Greece: Dark Ages Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Who was Sparta's biggest cultural rival?
Athens.
Who did the Ionians learn to mint coins from?
Neighboring Lydia.
Who were the helots?
People the Spartans had made into serfs.
Who was Homer?
A Greek poet.
Who was Demosthenes?
The Greek ruler who changed the basis of representation from families to territories.
Who made the first world map?
Anaximander.
Who were the first people to experience Spartan conquest?
Sparta's Peloponnesian neighbors.
Who was Pisistratus?
The man who came to power via coup d'etat after Solon's death.
What were the two most important Greek city-states?
Athens and Sparta.
What were the three primary virtues of Spartan youth?
Self-control, modesty, and strict obedience.
What is avarice?
Greed for wealth.
What is franchise?
The right to vote.
What is initiative?
The right of ordinary citizens to introduce or enact new laws on their own by vote.
What is oligarchy?
Government in which a few people hold the ruling power.
What is ostracism?
Method of temporary banishment practiced in Athens; now the condition of being shut off deliberately from others in society.
What is a referendum?
Direct vote by citizens on a bill already passed by a lawmaking body.
What is a coup?
A change of government by force; also coup d'etat.
What became the new home of Greek civilization after Ionia's decline?
Athens on the Greek mainland.
What does totalitarian mean?
Government that suppresses all opposition and controls all aspects of people's lives.
What were two causes for Greek colonization and expansion throughout the Mediterranean?
Poor soil for farming, and overpopulation of city-states.
What are two modern states characterized by Spartan supression of the individual?
Nazi Germany and Communist Russia, especially under Lenin and Stalin.
What was the modern city of Istanbul called in Greek times?
Byzantium.
What was the greatest purely mental exercise of Spartan youth?
Memorization.
What was an adminstrator appointed by the Athens Council called?
An archon.
What were the powers Solon was given to control the arguing factions of Athens called?
Dictatorial.
What was a despot?
A person who came to power outside of constitutional means/
What was the only Greek city-state that did not become a part of the pattern of Greek colonization?
Sparta.
What did the helots do?
They farmed the land and were required to pay part of their produce to their Spartan masters.
What were the annual Spartan youth endurance competitions?
Competitions wherein the Spartan youths were flogged in front of an altar until they fainted.
What was the function of the Spartan "Secret Corps?"
To carefully monitor the helots.
What did Spartan domestic and foreign policy reflect?
The upperclass fear of revolution.
What was the business of the small merchant class in Sparta?
Trade and money matters.
What was the Council?
An aristocratic body that controlled Athens.
What did Solon do to make peace between the factions in Athens?
Limited the size of estates, forbade enslavement for debts, abolished the exportation of food, encouraged the export of olive oil, and established a plan for industrial growth.
When were the Dark Ages of Greece?
1100-750 B.C.
When were Spartan boys drafted into the "Secret Corps?"
Age Eighteen.
Where did Greece have colonies?
Spain, Italy, Sicily, Lisbon, Marseille, Naples, Odessa, Syracuse, Thrace, the Mediterranean, and France.
Where did all authority in Sparta come from?
The state.
Where may the fierce Spartan miliary temperment be traced?
Their violent Dorian ancestors.
Where did Athens' culture begin?
In Ionia.
Where was Ionia's chief port?
Miletus.
Where did the Council meet?
On the slopes of the Aeropagus.
Why was Athens only a limited democracy?
Some classes did not have full rights.
Why did conflict develop between the aristocracy and the lower classes?
The use of coins by the upper classes to buy the lower class land.
How were the Dark Ages classified?
As a time of invasions and migrations.
How did city-states come about?
When groups of villages in the same area banded together.
How often were Spartan endurance competitions held?
Annually.
How were the winners of the flogging competitions decided?
The boy that held out the longest.
How was most Ionian trade carried out?
By sea.
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