respiration Flashcards

Terms Definitions
parts of respiration
ventilation, external respiration, transport of respiration gases, internal and cellular respiration
external respiration
air into lungs, gas exchange, air out
transport of respiratory gases
gases in blood transported from lungs to body cells and back to lungs
Internal respiration
exchange of gases at body capillaries
cellular respiration
use of oxygen by cells to produce energy
upper respiratory organs (URO)
nose, nasal cavity, nasal conchae, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, lined with mucous membrane
mucous function
to trap debris
cilia function
beat debris to pharynx to be swallowed and destroyed by digestive enzymes
mucous membrane final function
warm and moisten incoming air
traps large particle, filters air
nasal cavity
resonating chambers for speech, warms and moistens incoming air, olfactory resception
nasal conchae
divide nasal cavity into grovelike pieces, increase turbulence of incoming air
Paranasal sinuses
reduce weight of skull, resonating chambers of speech
passageway for air and food, resonant chamber for speech sounds,
Lower respiratory Organs
Larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, respiratory tubes and aveoli, lungs,
voice production
Support agasint collapse, continue to warm moisten and filter air
Aveolar capillary wall
allows rapid diffusion of gases to/from high/low pressure, blood supply to lungs
paired cone shaped organs
breathing air in
force necessary fo inspiration
atmospheric pressure
The diaphragm is at rest when..
air outside lungs in equal to air inside lungs, and diaphragm is curved upward
during inspiration
diaphragm muscle pushes downward, size of thoracic cavity increases, pressure in thorcic cavity decreases,
Pleural Membranes function
expand thoracic cage, parietal pleura, visceral pleura, and lungs expand
How do external intercostal muscles aide in inspiration?
By contracting
Breathing out
expiration deponds on what?
elastic recoil of tissue (tissue bouncing back), the inward pull of surface tension due to aveolar fluid
Collapsed lung
normal breathing
is rythmic and involuntary
Respiratory Center - Nervous Controlled
1. located in pons and medulla of brain stem 2. Medullary Rhymicicity area 3. Pneumotaxic area
Medullary Rhythmicity
composed of dorsal respiratory group
What dose dorsal respiratory group do?
Controlls rhythm of breathing.
what does ventral respiratory group control?
Forceful breathing
Groups of the Medullary Rhythmicity
Dorsal and Ventral respiratory groups
Where are the pneumotaxic and Apneustic areas located?
What are the pneumotaic and Apneustic areas control?
Roate of breathing and inhibilts medulla
What factors affect breathing?
Sensitivity of Chemoreceptors
What are chemoreceptors sensitive to?
Low oxygen levels, High Co2 levels, Effector sites, Hyperventilation
Why do high levels of CO2 affect breathing?
Affects central chemoreceptors of respiratory center and breathing rate and depth increases.
What are the effector sites?
Diaphragm/Intercostals, Smooth muscle of terminal bronchioles.
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