EFB-486 Ichthyology Exam 2 Flashcards

Shark
Terms Definitions
What is the optimal aquadynamic shape? How much drag does it create relative to a disc of the same size?
Teardrop, maximum diameter one-third to one-half back from the nose; creates 5% of drag that equal size disc would generate
The angle of attack in a moving fish _____ from head to tail.
increases
TURBULENCE WAKE
Long central outgrowth of the caudal fin
UNDULATION
Sinusoidal waves passing down body/fins
OSCILLATION
Back-and-forth movement of tail/fins
In general, how many types of swimming are there?
10
What 5 types of swimming feature the tail?
1. Anguilliform (eel)
2. Subcarangiform (minnow, gar, salmonids)
3. Carangiform (jacks, herrings)
4. Thunniform (tuna, sharks, billfishes)
5. Ostraciform (boxfishes)
ANGUILLIFORM
Locomotion using the entire body; slow, manuverable (eels, elongate sharks, larvae)
SUBCARANGIFORM
Locomotion that introduces a reliance on the tail and a reduction in body movement; low aspect ratio, quick acceleration, hovering (minnows, gars, barracudas, pikes, salmonids)
CARANGIFORM
Locomotion featuring a great reliance on the tail and a functional hinge (jacks, herrings)
THUNNIFORM
Locomotion featuring a narrow caudal peduncle, extreme stream-lining, endothermy, and a high aspect ratio (tunas, mackerals, sharks, billfishes, porpoises; CONVERGENT EVOLUTION)
Ostraciiform
Locomotion featuring movement of only the tail with the body kept rigid (boxfishes)
What are the 5 swimming types that feature the fins?
1. Tetraodontiform (dorsal/anal, triggerfishes)
2. Rajiform (pectoral, rays)
3. Amiiform (dorsal, seahorses)
4. Gymnotiform (anal, knifefishes)
5. Labriform (pectoral, chimeras)
TETRAODONTIFORM
Locomotion featuring synchronous flapping of the dorsal and anal fins, providing continuous forward thrust (triggerfishes, ocean sunfishes)
RAJIFORM
Locomotion featuring back-and-forth undulations of the pectoral fins (skates, rays)
AMIIFORM
Locomotion featuring undulation of the dorsal fin (seahorses, bowfins)
GYMNOTIFORM
Locomotion featuring undulation of the anal fin (electric fishes, knifefishes)
LABRIFORM
Locomotion featuring pectoral fin rowing (chimeras, sturgeonfish, wrasses, reef fishes)
What are 3 fishes that practice land locomotion?
Eels, snakeheads, mudskippers
Does respiration increase at a linear rate with speed?
No
AMPHIDROMY
FW-SW-FW-FWorSW-FW-SW-SW2nd growth stage after migration
Anadromy is most prevalent in the _____, catadromy is most prevalent in the _____, and amphidromy is most prevalent in the _______.
North, equatorial zone, north and south
What % of fishes are diurnal?
50-66%
What % of fishes are nocturnal?
25-33%
What % of fishes are crepuscular?
10% (many predators)
What are 2 reasons fish sleep?
1. Conserve energy
2. Avoid predators during suboptimal vision times
How long is each tidal period?
6.2 hours, highs and lows 2 weeks apart
What fish lays eggs at high tide and leaves them buried during low tide, then has larvae hatch and leave at high tide?
Grunion
What are the 3 types of cues used to determine reproductive seasons?
1. Predictive (periodic env events,endogenous circannual rhythm)
2. Synchronizing (presence of mate)
3. Terminating (end of season, gametes resorped)
What can modify the reproductive season of fishes?
Nutritional state (female gonad 10-30% of weight), social interactions, water quality, etc.
ITEROPAROUS
Spawns more than once in life
SEMELPAROUS
Spawns once, then dies
PROMISCUOUS
No mate choice, multiple partners for both sexes
POLYGAMY
One sex w/many partners (polyandry 1 female, polygyny 1 male)
MONOGAMOUS
Pair stays together (ictalurid catfishes, reef fishes, pipefishes, etc.)
GONOCHORISTIC
Sex fixed early, unchanging
SIMULTANEOUS HERMAPHRODITES
Male + female gonads in one individual (hamlets)
SEQUENTIAL HERMAPHRODITES
Protandrous - male to female (anemonefishes), protogynous - female to male (blue-headed wrass)
What is an example of a nest builder?
Firemouth cichlid
What is an example of a fish that builds a nest and guards it?
Bumblebee gobies, johnny darters, bullheads
What is the parental process in sticklebacks?
1. Male builds nest
2. Male attracts females to spawn with
3. Male cares for young, may take into mouth if in danger
What is the special nesting behavior of the South American characin?
Jumps from water and sticks eggs to leaf, then splashes them to keep them wet till they hatch
What fish feeds its young from its slime coat?
Discus
What does a synodontis catfish in Lake Tanganyika do with its eggs?
Lays them among cichlid eggs so cichlids carry cat eggs safely
What fish has asymmetrical reproductive organs?
Four-eyed fish
Most fish provide what level of parental care to eggs?
None
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