
The second northern campaign [NB GMD-only]
Chiang Kaishek makes an alliance with Feng and Yan, the northern warlords, in order to defeat Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin blown up on a train. His son and sucessor...
Zhang Xueliang, surrenders to Chiang Kaishek.
Chiang Kaishek transfers capital from Beijing to Nanjing, where he
sets up a National Government to which he was chairman.
Chiang hasn't actually united china though. Which is obvious because:
1) There are bandits terrorising, looting, kidnapping etc.
2) In 1929 Feng and Yan rebel and there's a big bloody civil war.
3) Communists still going strong.
How the communists won support in the Jiangxi soviet:
1) Land Law shares land between peasants most of which have never owned land before.
2) Taxes reduced
3) Schools set up
4) Disciplined Red Army convey idea of organisation and power.
1930-1934 Chiang Kaishek...
Launches 5 extermination campaigns against the communists.
First 4 campaigns fail, as Mao Zedong and Zhu De use
Clever guerilla tactics, avoiding pitched battles and using ambushes to knock out GMD units.
Mao is criticized for these tactics
They're called politically wrong and also cowardly, as villages are captured and millions of peasants die as a result
In 1933 Chiang's fifth campaign begins, this time using the military advisor
Hans von Seeckt
Seeckt's "blockhouse strategy"
Involves closing in on the communists, depriving them of 1)food, 2)fuel, 3)weapons and 4)ammunition, building A)concrete blockhouses, B)trenches, and C)barbed wire fences as they go.
The communist advisor sent by the russians disapproves of Mao's tactics
Otto Braun; he expels Mao from the central committee and abandons his tactics.
Braun tries a big pitched battle
THIS FAILS. 8000 people die.
Mao thinks they can break through and attack the GMD
He is ignored, instead Braun & other Russian advisors plan an epic march. Which they do.
The Long March! which was--
16 October 1934
Otto Braun is blamed when people die, because:
1) He's making people carry furniture & equipment, slowing them down.
2) He's going in a straight line.
Red Army reaches Zunyi
9 January 1935. Mao and Zhu De get control again.
Going Mao and Zhu De's mad twisty route, some people make it heroically to Yanan --
Arrival in October 1935- only 10,000 of the original 87,000 who set out made it Yanan. Other communist forces made up the numbers of the Red Army again.
The Japanese Army invades Manchuria
1)In 1931.
2) This was against the will of the government
3) This was because the wall street crash had caused economic problems in Japan, the idea was that more land would provide more raw materials, trade and jobs.
Zhang Xueliang who was no longer a drug addict and was governing manchuria
wanted to fight the invaders, but Chiang Kaishek said no, hoping that the League of Nations would sort it out. -They didn't.
By February 1932
Japan had occupied all of Manchuria.
Nobody liked this japanese invasion. They wanted to fight them, incl. the communists. BUT
Chiang Kaishek was busy trying to kill the communists, so he ignored their demands for a united front.
Chiang Kaishek does another extermination campaign --
In 1936. He wants to bomb Yanan and for Zhang Xueliang to do it.
Zhang Xueliang doesn't want to fight the communists
Because he wants revenge on the japanese. Because they blew his dad up on a train, remember.
So he makes an unofficial agreement not to fight with them.
Chiang still wants to kill the communists, so on 12 December 1936:
Zhang Xueliang's troops capture him and force him to form a United Front with the communists and fight the Japanese.
In July 1937:
Japanese troops claim the chinese have fired on them, which they use as an excuse to invade Bejing.
By 1938, Japan:
1) Had 1 million troops in china.
2) Had captured Bejing, Shanghai [Nov. 1937] and Nanjing, the capital [Dec.]
3) ... forcing Chiang Kaishek to set up a wartime capital in Chongqing. Which they bombed.
SO from 1938-1944 Japan controlled and occupied:
Big cities, railways, airfields, ports and roads, whereas China had control of the countryside.
There was looting rape bombing murder destruction aand torture of ordinary Chinese people.
December 1941
PEARL HARBOUR.
Which means that America bombs the japanese and sends supplies to the Chinese.
April 1944
Japanese launch new offensive in SE-China, trying to destroy American airfields.
August 1945
Hiroshima [6th] Invasion of Manchuria by Russia[8th] and Nagazaki [9th] -- Japan surrenders.
Hundred Regiments Battle--
1940, communists attack japan's railway communications.
Going Mao and Zhu De's mad twisty route, some people make it heroically to Yanan --
Arrival in October 1935- only 10,000 of the original 87,000 who set out made it Yanan. Other communist forces made up the numbers of the Red Army again.
The Japanese Army invades Manchuria
1)In 1931.
2) This was against the will of the government
3) This was because the wall street crash had caused economic problems in Japan, the idea was that more land would provide more raw materials, trade and jobs.
Zhang Xueliang who was no longer a drug addict and was governing manchuria
wanted to fight the invaders, but Chiang Kaishek said no, hoping that the League of Nations would sort it out. -They didn't.
By February 1932
Japan had occupied all of Manchuria.
Nobody liked this japanese invasion. They wanted to fight them, incl. the communists. BUT
Chiang Kaishek was busy trying to kill the communists, so he ignored their demands for a united front.
Chiang Kaishek does another extermination campaign --
In 1936. He wants to bomb Yanan and for Zhang Xueliang to do it.
Zhang Xueliang doesn't want to fight the communists
Because he wants revenge on the japanese. Because they blew his dad up on a train, remember.
So he makes an unofficial agreement not to fight with them.
Chiang still wants to kill the communists, so on 12 December 1936:
Zhang Xueliang's troops capture him and force him to form a United Front with the communists and fight the Japanese.
In July 1937:
Japanese troops claim the chinese have fired on them, which they use as an excuse to invade Bejing.
By 1938, Japan:
1) Had 1 million troops in china.
2) Had captured Bejing, Shanghai [Nov. 1937] and Nanjing, the capital [Dec.]
3) ... forcing Chiang Kaishek to set up a wartime capital in Chongqing. Which they bombed.
SO from 1938-1944 Japan controlled and occupied:
Big cities, railways, airfields, ports and roads, whereas China had control of the countryside.
There was looting rape bombing murder destruction aand torture of ordinary Chinese people.
December 1941
PEARL HARBOUR.
Which means that America bombs the japanese and sends supplies to the Chinese.
April 1944
Japanese launch new offensive in SE-China, trying to destroy American airfields.
August 1945
Hiroshima [6th] Invasion of Manchuria by Russia[8th] and Nagazaki [9th] -- Japan surrenders.
Hundred Regiments Battle--
1940, communists attack japan's railway communications.
[Response to Hundred Regiments Battle]
Three All Campaign--
1941, Japanese operation to kill all, burn all, destroy all.
Made peasants hate the japanese and join the communists.
Communists do well out of all this.
[5]
1) Appear nationalist, anti-japanese
2) Chiang Kaishek looks bad
3) Three All Campaign
4) Communists control countryside that Japanese troops invaded but couldn't guard, and
5) Advance into "liberation areas" when japan surrenders.
CCP vs GMD
Civil war, 1946-1949
People expected the GMD to win.
How did each side govern?
GMD controlled big cities, main railways, and rich provinces. They had 3 million men in their army, American aid, and a deal with Stalin.
CCP controlled country areas, and had no air force or navy. They had 1 million men in their army, and no foreign help.
GMD ideas & life
[2]
1) New Life Movement [1934]
Self-discipline, honesty, hygeine/ seen as trivial, dealt with no basic problems.
2) Rural Service
Students went to country in holidays to help with crops/ again didn't tackle China's poverty issues
CCP ideas & life
1) Gave land to peasants, lowered taxes
2) Outdated practices abolished [foot-binding, prostitution, child slavery]
3) Equality - officials lived in caves with people when bombs flatten Yanan
Red Army now called
People's Liberation Army, 1946
Lead by Lin Biao, used guerilla tactics to take control of much of central and northern China.
December 1945
American military leader brings the two sides together and gets them to sign a truce, which breaks down in early 1946.
Peasants all like the communists. Then some of the city people go over to them too.
Rapid inflation mean that people went on strike, reverted to robbery, and order collapsed and conditions worsened in cities.
The US government sees that the GMD is losing the civil war
In 1947 The US cuts of all aid to Chiang Kaishek.
1948, the PLA
abandons guerilla tactics. They capture Bejing [April] Shanghai [May] and Guangzhou [October]
Communists announce the creation of the People's Republic of China
1st October 1949
Common Programme, 1949
Promises revolution, land redistribution, industrialisation, civil rights, equal rights for women and all nationalities.
1950-1953
Years of great change.
Five things to know about the years of great change--
1) Marriage Law [1950]
Arranged marriages, killing of unwanted female babies, marriage of children & bigamy outlawed.
2) Agrarian Reform Law
-speak bitterness meetings
-land given to everyone.
3) Mutual aid teams share animals & equipment
4) Thought Reform [1951]
5) Mass campaigns [Swat the fly]
1953-1957
First five-year plan.
5-YEAR-PLAN
Why? --
THE IDEA: To expand heavy industry.
BECAUSE: Peasants' farms were too small to be farmed efficiently.
IDEOLOGICALLY: They didn't want the peasants to get concerned about profits.
5-YEAR-PLAN
1) lower-stage cooperatives
+ 30-50 families
+ Land pooled
+ Families still legally own the land.
5-YEAR-PLAN
2) higher-stage cooperatives
[By 1956 95% of peasant families had joined these]
+ 200-300 families
+ Equipment & animals owned by cooperative
+ Families no longer own land, only a few square metres for chickens/vegetables.
The Hundred Flowers
-When?
-Why?
-What happened?
-Consequences
-1956 until June 1957
-Rising city population caused overcrowding, food shortages & housing problems, communist party losing popularity.
-Free speech & argument encouraged; people criticized Mao himself and many were arrested and sent to thought reform.
-People forbidden to speak freely, press censored.
1958-[1963]
Mao admits its failure in 1959
The Great Leap Forward
The idea and seemingly-awesomeness of the Great Leap Forward
-Mao thought he could harness the power of the people.
-The plan was to develop heavy AND light industry.
- Muchos propaganda incl. posters, slogans, newspaper articles, loudpeakers play revolutionary music & speeches.
COMMUNES
+ about 5000 families
+ land, equipment&animals all owned by the commune
The actual uselessness and failure of the Great Leap Forward
NOBODY HAD ANY FOOD.
1) Everyone was making backyard steel. Which was actually useless because everyone melted frying pans to make it.
2) Officials at each level of government exaggerated figures, meaning people were given generous meals and nobody knew the scale of the problem.
1959-1961
The three BITTER YEARS
Mao's crazy ideas, exaggeration, and some floods and droughts meant that between 1959&1962
20 million Chinese people died of starvation and related diseases.
Some moderates decided that Mao [who was too popular to get rid of completely] had spoilt everything and wanted him gone. So--
He was still Chairman but no longer the Head of State.
Great Leap Forward abandoned
-When?
-What happened?
-Late in 1960
1) Communes made smaller
2) Backyard steel abandoned
3) Peasants allowed private plots of land
4) And to sell part of their produce in a market for profit
5) City workers' wages increased
1962-1966
MAO vs. MODERATES [Liu & Deng]
In 1962 Mao launches The Socialist Education Movement [3]
-To get rid of corruption
-To discourage capitalist behavior
-Eg. peasants who spent more time on private plots than communal land.
1965, Lin Biao...
[PLA]
Abolished all army ranks and gave all soldiers a copy of The Little Red Book
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Part 1
-When?
-Who?
- Summer 1966
- Students and schoolchildren in Bejing [Called themselves Red Guards]
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Part 2
-So what did the Red Guards do?
[3]
1) Mass parades.
2) Aimed to get rid of "four olds"- old culture, customs, ideas and habits.
3) Used violence. Attacked anything capitalist or bourgeois, [shaving western hairstyles, smashing luxuries]
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Part 3
By 1967 law and order had broken down.
- How did Mao try to restore order?
1) September - Mao reopens schools and colleges
2) Where Red Guards are violent, PLA disiarms and disbands them.
3) Those in cities encouraged to "go down to the country" to re-educate themselves and learn from the peasants. 18 million young people did.
THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION Part 4
By 1969 order was mostly restored & the cultural revolution was over.
-Consequences [4]
1) Moderates expelled from the party and Liu imprisoned.
2) Farming severely disrupted
3) Industrial output fell drastically
4) Education missed out on - by 1981 120 million people under 45 couldn't read or write.
Project 571
Lin Biao, the Defence Minister and head of PLA, was second-in command by 1969.
BUT he and Mao mistrusted eachother.
1) Mao got rid of Party leaders who supported Lin.
2) In 1971 Lin plotted to overthrow Mao and take power.
3) His plot was discovered. Lin tried to flee & died in an air crash.
RIGHT vs. LEFT
1971-1976
- Who?
- Support
- Ideas
RIGHT
- Deng [re-elected in 1973] and Zhou Enlai
- supported by Party and PLA
- wanted to build up a strong and wealthy China.
LEFT
- The Gang of Four incl. Mao's wife.
- supported by big city militias and Communist Youth League. Controlled radio and press.
- wanted to root out reactionaries and capitalists, felt political and ideological struggle most important.
Left&Right campaigns 1974-1976
Right back a plan for Four Modernisations.
Left campaign against bourgeois ideas.
1976! -- Zhou Enlai dies.
[Triggers 3 events]
Police remove wreaths in Tienanmen square, causing riots.
LEFT blames these on Deng, and strip him of government and party posts.
RIGHT appoint Hua Guofeng
9 September 1976 - Mao dies.
Gang of 4 try and take over, but Politburo appoint Hua to post of Chairman.
Gang of 4 arrested and attacked in propaganda.
Then china basically modernised and became more moderate after a while, gradually.
THE END.
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