World History - Industrial Revolution/Imperialism Study Guide Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Where did European Industrialization begin? Why?
European Industrialization began in in England because the country had extensive natural resources such as *water power* and *coal* to *fuel* the new machines, *iron ore* to *construct* machines, tools, and buildings, *rivers* for inland *transportation*, and *harbors* from which merchant *ships* set *sail.* Britain also had an expanding economy to support industrialization and political stability gave Britian an advantage. *Britain had all the factors of production*.
What was the Industrial Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution was the greatly *increased output* of *machine-made goods* that begin in *England* in the mid *1700's.*
What was the state of the British economy before and during the Industrial Revolution?
Britain's *economy* was *expanding*. Businesspeople *invested* in the *manufacture of new inventions*. Britain's *highly developed banking* system also contributed to the country's industrialization. *People* were *encouraged* by the availability of *bank loans* to invest in *new machinery* and expand their operations. *Oversea trade grew*, the economy prospered and everything progressed, which *led to the increased demand of goods.*
What were the living conditions during the Industrial Revolution?
Since English cities _grew rapidly_, they *lacked* development plants, sanitary codes, or building codes. There was *_not enough_* adequate housing, education, and police protection for people who came in from the countryside job seeking. Most of the unpaved streets had no drains, and garbage was dumped into the street. *Workers lived in dark, dirty shelters, with whole families crowding into one bedroom*. *Sickness was widespread*. Epidemics of cholera swept through the English industrial city slums.
What were the working conditions of the Industrial Revolution?
*Factory owners* arranged their *machines* to be *running* as *many hours as possible*, to increase *production.* Resulting from that, the *average worker* had to spend *14* hours every *day on the job for *6 days* in the *week.* *Work* was the *same year round.* Working was machines was often dangerous. Factories were seldom well lit or clean. Workers were injured by the machines. No government program to provide air. Most dangerous conditions were in coal mines. Frequent accident, damp condition, coal dust in lungs shortened miner's life span 10 years. Many women and chidlren worked in mining undustry because they were the cheapest form of labor.
How was life span affected by the Industrial Revolution?
In a British government study, an average life span was 17 years for a working-class person in one city, 38 years for a rural area worker. Coal miner's life span was shortened ten years shorter than that of other workers because of harsh conditions.
What is Urbanization?
Urbanization is the building of cities and the movement of people to those cities. For centuries, most Europeans lived in rural areas. The factory system grew and shifted hundreds of thousands of people to cities.
What effects did the development of railroad systems have in the Industrial Revolution?
The invention of the locomotive had four major effects: [ *+1+* ] Railroads spurred industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finish products. [ *+2+* ] The railroad boom created hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and miners. [ *+3+* ] Rialroads boosted England's agricultural and fishing industires, which could transport their products to distant cities. [ *+4+* ] Railroads encouraged country people to take distant city jobs. Railroads lured those in the city to resorts in the country.
What was the agricultural revolution?
In 1700, small farms once covered England's landscape. Rich landowners began buying up much of the land that the villagers once farmed. These landowners dramatically improved farming methods. Innovations amounted to an agricultural revolution. Once such innovation were enclosures. Wealty landowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. Within these large fields (enclosures), landowners could experiment with more productive seeding and harvesting methods to boost crop yields. *Landowners tried new agricultural methods and large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to the cities.
What was crop rotation?
Crop rotation was the practice of planting different crops each year to retain soil nutrients.
What was Utilitarianism?
Utilitarianism was the idea that people hsould judge ideas, institutions, and actions on the basis of their utility, usefulness.
What were unions?
Unions were voluntary labor associations that worked for better working conditions and high pay. If they didn't get what they wanted, they went to strike (refusal to work).
What was paternalism?
Paternalism was a method of direct colonial management that provided for needs of the people but gave them no rights.
How did the divison of African territories and forming of new boundries affect the imperialism period?
During Berline Conference, 14 European nations divided up Africa. No regard shown for tribal and ethnic boundaries. Led to splitting up tribes into two or combining two enemy tribes into one territory. Lots of fighting and conflict between different groups.
What happened to the Malayan Peninsula?
The Brtiish found a large sheltered harbor in Singapore, an island off the tip of the Malay Peninsula. It became one of the world's largest ports.
Who was Queen Liluokalani and what did she do?
She wanted to increase hawaiian power, by calling for a new constituion. A group of American businessmen overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy and in 1893 Queen Liluokalani was removed from power.
What was the Berlin Conference and what were the effects of it?
The Berlin Conference (1884 -1885) was a meeting in which 14 European nations laid down rules for the division of Africa. Any country could claim land if they proved that it could be controlled. No African rulers were present, as such, no regard was shown for tribal/ethnic boundaries.
What is the law of supply and demand?
Enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy.
What is deflation?
Deflation is a sustained decrease in the general price level of goods and services. Deflation occurs when the annual inflation rate falls below zero percent, resulting in an increase in the real value of money - negative inflation rate.
What is capitalism?
Capitalism is a system where the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit.
What is communism?
Communism is a system where the means of production is owned by the people. Private property no longer exists. All goods and services are shred equally by the people.
What were the reasons for European Imperialism? What were the benefits and drawbacks?
<p> *Reasons for European Imperialism* : +New markets and raw materials.+ // +European superiority+ - [1]Empire seen as reflection of a nation's greatness. [2]Racism. -[a]Belief that one race is superior to another. [3]Social Darwinism - [a]Survival of the fittest applied to human societies. [b]Non-Europeans were inferior. [4]"White man's burden" - [a]Responsiblity of the white man to teach and civilize the Africans. </p> +Factors driving Imperialism in Africa+ - [1]Technological superiority - [a]Maxim Gun. [2]Means to control an Empire - [a]Steam Engine - River travel. [b]Railroads and cables. [3]Quinine - [a]Protection from malaria. [4]Diverysity in Africa discouraged unity. <p>*Benefits* : [1]Reduced local warefare.[1] [2]Improved Sanitation.[2] [3]Provided hospitals and schools - Life span and literacy increase[3] [4]Economic boom[4] [5]Railroads, dams, telephone and telegraph lines[5] </p><p>*Drawbacks* : [1]Africans lost land and independence[1] [2]Death from new diseases and resistance[2] [3]Famines from change to cash crops[3] [4]Breakdown of traditional culture as direct policy of *assimilation*[4] [5]Division of Africa - Artificial European boundaries combined or unnaturally divided groups[5]</p>
What was the first industry of the Industrial Revolution?
<p>The first industry was the Textile industry.</p> <p>Changes were flying shuttle, spinning jenny, water frame, spinning mule, power loom. </p>
What were the benefits and drawbacks of industrial revolution?
<p><b>Pros</b> <ul> <li>Jobs for workers,</li> <li>wealth of the nation,</li> <li>fostered technological progress and invention,</li> <li>greatly increased production of goods</li> <li>raised standard of living. </li> <li>Provided hope of improvement in people's lives.</li> </ul> </p> <p><b>Cons</b> <ul> <li>Lack of city planning</li><li>Loss of famiy stability</li><li>Harsh conditions for laborers, including children</li></ul></p>
Who was Karl Marx and what did he do?
<p>Karl Marx thought human societyies have always been divided into warring classes.<br>Middle classes "haves" - Bourgeosie. </br><br>Working class "have nots" - Proletariat. </br></p> <p>Situation results in conflict. <br>Proletariat would overthrow the boourgeoise and bring about economic equality for all.</br><br>State and/or government would wither away as a classless society formed.</br></p> <p>He wrote his ideals in Communist Manifesto with Friedrich Engels (gave financial aid). <b>Beginning of Communisim ideas. Radical socialism.</b></p>
What were reformation movments?
Laissez Faire, capitalism, utilitarianism, socialism, communism.
US Industrialization - What, When, Where, Why, How?
<p>Social and economical reorganization that ook place as machines replaced hand tools and large-scale factor production developed. <br>Samuel Slater - In 1792, a British immigrant built the 1st successful mechanized textile factory in America.</p><p>Three Bostonians - Francis Cabot Lowell, Nathan Appleton, and Patrick Tracy Jackson. <br>Used plans from an English mill. Mechanized all stages in production of cloth.</br></p> <p>It began in America because of Jefferson's Embargo Act of 1807 - War of 1812. America was blockaded by Britain and forced Americans to use own resources to develop independent industries.</p><p>Individuals brought plans to US to build mills and factories, girls from rural areas came to work as mill girls.</p>
What is Socialism?
Socialism is a system of government in which factors of production are owned by the public and operate for the welfare of all. Government should plan the economy.
Who was Menelik II and what did he do?
He was the King of Ethiopia. Menelik II played Italy, France, Britain against each other. Built up an arsenal of modern weapons. Discovered difference in language/translation for a treaty between Ethiopia and Italy. Declared war, Italians driven out.
What were sepoys?
Sepoys were Indian soldiers who worked for the British.
Significance of singapore? Harbor.
Singapore contained a large sheltered harbor that became one of the world's busiest ports after British seized Malayan Peninsula. Encouraged chinese immigration to increase work force. Malayan became minority - conflict still exists.
Spanish-American War significance?
The Philippines was acquired from the war. "Educate, uplift, and Christianize" so Americans would believe. US fought with nationalists for 3 years, promise to prepare for self rule, then they'll give country control back to Philippines.
What is Opportunity Cost? [DEFINITION]
Opportunity cost is the value of the next best alternative foregone as the result of making a decision.
What is Imperialism and main effects? [DEFINITION]
<p>Imperialism is the seizure of any country or territory for the benefit of the larger/stronger country. <br> <ul> <li>Colonization- European control land & people in Africa, Asia, Latin America.</li> <li>Colonial economics - Europeans control trade in the colonies and set up dependent cash crop economies.</li> <li>Christianization - Christianity spreads to Africa, India, and Asia.</li></ul> </p>
What is assimilation?
In Assimilation, one culture adopts characteristics of another.
What is an Entrepreneur? [DEFINITION]
An entrepreneur is a person who organizes, manages, and takes on the risk of a business.
Who was Adam Smith and what did he do?
Adam Smith was a professor who defended the idea of free economy/markets. Smith's arguments rested on three natural laws of economics. Law of self-interest :: People work for their own good. <b>Law of competition</b> :: Competition forces people to make a better product. </br><b>Law of supply and demand</b> :: Enough goods would be produced at the lowest possible price to meet demand in a market economy. </br></p>
What is Laissez-Faire?
Laissez-Faire is the policy of letting owners of industry and business set working conditions without interference. It favors a free market unregulated by the government. [Adam Smith - Three laws]
What was the steam engine?
The Steam Engine was developed by James Watt. Steam engines could power boats and trains. These methods of transportation could transport people and goods more quickly and cheaply.
Industrialized ountries and non-industrialized countries
Industrialized countries needed raw materials - Non-industrialized countries had them. Industrialized countries viewed non-industrialized countries as markets for industrialized countries' goods.
Raj [DEFINITION]
Raj refers to the time of British rule over India from 1757 until 1947.
What was the sepoy mutiny?
Word spread among the sepoys that their cartridges for their Enfield rifles were greased with beef and pork fat. Sepoys had to bite off the ends of the cartridges to use them. The sepoy mutiny was an outbreak on May 10, 1857. Sepoys marched to Delhi, where they joined Indian soldiers and captured Delhi, spreading the rebellion across northern and central India.
Significance of Hawaii?
Hawaii became a republic. Sugar: American sugar plantations accounted for 75% of Hawaiian wealth. McKinley Tariff Act in 1890 eliminated the sugar tariff and called for annexation so the Hawaiian business owners wouldn't lose money.
Significance of India?
British East India Company set up trading post Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. East India Company ruled India with little interference, had its own army with sepoys. India was a major supplier of raw materials, large market for British goods, most valuable colony. Policies prevented Indian economy from operating by itself. India must produce raw materials and buy British goods, no Indian competition allowed.
What is profit?
A financial gain, the difference between the amount earned and the amount spent in buying, operating, or producing something.
What is income?
Money received, especially on a regular basis, for work or through investments.
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