Digestion Flashcards

Large intestine
Terms Definitions
Digestion
Process by which food substances are changed into forms that can be absorded through cell membranes
Ingestion
Taking food into the mouth
Movement of Food
Passage of food along the GI tract
Digestions
The breakdown of food by chemical or mechanical means.
Absorption
The passage of digested food from the Gi tract to the bloodstream (and lymph) for distribution of cells.
Defecation
The elimination of undigested material from the GI tract.
Alimentary Canal (GI tract)
Extends from mouth to anus
Organs of the Alimentary Canal (GI tract)
Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine.
Accessory organs of GI tract
Release Secretions into the alimentary canal that help digest food.
Accessory Organs
Salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Four Layers of GI tract wall
Mucosa,Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
Mixing
Mechanical digestion
Peristalsis
Propelling action, movements of longitudal muscle layer, as food passes one section of tube, another opens (Recetive Relation)
Sphincter
Strong circular muscle that prevents regurgitation of food.
Location of sphincter
Between organs of digestive tract.
Gastroesophageal Sphincter
Between esophagus and stomach
Pyloric Sphincter
Between stomach and small intestine.
Ileocecal Valve
Between small and large intestine
Internal and external anal sphincter
Large intestine to outside.
Parasympathetic NS
Activates digestion
Sympathetic NS
Slows digestion
Submucosal Plexus
Controls secretions
Myenteric Plexus
Controls peristalsis
Buccal cavity
Mouth
What surrounds the mouth
Cheeks, lips, tongue and palate
Cheek and lips
lateral to mouth, important to monitor tempuratures.
Papilla
Bumps on the tongue which house taste buds
Tongue
Muscular organ on floor of mouth
Lingual Tonsil
Posterior root contains lymphatic tissue.
Palate
Roof of mouth
Anterior Palate
Hard palate
Posterior Palate
Soft palate
Uvula
Median extension of soft palate
Palatine Tonsils
Masses of lymphatic tissue lateral to palate.
Tonsillitus
Inflammation of palatine tonsils.
Pharyngeal Tonsils
Adenoids lymphatic tissue on posterior pharynx
Chambers of the mouth
Oral cavity proper (teeth/gums to pharynx) and Vestibule (narrow space between teeth, cheeks, lips).
Teeth
Dentitions
Deciduous Teeth
20 baby teeth, erupt 6-32 months, lost 6 yrs to 12 yrs.
Permanent (Secondary) Teeth
Number 32, Erupt 6 yrs to adulthood
Incisors
Front teeth
Cuspids
Canine (eye) teeth
Bicuspid and Molars
Grinding food particles
Tooth Structure
Crown, Root, Enamel, Dentin
Insert term
Insert definition
Salivary Glands
Secrete Saliva
Major Salivary Glands
Parotid, Sublingual
Cells of salivary glands
Mucous and Serous
Structure of Pharynx
Nasopharynx, Oropharynx, Laryngopharynx
Salivary Amylace
Breaks polysaccharides into disaccharides
Starch and glycogen
Disaccharides
Churing
mechanical digestion
Gastric juices
chemical digestion of proteins
Gastic Secretions (juice)
Mucus, digestive enzyme pepsin,HCI, Intrinsic factor, Gastrin
Mucus
lubrication, protection of mucosa from digestion
Hydrochloric acid
denatures protein, kills microbes in food
Pepsin
protein digestion into peptides.
Intrinsic Factor
Aids absorption of vitaimin B12 needed for erythropoiesis
Gastrin
Regulatory Hormone
Types of gastric cells
Mucous, chief, parietal, G-cells
Mucous
secretes mucus
Chief
secretes pepsin
Parietal
secretes HC1 and intrinsic factor
G cell
secretes gastrin
Gastric Secretions
Neural, Hormonal, three phases
Three phases of gastric secretions
cephalic, gastric, intestinal
Cephalic Phase
(30 to 50 percent of control)increased parasympathetic due to sight, taste, smell, and thought of food
Gastric Phase
(40 to 50 percent of control) stretch of stomach wall which increases stomach secretions
Intestinal Phase
(5 percent control)
what regulates pancreatic secretions?
Hormones secretin and cholecystokinin
Hepatic
Liver
Liver
largest internal organ located below diaphragm
Liver functions
metabolism, storage, filtering of blood, destruction of toxic chemicals, production/secretionof bile.
Hepatic Artery
Supplies oxygenated blood to liver
hepatic portal vein
supplies deoxygenated blood to liver
Gall Bladder
Stores bile
Secretions of small intestine
musus and digestive enzymes
Function of sm intestine
Through proximal mucosa absorbs 90 percent of nutrients
Secretions of sm intesine
mucus, peptidases, sucrase, maltase, lactase, intestinal lipases
Regulation of sm intestine secretions
mechanical and chemical stimulation of duodenal wall by entering chyme regulates intestinal secretions.
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