Biochemistry UMKC Persechini Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ABO blood types correspond to what antigens?
A, B and H.
What is the composition of the H antigen?
Gal - Fuctose
What do you add to make the A antigen, and what do you add it to?
Gal-(alpha 1->3)-GalNAc. (Add GalNAc to Gal.)
What do you add to make the B antigen, and what do you add it to?
Gal-(alpha 1->3)-Gal. (Add Gal to Gal.)
Which molecule is responsible for adding the additional sugar to make the A and B antigens?
GalNAc Transferase (A antigen) and Gal Transferase(B antigen).
What is the structure of the molecule preceding the ABH antigens?
Lipid/Protein - Glc - Gal - GlcNAc
What is proteoglycan?
It is a glycoprotein which heavy glycosylation. (Long chains of sugars attached to a protein in the membrane.)
What kind of molecule are the blood antigens?
O-linked oligosaccharides.
What is a lectin?
A group of proteins that recognize oligosacchardes/antigens in the way antibodies do.
What are the 3 functions of a lectin?
Protein sorting in the ER, cell adhesion (tissue organization) and innate immunity.
Definition of a lipid?
A substance that is soluble in methanol or chloroform due to hydrophobic character.
Function of lipids?
Structural, storage and energy, and cell communication.
What is a fatty acid?
Building block of lipids.
What is the structure of a fatty acid?
Carboxylic acid with a long allophatic chain. (Amphipathic.)
Most common allophatic chains in fatty acids?
C16 and C18.
Are fatty acids saturated or unsaturated?
About half are saturated. Half are unsaturated OR polyunsaturated. (One double bond vs. multiple double bonds.)
Where do the double bonds appear in fatty acids?
The first usually appears between C9 and C10. (Delta 9 bond.) If multiple double bonds, they are never conjugated.
What is special about double bonds in fatty acids?
They are always cis.
What is the name of CH3(CH2)14COOH?
Hexadecanoic Acid
What is the name of CH3(CH2)16COOH?
Octadecanoic Acid
What is the name of CH3(CH2)5CH=CH(CH2)7COOH?
9-Hexadecanoic Acid
What is the name of CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH?
9-Octadecanoic Acid
What is the name of CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)2(CH2)6COOH?
18 ... 9,12-Octadecadienoic Acid
What is the name of CH3CH24(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)6COOH?
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic Acid
What is the name of CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)3(CH2)3COOH?
6,9,12-Octadectatrienoic Acid
What is the name of CH3(CH2)4(CH=CHCH2)4(CH2)2COOH?
5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraenoic Acid
Compare the packing structure of saturated vs. unsaturated fatty acids?
Saturated will pack closely, because the are freely rotatable due to no double bonds. Double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids impose a kink/bend.
How is the melting point affected in unsaturated fatty acids?
It decreases due to less VDW interactions because of the double bond kinks (non-rotation.) Thus, they are liquid at room temperature.
What is a triglycerol?
A fatty acid triester.
How many fatty acids does a triglycerol contain?
Usually 2 or 3.
What is the difference between fats and oils?
They're both triglycerides - fats are solid at room temp, oils are not.
What determines the melting point in triglycerides?
The degree of saturation along the aliphatic chains in the fatty acids.
What is another minor factor that plays into melting point of fatty acids?
The length of the chain. The greater it is, the more VDW interactions, the higher the MP.
How do you name a triglycerol?
Name the 3 fatty acids.
What is Olestra?
An indigestible sucrose polyester (not a triglyceride.)
What is the major function of Glycerophospholipids?
Glycerophospholipids are major constituents of biological membranes.
What are glycerophospholipids derived from?
Derived from Glycerol-3-phosphate, by esterification at C1 and C2 with fatty acids.
What is the usual structure of a glycerophospholipid?
Saturated C16/C18 fatty acid at C1, Unsaturated C16/C20 fatty acid at C2. Polar head group at C3.
How do you name a glycerophospholipid?
Name the fatty acid tails first, then the phospholipid portion.
What is the formula for Phosphatidylethanolamine?
--CH2CH2NH3+
What is the formula for Phosphatidylcholine?
--CH2CH2N(CH3)3+
What is the formula for Phosphatidylserine?
--CH2CH(NH3+)COO-
What is the formula for phosaphatidylinositol?
Ring Structure
What is DPPC?
It is a glycerophospholipid that functions as a surfactant in the alveoli of the lungs.
What portion of DPPC faces the gas region of alveoli?
The hydrophobic, fatty acid tails.
What is a sphingolpid?
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