Human Biology Bones/Skeletal System Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Perichondrium
forms capsule around cartilagemade of Dense Irregular CT
Fibrocartilage Location
Knee JointPubic symphysisin b/w vertebrae
Hyaline Location
NoseHipWrist Joints(Rest of body)
Elastic Location
Ear
Skeletal Cartilage Growth
Apositional growthInterstitial growth
Apositional growth
Chondroblasts in perichondrium divide & secrete new cartilage along inside edge of perichondrium
Interstitial growth
Chondrocytes in lacunae divide & secrete new matrix
Regions of the Skeleton
Axial SkeletonAppendicular Skeleton
Axial Skeleton
SkullVertebral columnRibcage-Ribs-Sternum
Appendicular Skeleton
Limb girdles (attach limb to axial skeleton |)Limbs
Types of Bone
Long bonesShort bonesFlat bonesIrregular bonesSesamoid bonesSutural or Wormian bones
Long bones
-Greater length than width-Consists mainly of compact bone tissue, some spongy bone-Include bones of thigh, legs, toes, arms, forearms & fingers
Short bones
-Kinda cube-shaped & about = in length/width-Spongy except @ surface(thin layer of compact bone)-wrist & anklebones
Flat bones
-Thin-Composed of // plates of compact bone surrounding spongy bone-Found in cranium, sternum & ribs scapulas
Irregular bones
-complex shapes-can't be in other categories-varying amounts of compact & spongy bones-vertebrae & certain facial bones
Sesamoid bones
-small bones in tendons where considerable pressure is exerted (e.g. wrist)-vary from person to person[but everyone has patella]
Sutural orWormian bones
-small bones b/w joints of certain cranial bones-vary from person to person
Functions of Bone
-Support-Protection-Movement-Mineral storage & homeostasis-Site of blood cell production-Storage of energy
Bone Function:Support
-framework for body-points of attachment for skeletal muscle
Bone Function:Protection
-protects internal organs from injury(e.g. skull/ribcage protect brain/<3/lungs)
Bone Function:Movement
-Skeletal muscle attach to bones, pulling bones together when muscle contracts
Bone Function:Mineral storage & homeostasis
-bones store minerals e.g. calcium, phosphorous can be distributed throughout the body
Bone Function:Site of blood cell production
-in certain bones, RBCs are produced during process of 'hematopiesis'-red bone marrow = source of RBS (flat)-found in developing bones, pelvis, ribs, breastbone, backbones, skull & ends of arm bones & thigh bones
Bone Function:Storage of energy
lipids stored in yellow(fat) bone marrow(long bones)
hematopiesis
blood cell production
Gross Anatomy of a Flat Bone
Compact bone - outsideSpongy bone - inside
Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneAnatomical Regions
-Diaphysis-Epiphysis-Epipshyseal Line-Periosteum-Articular Cartilage-Compact bond-Spongy bone-Medullary Cavity
Diaphysis
shaftmiddle
Epiphysis(epiphyses pl.)
endsproximal & distal
Epiphyseal Line(plate)
-growth plate-marks anatomical boarder b/w epipshysis & diaphysis
Periosteum
Layer of CT
Articular Cartilage
reduce joint friction(smooth)
Compact bone
2nd most superficial
Spingy bone
ends & by edge of Medullary Cavity
Medullary Cavity
centermarrow cavity
Gross Anatomy of a Long BoneAnatomical Regions
-Spongy bone-Compact bone-Articular cartilage-Periosteum (Sharpey's fibers)-Endosteum-Nutrient Arteries
Histology of BoneCell Types
Osteoprogenitor cellsOsteoblastsOsteocytesOsteoclasts
Osteoprogenitor cells
-embryonic stem cell-in periosteum, endosteum & canals w/ blood vessels-mitosis --> osteoblasts
Osteoblasts
-secrete matrix of bone-found on bone tissue surface-form bone but can't divide by mitosis-form collagen & other compounds needed to build bone
Osteocytes
-mature bone cells-isolated in bony matrix-maintain daily cellular activity of bone
Osteoclasts
surface of bone tissues & function in bone resorption
compact bone
resist compression but easy to snap in half
spongy bone
resists bending (but not compression)
Lamellae
layers of bone matrixmineral =hydroxyapatite
Osteon
Haversian Canal-compact bone
Trabeculae
small beam
Volkmann's Canals
carry small arteries throughout the bone
Concentric lamellae
One of the concentric tubular layers of bone surrounding the central canal in an osteon
Canaliculi
small passageway
Bone Openings & Depressions
-Foramen-Meatus-Paranasal sinus-Fossa
Foramen
opening through which blood vessels, nerves or ligaments pass
Meatus
a tube-like passageway running w/n a bone
Paranasal sinus
an air-filled cavity w/n the bone connected to the nasal cavity
Fossa
a depression in or on a bone
Processes that form joints
-Condyle-Head-Facet
Condyle
a large, rounded prominence that forms a joint
Head
a rounded projection that forms a joint & supported on the constricted portion of a bone
Facet
a smooth, flat surface
Processes to which ligaments, tendons & other CT attach
-Tuberosity-Spinous process-Trochantor-Crest
Tuberosity
a large, rounded, usually roughened process
Spinous process
a sharp, slender projection
Trochantor
a large, blunt projection found only on the femur
Crest
a prominent ridge or border
Osteogenesis /Ossification
Formation of new bone
Formation of new bone
-Formation of bony skeleton-Bone Growth during childhood-Bone Remodeling throughout life-Repair of Fracture
Intramembranous ossification
flat bones
Endochondral ossification
other bones
Prior to week 8 the skeleton is made of...
hyaline cartilage &fibrous CT membranes
When bone replaces fibrous CT
Intramembranous ossification
When bones replaces hyaline cartilage
endochondral
Ossification center
selected centrally located mesenchymal(embryonic CT) cells cluster & differentiate into osteoblasts
When Bone matrix (osteoid) is secreted w/n the fibrous membrane
-osteoblasts begin to secrete osteoid, which is mineralized w/n a few days-trapped osteoblasts become osteocytes
When Woven bone & periosteum form
-accumulating osteoid is laid down b/w embryonic blood vessels, which form a random network. the result is a network (instead of lamellae) of trabeculae (woven bone)-vascularized mesenchyme condenses on the external face of the woven bone & becomes the periosteum
When Bone collar of compact bone forms & red marrow appears
-trabeculae just deep to the periosteum thicken, forming a woven bone collar that is later replaced w/ mature lamellar bone-spongy bone(diploe), consisting of distinct trabeculae, persists internally & its vascular tissue becomes red marrow
When osteoblasts in periosteum secrete matrix along diaphysis you get a
bone collar
chondrocytes inside hypertrophy & cause...
cartilage matrix to calcify
calcified cartilage causes ...
chondrocytes to die
cartilage matrix deteriorates forming a cavity
cavitation
periosteal bud invades internal cavity
nutrient artery & vein, lymphatic vessel, nerve, red marrow, osteoblasts & osteoclasts
osteoclasts erode
calcified cartilage
osteoblasts secrete bone matrix around...
remaining cartilage - spongy bone trabeculae
osteoclasts break down newly formed bone forming...
the medullary cavity
cartilage @ the epiphyses continues to..
grow in length-cartilage then ossifies, dies & is eroded by osteoclasts & covered in bone by osteoblasts
secondary ossification center forms
same way as first
hyaline cartilage remains only as
-articular cartilage-epiphyseal plate
/ 85
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