Mao's China 1945-76 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Laws of 1950
Agrarian Reform Law and Marriage Law
Big Campaigns
Three Antis (1951) and Five Antis (1952), 2-3m committed suicide in 5 antis
First Fiver Year Plan
Purge of GG and RS
Gao Gang and Rao Shushi in 1954
Persecution of HF
Hu Feng in 1955
100 Flowers
Launched in early 1957 and ended in June, 500,000 intellectuals persecuted and sent to Laogai
Events 100 flowers
Intellectuals sceptical due to persecution of Hu Feng eventually intellectual unleashed torrent and Mao reacted
100 flowers lead to
Doubts in CCP, fear of CCP, lack of intellectuals, discipline, lack of independent thought
First Commune
April 1958
Great Leap Forward launched
May 1958 ended June 1960
PD Purged
Peng Dehuai in late 1959 for challenging GLF
Launch of Cultural Revolution and officially ended in 1969
1966 after attack on Wu Han in press
LB rise and fall
Lin Biao names as successor in 1969 but dies escaping in September 1971
State of China in 1949
China had a population of 475m, 80% landless peasants with a literacy rate of 20%
Problems with China in 1949
huge country, crime (opium addiction), communication, economy (inflation and no currency, bad agriculture), taking out western powers (reliance on USSR), literacy and starvation
Mao Zedong thought based on
self reliance, continuing revolution, class struggle, role of peasants, role of party and mass mobilisation
Early Solutions of Mao's government
Bring down inflation, sieze foreign assets, nationalise banks, gas, electricity and transport, establish new system of government, introduce renminbi, unify China
Early Agriculture and industry results
By 1952 industry and agriculture had risen 77.5 percent
Early policies had cautious tone and…
China still relied on bourgeoisie and Mao allowed 14 other political parties
Mao’s government was structured around
CCP, central government and PLA
Central committee etc…
Made up of 44, Politburo made up of 14 and standing committee had 5 people
How many key posts and who was important?
24 across the country, Gao Gang, Peng Dehuai, Rao Shushi, Lin Biao and Deng Xiaoping held 15
Who argued that Mao was new emporer
Lynch felt this was dynasty of Mao
By 1950 the PLA
had 5m members, largest army in the world, it accounted for 41% of the state budget.
By 1953 the PLA was
3.5m strong and 2.5m by 1957. 800,000 new conscripts came through every year, PLA lost egalitarianism
The military budget remained
constant at around 40% of spending in early years
Mao controlled China through
Cult of personality, PLA (kept law and order, propaganda, cadres), government and local CCP, terror and repression
Cult of personality propaganda through…
posters, books of his quotes, songs, operas and films / served purpose of creating loyalty to Mao
work units
The Danwei, led by cadres, controlled housing, grain, oil and cloth allocation. They also issued travel, marriage, army entrance, university and employment change permits.
CCP encouraged mass organisations…
9m members of New Democratic Youth League in 1953
prison camps
laogai, held 10m people held in any one year in camps. About 25m died in these camps and by 1976 there were more than 10,000 camps across China
files held on all people that came to the CCP’s attention
Dangans were a form of political and social control
The Suppression of Counter-Revolutionaries campaign
started in 1950 focused on people with Kuomintang links and 28,000 were executed in a year in just on province
What campaign focused on foreigners
Resist American and Aid Korea Campaign of 1950
Anti Rightist campaign after…
100 flowers campaign sent 500,000 to Laogai
Problems with China industry/agriculture in 1949
Non mechanised peasant farming and almost complete lack of industry
Korean War
Started in June 1950 approximately 800,000 Chinese soldiers died
Land Reform
(1950-52)Approximately 700,000 executions and killings of landlords.About 40% of cultivate land was redistributed and 60% of the population benefitted.
First Five Year Plan
Mutual aid teams
10 housholds pooling tools, by the end of 1952 40% of households were members
Agricultural Producers Cooperatives grouped 30-50 then 200-300 households by January 1956 63% of peasants in one
Agricultural results of FFYP
Agriculture grew only 3.8% 1953-57 and population growth exceeded this 2% vs. 1% ag growth in 1957 / poor harvest in 1954 had led to some food riots
Collectivisation led to…
Greater CCP control rurally and some peasants better off foodwise
Positive Industrial results of FFYP
Almost all production exceeded targets such as Coal, steel, cement, electricity, trucks, machines and bicycles all exceeded production targets.
Negative Industrial results of FFYP
Only Locomotives and insecticide and a couple of others failed to meet targets.
Overall Industrial results of FFYP
Industry grew 18% per year 1953-57 and Industrial output double in 5 years
Failures of FFYP
Many workers illiterate and poorly trained and freedom restricted, consumer goods neglected, huge loans to USSR owed
General FFYP successes
Living standards rose, workers had greater income and job security
Why launch GLF
FFYP not agriculturally succesful and more food needed for industrialisation. Also allowed peasants to partake in revolution
20,000 people 26,000 communes were formed by December 1958 from 740,000 co-operatives with approximately 99% of the peasant population in communes.
Communes changed social dynamics…
people ate together, put in militia units, children looked after together, sexes slept together, nuclear family destroyed
Aim of communes
to create military discipline, extract as much food and work as possible
The Four Noes campaign
Mao aimed to eradicate the pests; flies, mosquitoes, rats and sparrows.
Mao used Soviet loans of
7% of USSR national income in 1959.
In 1958 the government claimed
there was 375 million tonnes of grain when actually around 200 million tonnes was harvested. In 1959 this fell to 170 million and in 1960 only 143 million tonnes was produced.
GLF Failure
Weather conditions; flood south and drought north, anti-rightist campaign purged many experts, waste of work, USSR withdrew experts, grain exported.
There was a huge famine across China in the years
1959-62. Around 20 million people died in this time period even in Beijing the death rate rose 250%. Half those dead under 10 and suicies 250,000
By 1961 grain was
being imported; 6 million tonnes whereas in 1959 4.7mt exported
GLF for industry
Industrial output had peaked in 1960 at 183 billion yuan fell to 94bn in 1962. Steel, coal and cement output peaked in 1960 but by 1962 halved
Social results of GLF
Prostitution, banditry and cannabalism (re)emerged. State violence increase, communism less trusted
Traditional views of women
Patriarchal, women oppressed with foot binding and lack of education. Arranged marriages, dowry, prostitution, concubinage
Women under mao
in labour force increased from 8% to 32% under Mao. Percentage of female deputies in National People’s congress increased from 14% in 1954 to 23% in 1975. Prostitution stamped out.
Marriage Law of 1950…
outlawed arranged marriages, payment of dowries, bigamy and concubinage. It also allowed divorces to be attained much easier and gave property rights to women, equal rights as men
Failures of Women's rights;
Only 13% CCP membership was female, patriarchal society wouldn’t change quickly, innapropriate labour, Mao had concubines, family life destroyed in GLF, famine brought back old attitudes
Education changes;
In 1949 20% attended primary school, by 1956 less than half but by 1976 96%
Why did Mao focus on education?
Literacy essential for indoctrination and good workforce for economic development
New language
Introduced in 1955 a new form of mandarin that could be written and understood by all dialects and regions
Literacy rates changed from and Universities
20% in 1949 to 70% in 1976 and Universities went from 200 to 1016 in same time
Failures of education
In 1982 1% had university degree, only 35% post 12 education and only 6% officials post 16 education
Education unfairness
Only 6.4% of state investment in 1952, 'key schools' not on merit often
Health before 1949
Water-born diseases prevelant, worm infestation and lack of sanitation, many on fringe of starvation. Only hospitals in cities nothing rurally
Mao's health care focused on
Prevention rather than cure to keep workforce healthy
Helath reform through
Mass campaigns such as Patriotic Health Camapaign for sanitation and hygeine
Health failures
only 1.3% of state investment in 1952, many doctors removed and few retrained
Health successes
Helathier population generally, Death rates gradually declined, drinking water improved, peasants educated on causes of diseases,
Health care provision under Mao
Urban hospitals, paramedics at villages, towns had health centre and county hospitals had doctors, barefoot doctors provided rural care
Helath care help in rural
Barefoot doctors and Rural Cooperative Medical Schemes
Pragmatic successes
by 1965 the harvest was at levels of 1957 and in 1965 industrial output was nearly double 1957
The Cultural Revolution was…
A struggle to change culture, a power struggle in CCP, a rectification campaign
CR: struggle to remould culture…
art, literature to socialist, attack on non-socialist literature (Proletarian writers for purity), culture struggle was class struggle
CR: power struggle in CCP…
Mao wanted his inluence in CCP, Mao didn't think Liu or Deng were socialist they were purged, many in CCP were purged Mao took total control
CR: rectification campaign…
authority taking capitalist road, Mao mobilised millions, Mao felt cadres too comfortable, personality cult put Mao at centre of continuing revolution
Four olds
old culture, old customs, old ideas and old habits
Events of CR
Mao created and sent Red Guards to destory four olds, set up adult red guards, set up revolutionary comittees, purged Deng Liu and many others, then installed PLA as most important
Turning point of CR
Politburo criticised CR as Mao limited red guards, Mao felt criticism showed need for CR and re-released the factional fighting
What destroyed by CR
books, museums, libraries, cultural centres
Who was blamed for CR
May 16th group…
What were in control after CR and who involved
Revolutionary committees with CCP officials, PLA and revolutionary rebels.
In early ---- cleansing of …?
1968, cleansing of class ranks, 1.8m arrested and 10's of thousands killed
Change in CCP hierarchy post CR
⅔ Central Committee members in 1966 had been purged from CCP and only 9 out of the 23 politburo members from 1966 survived. Liu and Deng purged
Results of CR on youth and education
Between 1968 and 1976 12m young people were sent to the countryside without formal education. Universities close 1966 for 2 years, middle schools closed for 8 months
CR effect on Leisure/Culture
Leisure replaced with violence denounciations, scholars and writers persecuted only media was propaganda (Red book)
Deaths from CR
Violence last 2.5 years a death toll between 700,000 and 850,000,
Results of CR agriculture and industry
Agricultural output declined to start with and industrial output fell by 13% in 1967 and also fell in 1968
CR effect on family
Destroted nuclear family, youth scattered post CR
Changes in CCP post CR
70% of provincial and regional officials were purged and 3m cadres sent to cadre schools, 20% party bureaucracy labelled revisionist
Mme Mao
Jiang Qing deputy head of CR group, incited attacks on Deng, imposed cultural material boundaries, became hated, Mao denounced in 1974
PLA Dominance post CR
⅔ of delegates to the party congress were PLA members. The central committee was 45% PLA
Deng Xiaopings return
Returned in 1973 as Vice Premier then Vice Chairman in 1974, stripped of roles in 1975 after Zhou Enlai's death earlier
Who took over after Mao?
Hua Guafeng initially, then Deng as Gang of Four arrested
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