American Pageant Chapter 11 Notes Flashcards

Supreme Court of the United States
Terms Definitions
lame duck
A political official during the time he or she remains in office after a defeat or inability to seek another term, and whose power is therefore diminished.
commission
The official legal authorization appointing a person to an office or military position, indicating the nature of the duty, term of office, chain of command, and so on.
writ
(law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer
impeachment
The charge of a public official with improper conduct in office.
pacifist
someone opposed to violence as a means of settling disputes
consulate
diplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul
cede
give over
precedent
In law and government, a decision or action that establishes a sanctioned rule for determining similar cases in the future
secession
formal separation from an alliance or federation
conscription
compulsory military service
broadside
the simultaneous firing of all the armament on one side of a warship
embargo
a government order imposing a trade barrier
excise tax
Hamiltonian economic measure repealed by Jefferson and Gallatin
pardoned
Action Jefferson took toward Republican "martyrs" convicted under the Federalist Sedition Law
Midnight Judges
Derogatory Republican term for Federalist judges appointed at the last minute by President Adams
Marbury v. Madison
Precedent-setting Supreme Court case in which Marshall declared part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional
judicial review
The principle that the Supreme Court can declare laws unconstitutional
impeachment
Action voted by the House of Representatives against Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase
navy
Branch of military service that Jefferson considered least threatening to liberty and most necessary to suppressing the Barbary states
Santo-Domingo
Sugar-rich island where Toussaint L'Ouvertures' slave rebellion disrupted Napoleon's dreams of a vast New World empire
Oregon Country
Territory beyond Louisiana, along Colombia River, explored by Lewis and Clark
$15 million
Price paid by the U.S. for the Louisiana Purchase
Chesapeake
American ship fired on by British in 1807, nearly leading to war between the two countries
Embargo Act
Jefferson's policy of forbidding the shipment of any goods in or out of the U.S.
war hawks
Militantly nationalistic western congressman eager for hostilities with the Indians, Canadians, and British
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle in 1811 where General Harrison defeated the Indian forces under Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa
Mr. Madison's War
Derisive Federalist name for the War of 1812 that blamed it on the Republican president
Naturalization Law of 1802
Reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence to the previous 5 years
Albert Gallatin
Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson; reduced debt tremendously
Samuel Chase
supreme court justice of whom the Democratic-Republican Congress tried to remove in retaliation of the John Marshall's decision regarding Marbury; but he was not removed
Thomas Jefferson
Third President of the U.S., wanted to make military smaller
Tripoli
Warred with the U.S. and ended in the U.S. paying the country $60,000
Napoleon
Abandoned his dream of a New World Empire because he did not re-conquer the island of Santo-Domingo, and British controlled the seas and he did not want them to take over the Louisiana territory
Lewis and Clark
Explored the northern parts of the Louisiana Territory
Aaron Burr
Plotted the secession of New England and New York; killed Hamilton
Non-Intercourse Act
Opened up trade to every country except France and Britain
James Madison
Convinced by Napoleon to give Britain 3 months to lift its Orders in Council, which led to the War of 1812
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