Genetics 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tetraploidy
4N
Linkage Ratio
1:2:1
mutation
any heritable change
cytokinesis
separation of cytoplasm
Translation
RNA to Amino Acid
Mutations
Alterations of Genetic Material
DNA REPLICATION
1) semi-conservative2) bi-directional3) semi-discontinuous- because one strand is continuous and the other is not
diploid
full set of chromosomes
Annelida
-Earth worm-Bilater- Triploblastic- No Skeleton- Has Segmentation- Soil marine and freshwater- ventral nerve cord- closed vascular system
Ori C
Origin of DNA replication.
Ultimate Causation
Why is this Happening?
DNA Repair Mechanisms
Direct Correction, Excise
Gene
the fundamental physical and functional unit of heredity, which carries information from one generation to the next; a segment of DNA composed of a transcribed region and a regulatory sequence that makes transcription possible
phenocopies
environmental conditions that mirror genetic conditions
True-Breeding
- individuals that if self-crossed, produce progeny only with the parental phenotype
Inversion
Literally flipping part of the chromosone
Name three chromosomal abnomalities that cause spontaneous abortions.
trisomy
XO
triploidy
tetrapoidy
other CA
Monohybrid cross eye color (dominant recessive trait)
Cohesion
A protein that holds chromatids together
Established in the S phase
Broken down during anaphase by separase
Hybrid
An offspring from 2 dissimilar parents
nonsense
new codon codes for STOP codon
Eukaryote
An organism having eukaryotic cells
- has nucleus
Creighton and McClintock
disc. (saw) crossing over
Regulation after transcription by?
Protein modification
RNA splicing
RNA stability
A chemical _______ may stimulate differentiated cells to divide and produce progenitor cells in mice
“reversine
Preformation
Early concept of inheritance proposing that a mini adult(homunculus) resides in either the egg or sperm and increases in size during development, with all traits being inherited from the parent that contributes the homunculus.
dominant
the tendency of certain (dominant) alleles to mask the expression of their corresponding (recessive) alleles
synapsis
the pairing of replicated homologous chromosomes during prophase 1 of meiosis.
Exons
parts of mRNA that code for protein
genome
-the complete set of genetic material in an organism-fits in the nucleus of a single cell
Level of regulation of gene expression:Intron removal and formation of alternative mRNAs
mRNA processing
Dihybrid cross eye color and hair color
Thomas Laxton
1866 and 1872
noted segregation in experiments w/ peas
“I have noticed that a cross between a round white and a blue wrinkled pea, will in the third and fourth generations at times bring forth blue round, blue wrinkled, white round, and white wrinkled peas in the same pod, that when the white round seeds are sown again, will produce only white round seeds…the blue wrinkled peas will bear only blue wrinkled                 seeds.”
Bacteriophage engage in two interactive cycles with bacteria. What are these cycles?
lytic and lysogenic
trisomy(trivalent)
during meiosis parts of chroms are paired with eachother = 2 centromeres at one pole and 1 at the otherThis creates 2 pairs of gametes, one pair having 2 copies of the trisomic chrom and the other 1
homozygous
YY or yy
either fully dominant or fully recessive. 
 
postreplication recombinational repair
during replication of DNA, synthesization of new DNA for unmutated parent strand and includes other strands DNA to cover for mutated section
Sites on large ribosomal subunits
P-site, a-site, e-site
fixed
it is homozygous in all individuals. This can occur in a small population by genetic drift.
Germ line
reproductive tissue of an organism; diploid cells specified to produce gametes
cosmid
a cloning vector that can replicate autonomously like a plasmid and be packaged into a phage
Population Genetics
explores the genetic composition of groups of individual members of the same species (populations) and how that composition changes over time and geographic space.
Nonrandom Mating
Mating between individuals in which the choice of mate is influenced by genotypes.
Klinefelter's
Human condition in which cells contain one or more Y chromosomes along with multiple X chromosomes. Persons are male in appearance, but frequently possess small testes, some breast enlargement, and reduced facial and pubic hair; often taller than normal and sterile, most have normal intelligence
18. Law of segregation
Mendelian principal explaining that because each plant has two different alleles, it can produce two different types of gametes. During fertilization, male and female gametes randomly pair to produce four combinations of alleles
domain
sequences between 50 and 300 amino acids; represented by modular portions of the protein that fold into stable, unique conformations independently of the rest of the molecule
monohybrid cross
the offspring of individuals that differ with respect to a particular gene pair.
nucleoid
Central region in a bacterial cell in which the chromosome is compacted.
Fixation:
when a mutation spreads for nearly all individuals in a population, occurs either randomly or through selection.
Ribosomal RNA Genes
transcribed into very long rRNA molecules which become incorporated into the ribosomes (not translated)
Law of Segregation
two alleles separate randomly from eachother during gamete formation. each gamete has an equal chance of getting each allele.
cross-pollination
what mendel used to move the gametes of one plant to another plant.
principle of segregation
Individual diploid organisms possess 2 alleles for any particular characteristic
 
The 2 alleles segragate when gametes a formed
 
1 allele goes to into each gamete
A condition in which one gene pair masks the expression of a non-allelic gene pair is called
epistasis
RNA splicing(mechanism)
nucleotide at branch attacks the end of the 5' exon breaking up the exon/intronthis creates a loop connecting to branch site *unusual 2'>5'Donor exon (the one that was just cut) attacks the acceptor exon, cutting the intron and joining the two exonsThe loop with a tail is degradesEJCs are left behind at junctionsmRNa can be spliced at different points=different protein
heterozygous (het′-er-o-zi′-gus)
Having two different alleles for a given gene.
Hfr strains
transer genetc markers to F- strains at 1000 times great than F+, but F+ almost never transferred, unlike F strains. These strains have F+ integrated into host chromosome. During transfer, part of the F factor leads the way to the new cell. The remaining portion of the F factor is the last piece of DNA to transfer but the chromosome usually breaks before this happens. 
syntenic
gene loci on the same chromosome are by definition _______
promoter
a regulator region that is a short distance from the 5’ end of a gene and acts as the binding site for RNA polymerase
x-linked characteristic
characteristic determined by a gene or genes on the x chromosome
Autosomal recessive affects who?
Only homozygous recessive individuals exhibit the affected phenotype. It may skip generations.
Robersonian translocations produce?
one large metacentric chromosome and one tiny chromosome that may be lost
- drives evolution( elimination of chromosomes in body)
incomplete dominance
type of inheritance in which the alleles for expressing characteristics are neither dominant nor recessive
stages of prophase I?
Leptonema: threads appear, homology search begins.Zygonema: thickening continues, pairing occurs (synapsis), “bivalents” visible.Pachynema: more thickening, “tetrads” visible, crossing over starts; sister chromatids are visible.Diplonema: chiasmata are visible as pairs of sister chromatids begin to separate.Diakinesis: chromosomes repel each other, chiasmata move towards ends of chromatids.
Rate of origin of new alleles under genetic drift
2N
Meselson-Stahl experiment
15N in the nitrogenous bases and thus was heavy
Protein Synthesis
The assembling of a protein into a specific sequence of amino acids.
Replication bubble
The area in which DNA replication is occurring, where the strands are separated.
dominance series
alleles are listed in order from most dominant to most recessve
What does semidiscontinuous mean?
leading strand made constantly and lagging made in fragments (Okazaki fragments)
 
red-green color blindness
A category of common, sex-linked human disorders involving several genes on the X chromosome; characterized by a malfunction of light-sensitive cells in the eyes; affects mostly males but also homozygous females.
What are some examples sicknesses caused by RNA viruses?
-common cold, AIDS, influenza
difference from curve to mean in identical plants is?
difference from curve to curve is?
environmental variance
genetic variance
 
 
 
What phenomena could alter existing genetic variations?
(5)
1. Mutations
2. Natural Selection
3. Random genetic drift
4. Migration
5. Nonrandom mating
In linkage mapping, 1 map unit is equal to
1% recombination
List some exonic trinucleotide repeat diseases (also, examples of genetic anticipation)
Huntington Disease, spinocerebellar ataxia (except types 8/12), and spinobulbar muscular dystrophy
benign tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin.
Chromosomes
A thread like body in the nucleus of a cell. They carry genes which are arranged in linear order.
pseudodominance
when only 1 copy of a gene is present and a single recessive allele will determine the phenotype
rule of addition
The probability of an event that can occur in two or more ways is the sum of the separate probabilities of the different ways. EX. Parents are both heterozygous for a given characteristic "Aa". What is the probability of their having a child that is also "Aa"? The probability of the "A" allele being in the egg and "a" in the sperm is 1/2 X 1/2 = 1/4. The probability of the "a" allele being in the egg and the "A" in the sperm is 1/2 X 1/2 = 1/4. Thus the probability of an "Aa" child is 1/4 + 1/4 = 1/2.
expressed
the way that an unseen gene is seen in an organism as an actual physical trait
what end of and RNA transcript is made first?
5' end
 
 
 
What is an example of Density-Dependent selection?
The forager phenotype in drosophila.
Avery, MacLeod, & McCarty
-discovered that DNA is the substance that undergoes transformation-concluded this by using enzymes (protease, RNAse, DNAse) to destroy components, culture treated with DNAse did not transform so they concluded that DNA was transforming principle
Properties of an "ideal population"
Constant size among generations, even sex ratio, nonoverlapping generations, random mating, fecundity poisson distrubuted (mean= variance), no selection on population.
CDC2 and Cyclin B
combined they make the MPF. Cyclin B changes its concentration in the cell and CDC2 is a kinase
what does a corepressor do
helps the repressor repress. Often the end product of what they control
 
 
What are 3 types of polygenic traits?
1. Continuous traits
2. Threshold traits
3. Meristic traits
In a co-dominant relationship, cross a Roan horse with a White horse.
 
What percentage of the horses offspring will be:
1.White haired?
2.Red haired?
3.Roan haired?
1.2/4 50%
2.0/4 0%
3. 2/4 50%
What happens when a checkpoint sees something wrong?
1. fixes it2. suicide aka apoptosis
approximately how many nucleotides are in the human genome? how many kb? how many genes?
3 billion nucleotides 3 million kb 35,000 genes
What are the components of a VACTERL association?
Vertebral problems, Anal problems, Trecho-esophageal fistula, Renal problems and Limb problems
Why did Levene think that proteins were hereditary material?
Proteins were made of 20 different kinds of amino acids and DNA was only made of 4 nucleic acids
leader sequence can fold into two different stable conformations
            -tryptophan present
            -no tryptophan
present - allows ribosome that pass quickly by trp codon and 3-4 termination loop forms to stop transcription. no more tryptophan formed
not - ribosome gets stalled at trp codon and allows 2-3 loop to form instead allowing transcription to continue to allow translation of tryptophan molecules.
Bananas do not have seeds because
it is a triploid and can not produce viable gametes
What is the meaning of the term 'heterochromatic'
DNA that is always bound with protein throughout the cell cycle
What is the operator? Is it part of the DNA or does it diffuse around?\ 
The operator is a short DNA region, adjacent to the promoter of a bacterial operon, that binds repressor proteins responsible for controlling the rate of transcription of the operon.
locus
a place; locality.
codominance
alleles not dominat nor recessice
trait
a distinguishing characteristic or quality, esp. of one's personal nature:
replication
the process by which double-stranded DNA makes copies of itself, each strand, as it separates, synthesizing a complementary strand.
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
purebred
the offspring of many generations that have the same trait
heterozygote
a hybrid containing genes for two unlike forms of a characteristic, and therefore not breeding true to type.
fertilization
the process when an oranism begins to form when egg and sperm join
recessive allele
an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
A Str-R mutant...
can grow in the prescence of streptomycin.
dna polymerase
any of a class of enzymes involved in the synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid from its deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate precursors.
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