bio enzymes quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
what is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule (reactant) to another (oxidant).
Oxidoreductases
which group enzymes catalyzes the transfer of a functional group from one molecule (donor) to another (acceptor)?
Transferases
which group of enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond?
hydrolases
which group of enzymes catalyzes the formation of double bonds by removing chemical groups from a substrate without hydrolysis or catalyze the addition of chemical groups to double bonds?
lyases
which group of enzyme catalyzes the structural rearrangement of isomers?
lsomerase
which group of enzymes can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually accompanying hydrolysis of a small chemical group pendant to one of the larger molecules?
ligases
what is oxidoreductases?
enzyme group that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from one molecule to another (reactant to oxidant).
what is transferases?
enzyme group that catalyzes the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another (donor to acceptor).
what is hydrolase?
enzyme group that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond.
what is lyases?
enzyme group that catalyzes the formation of double bonds by removing chemical groups from a substrate without hydrolysis or catalyzed the addition of chemical groups to double bonds.
what is isomerase?
enzyme group that catalyzes the structural rearrangement of isomers
what is ligases?
enzyme group that can catalzye the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually accompanying hydroylsis of a small chemical group pendant to one of the larger molecules.
Define energy
the capacity to preform work
what is kinetic energy? Give an example
energy that is actually doing work.
ex: HEAT- because of the energy asssociated with the movement of molecules in a body
what is potential energy? Give example
stored energy
ex: water behind a dam- because it has potential energy because of its altitude
In sugars created by plants via photosynthesis, where is energy stored? Where did it come from?
energy is stored in carbon bonds of the sugar, it came from sunlight
what is the 1st law of thermodynamics? Give ex.
the total amount of energy in the universe is constant.
ex: ELECTRICAL COMPANY- it doesn't make energy, it converts energy to a form that is convenient to use.
What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics? Give example
energy conversions reduce the order of the universe. Energy changes are always accompanied by entropy.
ex: HEAT- heat that is generated when one form of energy is converted to another, the more the entropy of the system increases.
what is entropy?
the amount of disorder in a system
what is endergonic reaction?
"energy in"
energy-requiring chemical reaction, which yields products with more potential energy than the reactants.
amount of nergy stored in the products= the difference between the potential energy in the reactant and that in the products.
what is exergonic reaction?
"carry out"
chemical reaction that releases energy which the reactants contain more potential energy than the products.
reaction releases an amount of energy= to the difference in potential energy between the reactant and the products
how does a cell couples endergonic and exergonic reactions to do work?
a cell couples endergonic and exergonic reaction to do work by energy coupling- using energy released from exergonic reaction to drive essential endergonic reactions.
describe the structure of the ATP molecule. Where is energy stored?
1. adenine 2. ribose (5 carbon sugar) 3. chain of 3 phosphate groups
energy is stored between the bond of the 2nd & 3rd phosphate group
what molecules are sused for long-term energy storage?
Fat molecules (Lipids)
how does a cell utilizes an ATP molecule to do work?
By phosphorylation, the addition of phosphate groups: Exergonic processes phosphoylate ADP to form ATP which transfers the energy to endergonic processes by phosphorylating other molecules. Then hydrolysis, which breaks the phosphate group and the energy is released
what is a protein that serves as a biological catalyst to increase the rate of reaction?
enzyme
a pocket or groove on the enzymes surface; part of enzyme where a substrate molecule attaches
active site
a specific substance on which an enzyme acts upon
substrate
substance capable of initiating or speeding up a chemical reaction
catalyst
amount of energy, that reactants must absorb to start a chemical reaction
Activation energy
when a substrate fits perfect on the actives site
induced fit
inorganic substance or nonprotein helpers such as atoms of zinc, iron, copper
co-factor
substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to the enzyme's active site in place of the substrate
competitive inhibitor
substance that impedes the activity of an enzyme without entering an active site without competing directly with the normal substrate
non-competitive inhibitor
process where a protein unravels, losing it specific conformation and hence funtion
denaturation
how might the concentration of the inhibitor vs. that of the enzyme affect the chemical reactions that need to take place?
The inhibitor will attack a different part of the enzyme and not the active site, so it will cause the enzyme to change its shape and the substrate will no longer fit
describe negative feedback and how it works to regulate enzyme activity.
negative feedback is when the body reverses the rate of a chemical reaction to maintain a balance.
Enzyme activity can be sped up or stopped by negative feedback inhibition. Competitive/ non-competitive inhibitors, substrate concentrationa dn DNA regulation all contribute to enzyme regulation.
how does you body use negative feedback to regulate you body temperature?
we use negative feedback when we get a fever, we sweat so our body temperature will become normal temperature and stay at that degree. It goes the same if we are cold, our body heat increases until we get to the normal temperature.
what is reversible inhibitors?
applies only when weak bonds form. Weak bonds eventually break as neighboring molecules jostle together.
what is irreversible inhibitors?
applies when covalent bonds form between inhibitor and enzyme
what is chemical energy?
potential energy of molecules, most important type of energy in living organisms.
the sum of endergonic and exergonic reactions
cellular metabolism
use of energy released from exergonic reaction to drive essential endergonic reactions
energy coupling
energy-releasing chemical breakdown of glucose molecules and the storage of the energy in a form that the cell can use to perform work
cellular respiration
transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule
phosphorylation
if the cofactor is an organic molecule is it called?
coenzyme
/ 46
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online