Sociology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
alienation
a state of being in which human life is dominated by the forces of it's inventions
bureaucracy
an organization that strives to use the most efficient means to a achieve a valued goal
externality cost
hidden cost of using, making, or disposing of a product that are not figured into the price of the product or paid for by the producer
oligarchy
Rule by the few, or the concentration of decision-making power in the hands of a few people who hold the top positions in hierarchy
secondary groups
impersonal associations among people who interact for a specific purpose
trained incapacity
The inability, because of limited training to respond to new or unusual circumstances or to recognize when official rules or procedures are outmoded or no longer applicable
prophetic religeons
religeons in which the sacred revolves around items that symbolize significant historical events or around lives, teachings, and writings of great people
rituals
rules that govern how people must behave in the presence of the sacred to achieve an acceptable state of being
sacred
a domain experience that includes everything regarded as extraordinary and that inspires in believers deep and absorbing sentiments of awe,respect,mystery, and reserence
civil religion
set of beliefs about a nations pas, present, and future and a corresponding set of rituals
cults
very small, loosely organized groups, usually founded by a charmismatic keader who attracts people by virtue
ecclesia-
professionally trained religious organization governed by a hierarchy of leaders that claims everyone in a society as a member
Sects
solid organization from parent to religion usually small memebership, familes, short lived
fundamentalism
belief in the timeless of sacred writings and a belief that such writings apply to all kinds of enviroments
Islamic revitalism
Repsonses to the belief that existing political, economic, and social systems have failed-responses
mystical
religions in which the sacred is sought in states of being that is unreal
functionally illiterate
lacking the level of reading, writing, and calculating skills needed to function in a society
illiteracy
The inability to understand and use a symbol system, whether it is based on sounds,letters,numbers,pictographs
self-fulfilling prophecy
begins with a false definition of a situation, despite it's falsity, people assume it to be accurate and behave accordingly
formal organization
a coordinating mechanism people create to achieve a planned outcome
rationalization
process whereby thought and action rooted in emotion, superstition,tradition, respect for musterious places
Characteristics of Bureaucracy
clear cut division of labor, hierarchial authority, fill positions baed on qualifications determined by objective criteria, record administrative decisions, rules, regulations, procedures, and activities in standard format, Authroity belongs to the position, not the person who fills the position, treat clients as "cases" without emotion
Five basic institutions are
Family, Education, Religion, Political Institution, Economy
family
provides for care of children, procreation
education-
transmits cultural knowledge, trains new generation
religion
provide set of shared values and rituals that reaffirm them, supplying answers about the unknown
political institution
government allocates power, maintain order, provide coordination and defense
Economy
provides for production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services
Characteristics in Instituions
tend to be resistant to change, be interdependent, change together, be the site of major social problems
5 basic types of societies are
hunting and gathering, pastoral, horticultural, agricultural, industrial
Conception of American Education
Americanizing a culturally and linguistically diverse population
Surviviors
students who do not care about their learning experience and want to get through the semester with the least amount of effort
Adjustors
in a classroom to make the grades necessary to pass the class and view the learning experience as a means to end
Encountererer
enjoys learning for the sake and education is an end in itself
chacacteristics of American Education
Availability of college, lack of a uniform curriculum, funding that varies by state and community, belief that school can be a vehicle for solving a variety of social problems, ambiguity of purpose and values
durkheims 3 essential features in religion
beleifs about sacred and the profane, rituals, a community of worshipers
sacred
everything is regarded as extraordinary and inspires believers absorbing sentiments of awe
profane
everything that is not sacred, including things that opposed to the sacred and things that stand apart from the sacred
something that becomes sacred or profane only when it is
socially defined as such by a community of worshippers
ritual
rules that govern how people must behave in the presence of the sacred to achieve an acceptable state of being
Simple supernaturalism
assumes super natural force that influece human events for better or worse
animism
recognizes active, animate spirits
theism
centers on belief in a god or gods
polytheism
belief in many gods- most common form
monotheism
belief ina single supreme being
transcendental idealism
center on sacred principles of thought and conduct
What are Durkheims four functions of religion
social solidarity, provision of meaning, social control, psychological support
Marx: false conciousness
lack of awareness of one's real position in class structure
cult
charismatic leader, dissatisfied with status quo, loosely structured, face persecution, short lived
church/ecclesia
becomes status quo, hierarchy, bureaucracy, stable
Sect
solid oprganization from parent religion usually small membership, familes, short lived
Denominations
accomodating, bureaucracy and hierarchial established
life cycle of relgion
Cult (die out)--> ROC-->Chruch/Ecclesiae--->Sect(die out)-->Denomination
ROC( rotuinization of charisma
succession, objectification, role differentiation
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