BIO 226 - Chapter 8: The Skeletal System: Appendicular Skeleton Flashcards

Terms Definitions
appendicular skeleton
includes bones of upper and lower extemeties and shoulder and hip girdles; functions primarily to facilitate movement
pectoral (shoulder) girdle
attaches bones of upper lims to axial skeleton; consists of clavicle and scapula; does not articulate with vertebral column giving more range of motion than strength
sternoclavicular joint
clavicle articulates with sternum
acromioclavicular joint
clavicle articulates with scapula
glenohumeral joint
upper limb attached to pectoral girdle at shoulder
clavicle
collar bone; lies horizontally in the superior and anterior part of thorax superior to the first rib and articulates with sternum and scapula; transmits mechanical force from upper limb to trunk
clavicle - general features
S-shaped with 2 curves (medial curve convex anteriorly, lateral curve concave anteriorly); extends from sternum to scapula above first rib; ligaments attached to stabilize its position
scapula
shoulder blade; 3 edges; articulates with clavicle and humerus; articulate with other bones anteriorly, but are held in place posteriorly only by muscle
anterior surface of scapula
subscapular fossa filled with muscle; coracoid process for muscle attachment
posterior surface of scapula
triangular flat bone found in upper back; scapular spin ends as acromion process; glenoid cavity forms shoulder joint with head of humerus; supraspinous and infraspinous fossa for muscle attachment
upper limb
each upper limb consists of 30 bones: humerus, ulna, radius, carpal bones (8), metacarpal bones within palm (5), phalanges in fingers (14)
joints of upper extremity
shoulder (glenohumeral), elbow, wrist, metacarpophalangeal, interphalangeal
humerus
longest and largest bone of upper limb; articulates proximally with scapula and distally at elbow with both the radius and ulna
proximal end of humerus
part of shoulder joint; rounded head articulates with glenoid cavity; anatomical neck is visible as oblique groove; greater tubercle lateral projection distal to anatomical neck; lesser tubercle project anteriorly; intertubular sulcus (bicipital groove) is between tubercles; deltoid tuberosity; shaft cylindrical at proximal end, gradually becomes triangular then flattened and board; surgical neck
distal end of humerus
forms elbow joint with ulna and radius; capitulum articulates with head of radius; trochlea articulates with head of ulna; olecranon fossa is posterior depression for olecranon process of ulna; medial and lateral epicondyles are attachments for forearm muscles
proximal end of ulna
trochlear notch articulates with humerus and radial notch with radius; olecranon process forms point of elbow
proximal end of radius
head articulates with capitulum of humerus and radial notch of ulna; tuberosity for muscle attachment
elbow joint
articulation of humerus with ulna and radius; interosseous membrane between ulna and radius provides site for muscle attachment
distal end of ulna
styloid process; head separated from wrist joint by fibrocartilage disc
distal end of radius
forms wrist joint with scaphoid, lunate, and triquetrum; forms distal radioulnar joint with head of ulna
carpals
8 carpal bones; bound together by ligaments; comprise write
metacarpals
5 metacarpal bones contained in palm of each hand; #1 proximal to thumb; base, shaft, head on each; knuckles are metacarpophalangeal joints
phalanges
14 on each hand; three in each finger and two in each thumb; each called phalanx (pollex = thumb); proximal, middle, distal on each digit except thumb; head, base, shaft on each
proximal carpal bones (lateral to medial)
scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
distal carpal bones (lateral to medial)
trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate
pelvic (hip) girdle
consists of two hipbones (coxal bones) united at pubic symphysis; articulate posteriorly with sacrum and sacroiliac joints; provides strong and stable support for the lower extremeties on which weight of body is carried
hip (coxal) bone
each is composed of 3 separate bones at birth (ilium, pubis, ischium) that eventually fuse at a depression called the acetabulum which forms the socket for the hip joint
bony pelvis
2 hip bones, sacrum and coccyx
ilium
larger of 3 components; articulates with ischium and pubis; bone marrow aspiration or biopsy frequently performed at iliac crest in adults; iliac crest and iliac spines for muscle attachment; iliac fossa for muscle attachment; gluteal lines indicating muscle attachment; sacroiliac joint at auricular surface and iliac tuberosity; greater sciactic notch for sciatic nerve
ischium
inferior, posterior portion of hip bone; ischial spine and tuberosity; lesser sciatic notch; ramus
pubis
anterior, inferior part of hip bone; body; superior and inferior ramus; pubic symphysis is pad of fibrocartilage between two pubic bones
pelvis
consists of sacrum, coccyx and two hip bones
pelvic brim
sacral premontory to symphysis pubis; separates false from true pelvis; false pelvis holds only abdominal organs
male pelves
bones generally larger and heavier; joint surfaces tend to be larger; attachment points more well-defined due to larger size of muscles; differences related to need for a larger pelvic outlet in females for childbirth
female pelves
wider and shallower; larger pelvic inlet and outlet; more space in true pelvis; pubic arch larger than 90 degrees
lower limb
each composed fo 30 bones: femur, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges
joints in lower extremity
hip, knee, ankle; proximal and distal tibiofibular; metatarsophalangeal
femur
thighbone; largest, heaviest, strongest bone of body; articulates with hip bone (acetabulum), tibia (media and lateral condyles) and patella; greater and lesser trochanter, linea aspera, and gluteal tuberosity allow for muscle attachment; patellar surface visible anteriorly between condyles
patella
kneecap; triangular sesamoid bone anterior to knee joint; functions to increase leverage of tendon of the quadriceps femoris; to maintain position of tendon when knee is bent; to protect knee joint
tibia
shinbone; larger, medial, weight-bearing bone of leg; lateral and medial condyles; tibial tuberosity for patellar ligament; proximal tibiofibular joint; medial malleolus at ankle
fibula
parallel and lateral to tibia; not part of knee joint; muscle attachment only; lateral malleolus at ankle
tarsals
7 tarsal bones constitute ankle; share weight associate with walking
tarsus
proximal region of foot; talus is ankle bone that articulates with tibia and fibula; calcaneus is heel bone; cuboid, navicular, and 3 cuneiforms
metatarsals
5 bones contained in the foot
metatarsus
midregion of foot; #1 is most medial; each with base, shaft, head
phalanges (toes)
distal portion of foot; similar in number and arrangement to hand; big toe is hallux
arches of foot
bones arranged in two non-rigid arches that enable foot to support body weight; provide ideal distribution of body weight over hard and soft tissues; provide leverage while walking; can yield and spring back when weight is liftened
longitudinal arches
along each side of foot (medial and lateral)
transverse arch
across midfoot region; navicular, cuneiforms and bases of metatarsals
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