Genetics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
true bacteria
Type O
universal donor
Z/W sex chromosomes
Where does translation occur?
Huntington disease
-triplet repeat disease
-autosomal DOMINANT
-100% penetrance
-memory loss
-CAG repeat expansion
-juvenile hd PATERNAL inheritance
environmental versus genetic component. Established by comparing variance from environment vs. genetic. Used in twin studies: monozygotic/dizygotic. Both reared apart so can partition variation into genetic and environmental components since monozygotic twins are genetically identical. Actually very difficult to do, but used in psychology for behavioral traits.
division of the cytoplasm
tightly condensed chromatin that contains little coding sequences and stains darkly. (It is genetically inert).
genetic material unfolded and uncoiled
What causes tumors in plants.
provides chromosomal structure using non histonal proteins even without histones
discrete heritable unit- remains intact
translation in prokaryotes starts..... transcription has ended
XAX=?         XAXA=?    XAY=?
XAXA=Affected female
Referring to a double-stranded DNA molecule that is twisted in space about its own axis.
Failure of chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate in anaphase; leads to an abnormal number of chromosomes, or aneuploidy
Germ-cell mutation
occurs in an organisms gametes.
Long interspersed sequences of DNA: 1000-7000bp.
With incomplete dominance, a likely ratio resulting from a monohybrid cross would be
Name the two transposable elements discovered in corn by B. McClintock.
two associated globular subunits of rna and protein
scaffold and catalyst for protein synthesis
What does HIV infect?
Helper T cells
characteristics of both males and females; cleavage determined early usually - butterflies with one wing female coloring and one wing males coloring
Eukaryotic Cell
have a nucleus, containing DNA
Transcription factors act as on/off switches for ____________.
Angelman syndrome is caused by microdeletion on chromosome 15 of the ________ chromosome
transfer of genetic information from DNA by the synthesis of an RNA molecule copied from a DNA template
a specialist or expert in genetics.
constitutive heterochromatin
Condensed chromatin that is always transcriptionally inactive and is found at homologous sites on chromosome pairs.
multiple genes involved in a single function that are expressed on a single RNA transcript. (all genes are transcribed on the same transcript)
RNA polymerase starts at a promoter then works it's way down the DNA, first unzipping the section then matching up the bases. It stops at a terminator
referring to a factor that masks another factor for the same trait
Process of shutting down one X chromosome to produce a Barr body.
alternative traits are both visible in the F1 hybrid
encodes amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. mRNAs are the transcripts of of protein-coding genes. Translation of an mRNA produces a polypeptide.
messenger RNA
the RNA that carries genetic instruction from DNA to carry out protein synthesis
The complementary 3 base sequence on DNA
Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg law is used in evolutionary studies.
nuclear organizer
located on 2ndary constriction, has ribosomal RNA genes that make ribosomes
T/F methylation is only inherited from the paternal side?
The chance that an individual will show the characteristic if they have the correct geneotype.
Muscular dystrophy
--myotonic dystrophy-2 types : MDD1 and MDD2-50-1000 repeats of some thing genetic-muscles can't contract or relax-genes w/ 40 + copies are unstable and can gain repeat copies in successive generations
Double strand breaks form?
reciprocal products of recombination
C Value
Haploid DNA content measure in bp
during replication, what adds a short length of RNA to the new DNA strands
Seed leaf. Not a true leaf.
Genetic Recombination
New combination of genes produced by crossing over and independent assortment
type of cell division where one body cell produces for gametes, each containing half the number of chromosomes in a parent’s body.
Define "Induced" mutations
induced by mutagens, which are enviornmental agents that damage DNA. 1) Ionizing radiation(attack molecules)2) UV radiation (thymine absorbs and forms a thymine dimer 'kink')3) certain organic chemicals
C mutations are due to transposons - they are controlled by factors called control elements ( Ac(activator) Ds (dissociator) ---- Ds inserts then C turns to c (no ac) buttt when there is Ac then Ds excises itself causing c to go back to C
A stage in mitosis during which the centromeres split and the daughter chromosomes begin to separate.
Okazaki fragments
Pieces produced during the process of DNA replication on the lagging strand.
is a procedure in which amnionic fluid is removed from around the fetus. For genetic analysis
What should parents with genetic disorders do before having a child?
Get genetic testing!
Southern blotting
Cloning genes
DNA is seperated by gel electrophoresis. This is then copied over to a membrane which is hybridized to a probe.
Amplify the isolated gene in a bacteria. needs to have an origin of replication, selectable markers, and a unique restriction site. All of this done with a plasmid
Need to first ligate plasmid, then insert trait, then get bacteria to uptake and transform, and select for the colonies which have uptaken trait. 
direct reversal
repair of a mutation but undoing mutation
Multiple allelism
more then two recognizable alleles of a gene (rabbit coat color)
How might we detect if chromatin structure changes around a promoter
DNase sensitivity
an enzyme that can cut and reform polynucleotide backbones in DNA to allow it to assume a more relaxed configuration
the chromosome with one copy of the organism’s DNAProkaryotic genome = usually 1 chromosome (Circular DNA molecule)Eukaryotic genome = 1 HAPLOID set of chromosomes (Linear dsDNA-protein complex)
True or False: In studying the variation of a phenotype in a population, you notice that the distribution follows a bell-shaped curve. This suggests to you that this trait is most likely a polygenic trait.
the process by which DNA makes an exact copy of itself before cell division
first order of chromatin packing?
coling around the nucleosomes
the diploid product of the union of haploid gametes in conceptin
Segregation and Independent Assortment
- the consequence of chromosomal behavior during meiosis
- during the first meiotic division, the homologous pairs separate
- following the cytokinesis, the number of chromosomes per cell is reduced from 2N to N
- above steps in meiosis during which segregation and independent assortment occur
- each gamete receives the haploid (N) complement of chromosomes
A chromosome that does not have a gene that determines sex.
head filling
when the cossites help pack lambda dna into the protein coat of the virus
steroid hormone function?
bind to receptors to make cell specific functions
A portion of a chromosome is lost from the genome, thus these genes are not present in the gamete. The lose of genes from the genotype is serious and often lethal.
Primary transcript
DNa template for RNAOne piece of DNA is used, doesn't matter which oneTermination sites are located so that they don't overlap with transcribed regions
Avery, MacLeod, McCarty
their experiment showed that DNA was the transforming principle
Origin, promoter
DNA replication begins at an _____ but transcription begins at a ______
localizing expressed proteins
insert cDNA into bacterium and allow it to produce the proteins; inject these to a vertebrate host, which will produce antibodies; antibodies injected into embryos will bind to the proteins where they are being expressed; special dyes will reveal the location
Prokaryotic cell
Simple cels with their DNA arranged as a single circular chromosome.
Selection Differential
The difference between the mean of the selected parents and the mean of the general population.
What is cladogenesis?
the splitting of one lineage into two
Adult karyote methods?
use white blood cells, Treat with phytohemagglutinin, add colcemid, and squash cells (chromosomes spill out), stain them, and take pictures
Pattern of Inheritance for a Sex-Linked Recessive GEne
- sex-linked recessives generally affect only males
- they can't be passed from father to son, only daughters
- later can be passed to the grandson via a daughter that is a carrier
- it skips a generation
If Dipolid is missign a 1 copy of a gene what would the gene balance be?
Open reading frame
Look for this when looking for a gene. Must have: unique amino acid sequence of particular length with promoter and enhancer, terminating sequence, stop codon, poly-A tail.
mother cell
Any cell that is ready to begin cell division.
Transgenic Cell
a cell that has a gene introduced into it by artificial means
a DNA region at one end of an operon that acts as the binding site for a repressor protein
map unit (m.u.)
unit of measure for distances on a genetic map. 1 map unit = 1% recombination.
a different form of the DNA code for a specific trait (for example, the alleles of the traid of eye color are blue, brown, green, gray, and hazel)
Gene balance (GB)
The ratio of a givin autosomal gene to other genes in the genome
2008 - Genetic Info Nondiscrimination Act
This act protects Americans against discrimination based on genetic information and was passed in....
non-coding functional sequence
gene that does not code for a protein or product but which serves a definite function; ex) telomere sequences
What are the 4 types of aneuploidy?
nullisomy, monosomy, trisomy, and tetrasomy
what are the two kinds of stem cells
-embryotic ~totipotent can differentiate any kind of cell, express all genes-adult ~pluripotnt, difffentiate between several genes, do not reporduce indefinately
CAP-cAMO and RNA-Pol binding sites in summary of the lac operon
The presence of glucose prevents lactose metabolism b/c a glucose breakdown product inhibits maintenance of high cAMP levels needed for formation of the CAP-cAMP complex, which is required for the RNA polymerase to attach to the promoter site. A shortage of glucose catabolites and CAP-cAMP forms, the mechanism for lactose metabolism will be implemented only if lactose is present. It's accomplished b/c lactose must bind to the repressor protein to remove it from the operator site and permit transcription.
What is the process of spermatogenesis? Mitosis? Meiosis? or Both?
Stem cells in the testes divide mitotically to produce spermatocytes. Then spermatocytes divide by meiosis to produce four equal sized haploid spermatids which mature into four sperm.
What are the two common ways to perform gene therapy?

Liposomes - cloned genes associated with enzyme that is taken up by cell via endocytosis.

Viral vector - viruses carry cloned gene into cell during infection.
what did Rosalind Franklins x-ray diffraction images of crystallized DNA show?
that it is a helical molecule with specific spacings and repetitions
State the three principles of cell theory.
1) organisms are composed of one or more cells2) cells come from pre-existing cells3) cells are the smallest unit of life
What five units make up the core enzyme (also called RNA polymerase) in bacterial cells?
-2 copies of alpha-1 beta-1 beta prime-1 omega-not essential, just helps stabilize the enzyme
What is DNA synthesis and where does it occur?
Going from 1 DNA molecule to 2 DNA molecules. During S Phase. Going from chromosomes made of one chromatid to chromosomes made of 2.
high-molecular-weight, nitrogen-containing organic compound of complex shape and composition. are made up of polypeptides, which are made of amino acids. each cell type has charracteristic set of proteins that gives it its functional properties
p1 generation
parental generation.
1 extra chromosome
Allelic Heterozygocity
Complicates Pedigree
Different mutations within the same gene
Example: Becker/Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy
physical characteristic of an organism
Mendel 1865
disc. peas inheritance
Ribosomes are formed during
Variable Expression
Complicates Pedigree
 severity of disease can vary greatly.
modified by environment, modifier genes or mutation at the disease locus.
asexual polyploidy
mitosisdoubling of compliment chromosomes = polyploidy
prental human first eight weeks
A. distance between genes
B. distance between mutational sites within the same gene
protein that holds chromatids together
Pure genotype for a trait
How many are in a chromosome?
Pseudo Hermaphoditism
SRY is functioningTestes usually presentFemale internal structures disappearBlock in testosterone synthesisNo male structure (penis)Child appears to be femaleAt puberty, adrenal glands start functioningMasculization occurs
Eduard Van Beneden
made observations about Mitosis
1. fertilized egg has equal contributions from both parents
2. divides longitudinally each daughter cell gets = # of chromosomes
3. saw cells have 2 chromosomes from each parent combine and produce 2 daughter cells with 4 chromosomes
Interchromosomal recombination
Intrachromosomal recombintion
unlinked genes on different chromosomes from independant assortment
between genes on the same chromosomes from crossing over
individuals with Turner's syndrome are tall males with 2N=47
activity of a particular allele is reduced when inherited with a paramutagenic allele at the same locus
Does Hardy-Weinberg use an extrinsic or intrinsic hypothesis?
Intrinsic hypothesis
When preparing a karyotype, stops mitotic division and prevents entering anaphase
types of DNA?
ALU-300bp, alpha satellite-170bp, VNTR-15-100bp, dinucleatide repeats
punnett square
instrument for solving genetic problems 4, 16 or 64
Klinefelter's Syndrome
- condition caused by nondisjunction of the sex chromosomes
- XXY males
- sterile with abnormally small testes
Homologous Chromosomes
Chromosomes that are generally similar in size and shape, and occur in pairs. One from a male and one from a female parent.
the directed modification of a genome by the external application of DNA from a cell or different genotype.
a section of DNA/RNA three nucleotide pairs (triplets) in length that codes for a single amino acid
Structures composed of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
About 12 bp per turn, turns left/counter-clockwise.
the genetic make up of an organism.
Bonus**What is Northern Blotting for?
To analyze mRNA
Partial Diploids
Haploid with F' factors, hetereozygous for selected lac mutations. Allowed Jacob and Monod to distingish mutations in the lac operator from mutations in the lac repressor (encoded by I)
An organism composed of a prokaryotic cell, such as a bacterium or a blue-green algae.
crossover interference
crossover inhibit each other from occurring nearby
one of the two identical stands resulting from self-duplication of a chromosome
The wrinkly of skin, sparsely covered with hair, that holds the testicles
all traits would be inherited from only one parent - from the father if the homunculus was in the sperm or from the mother if it was in the egg. Homunculus = tiny adult..
Thalassemia is a disease due to mutations in the genes for _______.
Somatic cell hybridization
Fusion of different cell types
acentric and dicentric?
no centromere & two centromeres
Dicentric chromosome
An aberrant chromosome having two centromeres.
A type of chromosomal mutation in which a piece of chromosome is rotated, resulting in reversal of the order of the genes in that segment.
Polygenic Traits
Two or more genes control a trait
more than one copy of a particular chromosomal segment in a chromosome set
Crossing over and recombination
Recombination allows for separate sister chromatids to exchange DNA during meiosis.Crossing Over: One of the final stages of recombination. Matching regions on matching chromosomes break and then reconnect to the other chromosome.
diploid cell in the ovary, capable of undergoing meiosis to produce and egg cell
An allele is
an alternate form of a gene
rolling circle replication
how plasmids transfer DNAinitiated at 3' end of nicked strand nucleotides added to 3' end forcing the 5' end away and into the F- cellLagging strand replication completes new strandWhen a circle is complete the pilus breaks and the cells seperate
Negative Regulation
absense of the bound repressor allows transcription to begin.
reduction division
meiosis 1, reduces the number of replicated chromosomes from 46 to 23
Genetic Equilibrium
The situation in which the allele frequency for a given gene remains constant from generation to generation.
when they produce a single kind of gamete: in humans and drosophila= females (XX)
Vas deferens
The tube that transports sperm from the epididymis from each testicle to the urethra in the prostate gland
triplo-x syndrome
Human condition in which cells contain three x chromosomes. A person with triplo-x syndrome has a female phenotype without distinctive features other than a tendency to be tall and thin; a few such women are sterile, bur many menstruate regularly and are fertile.
Gene therapy is most effect against ________ mutations in genes associated with _______ modes of inheritance.
reccessive; monogenic
repulsion (trans) configuration
arrangement in which each chromosome contains one wild-type (dominant) gene and one (recessive) gene.
Lysogenic Cycle
Virus integrates DNA into genome of host, allowing it to be passed to subsequent progeny cells
all 3 occur in the nucleus
Three post-transcriptional modifications often seen in the maturation of mRNA in eukaryotes occur where?
a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes & therefore only a single set of genes
Define "Spontaneous" mutations
latin: De Novo Mutations:1) during DNA replication, mismatching escapes proof reading mechanism2) isomerization occurs, atoms are aranged differently in space, bases reanger themselfs to become a similar molecule
How many sets of chromosomes do flies have?
4 sets
Diploid (2N)
Two copies of each type of chromosome within the nuclei.
A diploid somatic cell from a rat has a total of 42 chromosomes. As in humans, sex chromosomes determine sex: XX in females and XY in males.What is the total number of chromosomes in a polar body cell from a rat?
Principle of Segregation
Mendel's first law of inheritance. It states that each parent contributes 1 set of instructions for each individual trait and that each trait is represented by 2 copies that separate into different gametes or "sex cells".
autosomal dominant
can appear in either sex because an autoosome carries the gene. Do not skip generations (if child has it, one parents must have it). If one generatoin doesn't have it, transmission stops.
Who described the nucleus of the cell and what year?
1833, Brown
Southern blot
getting an imprint of DNA molecules on a membrane by using the membrane to blot the gel after electrophoresis; the DNA is denatured first and then the membrane is hybridized with labeled probe; an autoradiograph will reveal the presence of any bands that are complemetary to the probe
the larger of the two kinds of spores produced by some ferns
In vitro copying of an mRNA into cDNA, followed by PCR amplification.
Mendel's Law of Segregation
states that each diploid organism contains 2 alleles for a gene and that a gamete receives one of the 2 alleles
What are 2 other words for homozygous?
same and pure
one gene-one polypeptide hypothesis
The hypothesis that each gene controls the synthesis of a polypeptide chain.
What is the most common method for DNA sequencing?
Dideoxynucleotide method
Dominant allele
version of a trait that covers uo the other trait
Induction of lac system-OFF
An repressor binding to the operator, the repressor prevents transcription by RNA Pol that has bound to the adjacent promoter site, switches operon to "off"
What is the difference between bacterial and eukaryotic replication origins?
-bacteria only have one-eukaryotes have many
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)
a molecule containing a diester bond between the 3’ and 5’ carbon atoms of the ribose part of the nucleotide. This modified nucleotide cannot be incorporated into DNA or RNA. It plays a key role as an intracellular signal in the regulation of various processes
2 types of termination?
Rho dependent - Rho factor recognizes DNA sequence, binds to it and pulls it away from RNA pol
RHo independent - stem loop structure and repetitive U's tells RNA pol to release
simple dominance
one gene with two alleles codes for a trait and one allele is expressed over the other when both are present in heterozygotes
what does the Bacteria Artificial Chromosome have?
ori, mcs, cam resistance, parA,. parB
Relaxed State of DNA
Beta form and has 10 BP per turn 
Over or underrotating a molecule in order to stuff it into tiny space. Happens because the tortional strain cannot be relieved (most negatively supercoiled-underrotation. Requires less energy to seperate strands during replication)
Caused by topoisomerase
bacterial artificial chromosome
an F plasmid engineered to act as a cloning vector that can carry large inserts
all the DNA in the cell is doubled to prepare for division
S phase
In transcription, positive regulation indicates
when the regulator protein is bound to DNA, there is transcripton
What is the wobble hypothesis and who came up with it?
-1966-Francis Crick-says that base pairing between codon and anticodon can occur in which the third (3') position of the codon allows more than one codon to pair with the same anticodon
Are the traits that a species need what evolves?
NO-mutations are purposeless, natural selection determines which changes survive in a certain environment
which of the following dexcribes an inducible protein?
the protein is produced when the inducer is present
Why was the Hardy-Weinberg Principle developed?
in response to the question as to why the dominant allele doesn't always become the most frequent in a population.
what are the different types of ends that can occur from restriction?
5' overhang, 3' overhang and blunt end
T/F. There are sometimes carriers for an autosomal dominant disorder?
False, there is never a carrier for autosomal dominant.
Why is there no change between Hfr cell and F- cells?
Because in order for an F- cell to become F+ or Hfr, the entire F factor would have to be incorporated, and because it is originally nicked in the middle, this usually doesn't occur
Recessive Suppression
-mitochondrial inheritance
-pure mutant OR normal mtDNA
centromere near middle
creates first genetic map
terminination/nonsense codons
towards the end (tips)
Form of a gene
Thing that causes a mutation
sister chromatids
2 initially identical copies
connected by a centromere
each sister chromatid consists of a single molecule of DNA
polyploids with chromosomes derived from different species.
AKA amphidiploid
what aa starts with S?
a protein (immunoglobulin) molecule, produced by the immune system, that recognizes a particular substance (antigen) and binds to it
Another description for true-breeding or homozygous individuals.
different forms of the same gene
proteins around which DNA is packaged
single carbon + nitrogen ring
C, U, T
1'C sugar covalently bonded to N1 of ring (1'C to N1)
a point where nonsister chromatids have undergone genetic exchange through crossing over
LHON Leber's Hereditary optic neuropathy
-Mitochondrial disorder
-missense mutation
-maternal inheritance, homoplasmic
Dominant Lethality
This homozygous combination terminates the offspring; often this type of organism is dead before birth
Which chromosome is down syndrome
Chromosome 21
Chromosome Map
Shows which genes are linked
Mendel studied what specific plant?
pea plants
the initial product of transcription in EUKARYOTIC cells only, then introns are spliced out and exons remain (mRNA)
both parental phenotypes are expressed in the F1 hybrids
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of 2 sister chromatids.
Mendel's name for a specific trait hidden or masked in the F1 generation
Define "Transposition"
non-random specific sequence of DNA that "jump" from one area to another. can increase decrease or distroy the expression of the gene whose sequence it interupts
If the who alleles are the same
Trait: Variant for a character (eg white or purple flowers)
polar body
smaller female cells that contains only a small amount of cytoplasm and disintegrates
Red-Green color blindness is X-linked recessive. A woman with normal color vision has a father who is color-blind. The woman has a child with a man with normal color vision. Which phenotype is NOT expected?
color-blind female
Molecule or region of DNA that replicates as a single unit
changes in genetic information of a cell coded in the DNA
Large Polymers composed of amino acid subunits ina specific order determined by base sequence of nucleotides with polypeptide bonds
how many hydrogen bonds join cytosine to guanine?
northern blot
similar technique to southern blot, but used to dterct a specific RNA molecule; one application os to determine if a gene is transcribed in a certain tissue or under certain environmental conditions
a macromolecule composed of one or more AA chains; the main component of phenotypic expression
Transmission Genetics
(classical genetics) mechanisms of how genes and traits are transmitted from generation to generation
Examples: Patterns of trait inheritance, role of mitosis and meiosis
Describes a gene that is always expressed at approximately the same level.
RNA molecule that carries an amino acid to the ribosome and transfers it to a growing polypeptide chain in translation
F2 generation
the second generation of offspring, obtained from an experimental cross of two organisms; the offspring of the F1 generation
What is a pedigree?
A record of ancestors
having dissimilar pairs of genes for any hereditary characteristic.
transforming principle
Term coined by Frederick Griffith for the unknown agent responsible for the change in genotype via transformation in bacteria. DNA is now known to constitute the transforming principle
Klinefelter Syndrome
condition when males have multiple X chromosomes
conclusions drawn by mendel
1.alternative versions of genes accounts for variation in inherited characters.2.Foreach character, a diploid organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent, on homologous chromosomes.  True breeding organims have identical alleles for a give character.3. if the two alleles differ, then one (dominant allele) is fully expressed in the organims apperance.  the other one recessive allele, has no noticeable effect on the organism's apperance.4.The two alleles for each character segregate during gamete formation becuase they are on homologous chromosomes that are separated during the first division of meiosis.
4/5 bases of DNA/RNA
Thymine, guanine, cytosine, adenine, uracil
Four classes of biological molecules
Lipids, Carbohydrates, Proteins, Nucleic Acid
sex-influenced characteristic
determined by autosomal genes and are inherited according to Mendel's principals, but they are expressed differently in males and females
ex:baldness - males only need one recessive allele, females need both recessive alleles to show baldness
Monohybrid Cross
Crosses that are mixed with one trait
A sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms.
first found in E. Coli
* requires the presence of F factor: F+ strains have the factor; F- do not. The F factor is a plasmid I.E  a circular piece of DNA separate from the main circular DNA. It contains ~ 100 genes. The genes function in (1) F factor DNA replication; 2. produce pili for cell capture; 3. transfer of DNA to the recipient and 4 occasional  recombination of F into host bacterial chromosome.
What kind of structure do proteins have?
3 dimensional
Okazaki Fragment
a small segment of single stranded DNA synthesized as part of the lagging strand in DNA replication
Narrow-sense heritability (h2)
Within a particular population, the proportion of total phenotypic variance that is contributed by additive genetic variance.
Origin of replication
Site where DNA synthesis is initiated
Identity by descent
Replication without mutation. No mutation in the path of common descent.
complementation test
A test used to determine whether two independently isolated mutations that confer the same phenotype are located within the same gene or in two different genes. Also called cis-trans test.
What are minisatellites?
DNA fragments that vary in size between individuals
Found with tandemly repeated sequences (VNTRs).
Part of the unique nature of the fingerprint.

Microsatellites are even small fragments.
Recessive Trait
The trait unexpressed in the F1 but reexpressed in some members of the F2 generation.
Polar Mutations
Mutations to the Z and Y genes, affecting them "downstream" to the operon. result from stop codons that cause ribosomes to fall off the transcript
mRNA (Messenger RNA)
Molecule of RNA encoding a chemical “blueprint” for a protein product
what end of the DNA template strand does the RNA polymerase attach?
3' end
region of repetitive at the end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration.Telomeres are crucial to the life of the cell. They keep the ends of the various chromosomes in the cell from accidentally becoming attached to each other
What is Natural Selection?
When the environment selects for certain traits that favor survival of beneficial traits or disfavoring the survival of individuals with unfavorable traits.
coefficient of coincidence
ratio of observed double crossovers to expected double crossovers.
Punnett Square
A graphic tool used to visualize all of the possible combinations of alleles from two parents.
law of segregation
each plant has 2 different alleles, can produce 2 different types of gametes. Male and female gametes randomly pair to produce 4 allele combinations
Explain the relationship between mutanagenic and carcinogenic activity
Mutagens = 90% of CarcinogensMutations lead to carcinogens.
Gene therapy
places healthy copy of a gene into a person whose gene is defective
You are genetically unique. This is at least in part a result of
random fertilizationgenetic recombinationindependent assortment of chromosomes
polycistronic RNA
An mRNA that codes for more than one protein.
Pseudoautosomal genes
genes that are present on both the X and Y chromosomes near the ends of the short arms; follow the patterns of inheritance of an autosomal gene; in males, these regions are what mediate pairing between the X and Y chromosome
Which model organism has been a favorite subject of study by transmission geneticists for a century and more recently contributed greatly to the understanding of developmental genetic networks?
Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly)
What is an mRNA?
the kind of RNA that encodes amino acid sequences

basic steps of meiosis and major events that occur at each step (part 2)
Prophase 2: Chromosomes condense again
Metaphase 2: Chromosomes line up along an equatorial plane of the cell.
Anaphase 2: Sister chromatids separate, chromosomes move to opposite poles
Teleophase 2: Nuclei form at opposite poles of each cell, and cytokinesis occurs.
Haploid cells: Done! 4 haploid cells.
hemizygous gene
xy, the y has only a few genes in common with x, so those genes on x are the only copy present
an example of matenal effects
sinistral vs. dextral shells of the water snail
What are the genotypes of Blood Type A in humans?
Homozygous (AA)Heterozygous (Ao)
what is a template of DNA?
Enzymes copy a single strand of DNACan’t work without something to copy from
crossing over is inhibited in male fruit flies
in chromosome location studies with fruit flies, females are normally selected as the heterozygous parent because
RNA which is removed during RNA processing
an intron is a section of
For a chromosome to be functioning, it must have some of the following elements
a centromere2 telomeresat lease some few genesan origin of replication
In the H-W law, what does the p^2 represent?What does the q^2 represent?What does 2pq represent?
-the homozygous dominant genotype-the homozygous recessive genotype-the heterozygous genotype
Discuss the genetic basis of and evolution of skin color
Melanin Prodiction / Dark Skin = Less Skin Cancer, LEss absorption of vitamin D
Describe the ZW system of sex determination
male is homogametic with ZZ. Z and W have large pseudoautosomal regions to suggest that they evolved from homologs. Two different gender determining genes (not just SRY)in birds
What are the 5 components of bacterial polymerase?
-2 alpha, 1 beta, 1 beta prime, and 1 omega(not essential for transcription but stabilizes the enzyme)
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