Management Exam 1 Topics Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-stressed importance of human element-do not emphasize machines at expense of labor-emphasis on Development of People As Well As Machines-Led first attempt at British Trade Union for Working Class
Robert Owen
-Patron Saint of Operations Research and Management Science-Demonstrated the First Practical Mechanical Calculator "Difference Engine-Father of modern computer-Theorized and applied scientific approach to management-Introduced profit-sharing based on both
Charles Babbage
-Father of vo-tech system-Concerned with industrial edu-Essential principle was the substitution of "mechanical science" for hand skill-Provided for the graduation of labor among artisans-Urged workers to accept new mechanization
Andrew Ure
-America's first big business-Coped with massive financial requirements-Developed integrated systems of logistics-Developed the first organizational structures-Developed nation's earliest professional managers
The Railroads
-Systemization of early railroad management-Developed information mgmt-Believes good management principles are proper division of responsibilities, means to evaluate success (control), daily reporting of employee performance-Developed formal organizationa
Daniel McCallum
-Improved factory productivity and efficiency-Introduced scientific analysis to workplace-Piece rate system equated workers rewards and performance-Workers viewed as parts of a machine-Ignored relationship between org and environ
Scientific Management
-Father of scientific management-Cure for inefficiency of jobs was in scientifically designing jobs-"One best way" for a job to be done successfully-Improving the productivity and efficiency of manual workers-Applied the scientific method to shop floor jo
Frerderick Taylor
-Broke job motions down into 17 elements called THERBLIGS-Concentrated more on work methods rather than motion economy-Introduced process flowcharting--enabled one to study scientifically a whole operation as opposed to a single task or one operation
Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
-Introduced the "bonus system" concept in order to incentivize people-developed charts for scheduling around time instead of quantities-contemporary founder for Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT)
Henry Gantt
-Emphasized perspective of senior managers in the org and argued that mgmt as a profession could be taught-Managers must respond to changing developments-Emphasized broad policy of top-level managers-Offered universal managerial prescriptions-Executives f
Administrative Management
5 elements of management:1. Planning2. Organizing3. Commanding4. Coordinating5. Controlling
Henri Fayol
-Developed better understanding of concepts of authority and motivation-Authority rested with the Law of the situation (meaning situations are different)-Conflict resolution through integration of ideas-Responsible for group process approach to solving ma
Mary Parker Follet
-The more you can relate to what you said, the more you can accept it-Ultimate authority rested with acceptance or rejection of orders by subordinate-developed acceptance theory (authority is 'how' comm is presented as to it's acceptance in the org)
Chester Barnard
-Emphasized the understanding of how psychological and social processes interact with the work situation to influence performance-Productivity and employee behavior are influenced by informal group work-Cohesion, status, and group norms determine output n
Human Relations
-Focused on social side of work and work environment-Different attributes of the work place can influence productivity-"If we like our conditions, we will be more productive"-Elton Mayo & Fritz Raffelsberger are involved with this theory-Ex. woman control
Hawthorne Effect
-Motivate through the sequential satisfaction of needs-Developed Hierarchy of needs-Managers must understand needs and incentives of employees
Abraham Maslow
-Emphasized a structured, formal network of relationships among specialized positions in an organization-Your name isn't powerful, its your title--Difficult to dismantle once est-limited org flexibility and slow decision making
-Structure eliminates variability-Standardization of roles-Structured, formal relationsihps-Authority resides in position, not people-Allow routinization of org
Max Weber
-Studies and identifies management activities that promote employee effectiveness through an understanding of the complex nature of individual, group, and organizational process-Study of the actions of people at work-Stresses relationships among employees
Organizational Behavior
-Attitudes and behavior based on X&Y continuum-Theoretical approach to a "best" way of managing
Douglas McGregor
"Theory Z"-difference between work settings in US and Japan-Japan is theory X-In US, control is explicit and formalized-Japan managers of collective orientation toward their work-Japanese employers encourage ownership by employees
William Ouchi
-Satisfaction vs. Dissatisfaction for motivation
Frederick Herzberg
-Refutes universal principles of management by stating that a variety of factors, both internal and external to the firm, may affect the org's performance-there is more than one way to reach a goal-"What if" scenarios
Contingency Perspective
-Managerial Grid-Task Behavior vs. Relationship Behavior
Bob Blake and Jane Mouton
-Situational leadership based on task, relationship and maturity of employees/manager-Flexibility and adaptability to the situation
Pal Hersey and Ken Blanchard
-Total Quality Management (integrative approach to customer satisfaction)-Learning org (commitment to openness, new ideas and knowledge generation)-Reengineering (process of starting all over, rebuilding company and ways of doing business; ex. downsizing)
Contemporary Theories
-Built specific procedures and processes into operations to ensure coordination effort-Careful definition of duties and responsibilities-Standardized techniques for performing duties-Specific means of gathering, handling, transmitting, and analyzing infor
Systematic Management
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