Genetics- exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pentasomy
2N+3
downs
trisomy 21
Chargoff's foundings?
A=T, G=C
monohybrid
one different trait
RNA
consists of:
phosphoric acid
ribose sugar (has 2' OH)
nitrogenous base (A, G, C, U)
 
single stranded, stable at low pH, labile at high pH
Bacterial transposable elements containing antibiotic resistance genes are called...
Transposons
spliceosome
the ribonucleoprotein processing complex that removes introns from eukaryotic mRNAs
recessive
gene that gets masked
What are chromosomes made of
DNA
SNP
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism. Occurs about every 1000 base pairs, caused by point mutations. Patterns of these is populations are characteristic of certain diseases or phenotypes
Proximate Causation
How is this Happening?
neutral
no selective advantage or disadvantage
Eukaryote
an organism having eukaryotic cells
thrombosis
adult onset multi-factorial disease. Mutations to FVL gene
Dominant Gene
stronger gene (masks/covers other genes)
Upper case letters
cAMP
activates a protein kinase and inactivated by phosphodiesterase action
cis-regulator
DNA sequence physically connected to and adjacent to a gene; controls transcription of the gene (e.g. promoter and operator)...is considered to be part of the gene
 
does not make a protein or RNA product and cannot influence the transcription of any gene that is not physically linked to... a binding site for trans-regulatory proteins to anchor them close to a gene
Genotype
genotype: The allele combinations in an individual that cause a particular trait or disorder.
microspores
haploid process of meiosis in plants
Selective Breeding works because of the natural genetic variation in a population.
T or F?
True
sex linked recessives generally only affect
men
meiosis
two successive nuclear divisions (with corresponding cell divisions) that produce games (in animals) or sexual spores (in plants and fungi) that have one-half of the genetic material of the original cell.
Dicentric
chromosomal fragment that has two centrosomes
evolution
micro?
macro?
changing of allele frequency over time
micro - generation to generation within a species
over geological time among species
 
Proto-oncogens are called ________ in their mutated form
oncogenes
Primase
Enzyme that synthesizes a short stretch of RNA on a DNA template ; functions in replication to provide a 3'-OH group for the attachment of a DNA nucleotide
tetrad
a paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of 2 sister chromatids.
Mutations
errors that happen in DNA replication, change in nucleotide
heterozygous
have two different allels for a trait
what are alternate versions of genes called?
alleles
compatible ends
fragments that can reanneal, like blunt ends. uses ligase to do so.
What blood type is the universal receiver? Universal donor?
AB.O.
Recombination
Creating a new combination of alleles on a chromatid.
The condition known as cri-du-chat syndrome in humans as a genetic constitution designated as
46, 5p-
color blindness
x-linkedunequal crossing over in the section of the gene containing red/green pigmentred and green get combined and you lose the ability to distinguish
molecular genetics
molecular nature and chemical nature of gene and gene function and regulation, transcription factors, gene action
LINEs
genetic elements transcribed to an RNA using an RNA polymerase II promoter that resides inside the LINE
Anti-codon
3 nucelotide sequence that codes with the codon
Name the different types of secondary DNA structures.
-B-DNA-A-DNA-Z-DNA
Acentric
a chromosome fragment that does not have a centromere
reverse genetics
an experimental procedure that begins with a cloned segment of DNA or a protein sequence and uses it (through directed mutagenesis) to introduce programmed mutations back into the genome to investigate function
Allele
varient forms of a gene, arising through mutation- one or two or more alternate forms of a gene
Random Mating
Situation in which reproducing members of a population choose mates without regard to genotypes.
Tandem duplication
Duplication of a chromosome segment that is adjacent to the original segment
5. Egg
haploid female sex cell produced by meiosis
adenine
a nitrogen base that pairs with thymine (AT)
proto-oncogene
A gene that in normal cells functions to control the proliferation of cells and that when mutated can become an oncogene. See also tumor suppressor gene.
Rho mediated
rho protein causes RNA polymerases to detach from RNA; DNA heterodimer
F2 generation
results when F1 self pollinates. 3:1 ratio
dosage compensation
a cell must either increase gene expression from sex chromosome in heterogametic sex or decrease it in homogametic sex
equational division
second division during meiosis II (the number of centromeres remains equal)
Incomplete Dominance
When the heterozygote has a phenotyoe intermediate, betweent the 2 homozygotes
 
Genotype and Phenotype ratios are the same
leu- bacteria are mixed in a flask with leu+ bacteria, and soon all bacteria are leu+. However, if the leu- cells are on one side of a u-tube and the leu+ cells are on the other, the leu- cells do not become prototrophic. This suggests
conjugation
monoploid
set of chromosomes that are the basic that is multiplied in a polyploid
gene-pool
the shared genes in a population are referred to as BEEP
Tetrasomic
2n+2; 4 copies of one chromosomes and 2 of all the others
Primer
an RNA or DNA oligonucleotide that can serve as a template for DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase when annealed to a longer DNA molecule
Transmission Genetics
also known as 'Classical Genetics' - it encompasses the basic principles of heredity and how traits are passed from one generation to the next
Meiosis divides in ___ parts but results in ___ copy of each chromomsome in a gamete.
two, one
how is transposase created?
it is encoded by transposon
dihybrid cross
a genetic cross dealing with 2 characteristics at the same time.
Aneuploidy
A change in the number of chromosomes that can lead to a chromosomal abnormality.
Neutral alleles
Alleles having no impact on any phenotype related to reproductive success.
tetratype (T)
One of the three types of meiotic tetrads possible when two genes are segregating in a cross. The T tetrad contains two parental and two recombinant nuclei, one of each parental type and one of each recombinant type.
In situ
The healthy gene inside a DNA vector (deactivated virus) is injected into a very localized and accessible body part.Skin cancer
codon
3 base codes together in DNA or RNA strand.
Codominant alleles
Neither allele masks the effect of the other. Example: A and B in blood type
coefficient of coincidence
a measure of interference from the ratio of frequency observed over the expected frequency
Transcriptional regulation in Eukaryotes
Packaging of DNA with nucleosomes prevents transcription unless other regulatory protein are present. These regulatory proteins expose promoter sequences by altering nucleosome density or position. They may also recruit RNA Pol II more directly through binding.
locus
The specific location of a gene on a chromosome.
What is Z-DNA?
-structure of DNA that forms a left-handed (counterclockwise) helix-results from high salt solution-sugar-phosphate backbone zig zags back and forth
Evolutionary equilibrium?
a balance between mutation to a new allele to selection against the allele
 
 
 
 
What is an allelic frequency cline?
When populations show different allelic frequencies across
geographic transects. (The mussel example)
Trisomy 18 disorder =
Edward Syndrome. massive heart problems. most infants die
what are chromosomes?
Consist of nuclear DNA packaged with histone proteinsDNA not normally visible (chromatin) until mitosis.During mitosis, DNA is condensed; chromosomes can be visualized by staining.Each chromosome has a characteristic appearance so you can tell them apart.In diploid organisms, chromosomes come in pairs (one from each parent), are called homologous chromosomes
haploid cell
a cell containing only one set of chromosomes.
What happens during G1?
Synthesis of enzymes required during S phase
sex influenced traits
traits that appear in both males and females but are recessive in one and dominant in the other
In a germ-line cell from a female grasshopper (XX-XO sex determination system), when do the homologous X chromosomes segregate?
meiosis I, anaphase
If the probability of event A is 3/4 and the probability of event B is 1/4, then the probability of both A and B occuring at the same time is
A. 3/4
B. 1/4
C. 1 or absolutely certain
D. 1/2
E. 3/16
 
 
 
E. 3/16
what is the name for the point on a chromosome where the spindle attaches?
centromere
 
 
 
Define Extrinsic Hypothesis
Knowing up front or in advance the expected. (upfront you know)
degrees of freedom = n-1
metaphase 1 of meiosis 1
random alignment of homologous paris of chromosomes along metaphase plate
Functional density of proteins
Proportion of amino acid sites that perform specific functions (substrate recognition, active site for catalysis, allosteric shifts).
compound chromosomal system
several X and Y chromosomes as in some nemotodes and the platypus
 
 
Humans have 22 pairs of ______________ type chromosomes and 1 pair of __________ type chromosomes.
(fill in the blank)
 
 
 
Humans have 22 pairs of autosome type chromosomes and 1 pair of sex type chromosomes.
 
 
 
What is Relative Fitness?
The ability of a genotype to survive and reproduce in comparison to other genotypes in the population
What is a dihybrid cross?
shows the probability of 2 traits appearing together.
when does the 9:3:3:1 ration occur
during a self cross of a dihybrid.
what 4 structural elements of DNA did the watson and crick paper address?
1.structure of a nucleotide2.structure of single strand3.structure of double strand4.structre of double helix
what is a okazaki fragment?
short strand of DNA on the lagging strand
What was mendels principle of dominance
Some alleles of a trait are dominant and others are recessive
process and function of telomerase?
binds to TTAGGG of DNA and extends the ends with addition RNA.
creates a 3' end for DNA polymerase I to fill
There are people who are genetically identical other than identical twins.
T or F?
False - NO INDIVIDUAL IS EXACTLY LIKE ANOTHER!!! (Except identical twins)
You have been hired by a biotechnology company with the objective of producing the human protein, insulin, in bacterial cells. Which of the following approaches would result in the expression of the insulin gene in a bacterial cell?
Get rid of the insulin gene's promoter and use a promoter from the bacterial cell for transcription
Name the 4 steps for the ER/ Golgi body on how they work together in a cell.
1.Protein made in the Rough ER, Lipids in Smooth ER
2.Carried to Golgi in vesicles
3.Golgi packages, modifies, and sorts then into vesicles.
4. Vesicles go to the plasma membrane where the contents are excreted.
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