Biology 1001 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
charles darwin
Descent of diverse species from common ancestors, natural selection as the mechanism of evolution
natural selection
is a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and reproduce then are individuals with other traits.
population
a group of individuals with the same species living in the same place at the same time/ can change over generations.
evolutionary adaptations
a population increase in the frequency of trait suited to the envirement.
species
a group of populations who's members possessed similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to enterbreed.
gene pool
all the genes in a population at any 1 time.
microevolution
a change in a population frequency of alleles
genetic drift
evolutionary mechanism a change in the gene pool of a population do to chance.
gene flow
a population may gain or lose alleles when fertile individuals move into or out of the population or when gametes are transferred between the populations.
mutation
random change in dna that create a new allele.
non random mating ~ ( sexual selection)
election of make other than by chance .
natural selection facts~
overtime alleles that produce the most successful phenotype increase,less successful alleles become less common, change leads to increased adaptations to the envirement .
french naturalist lamaracks evolutionary theory
evolution as in that refinance of traits that equip organisms to preform successfully in their environment.
fossil
imprints or remains of organisms that live in the past .
geographic distribution of species
it first suggested to darwin that today is organisms evolve from ancestoral forms.
galapagos islands
each species adapting to their new environment.
fossil records
ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in rock layers, making their passage of each geological time.
comparative anatomy
comparison of body structures in different species .
homology
similarity between species that is due to shared ancestry.
comparative embryology
comparing early stages of development in different animal species reveals additional homologies not visible in adult organisms.
molecular biology
the study of molecular basis of heredity; molecular genetics.
DNA
the genetic material that organisms inherit from their parents; a double stranded helical macromolecule consisting of a nucleotide monomers with deoxyribose sugar, a phosphate group, and the nitrogenous bases, adenine (A), cytosyne (C), guanine (G), and thymine (T).
each nucleotide has ~
5 carbon sugar, Phosphate group,nitrogenous bases a, g , c, t
transcription
the synthesis of rna on a dna template
translation
synthesis of a poly peptide using the genetic information encoded in an mrna molecule.
chloroplast
site of photosynthesis in a plant cell
lipids
1 major function is for long term energy storage.
denature
may occur when an enzyme is exposed to extreme heat
hypothesis
an informed I guess that scientist propose as tentative answers to specific questions
animal cell
does not have cell wall
amino acids
building blocks of proteins
autotroph
obtained organic food without consuming other organisms
prokariotic cell
does not have a nucleus and does not have organelles
virus
cannot reproduce or grow and develop
carbo hydrates
major function is a quick source of energy
cellular respiration
provides energy to make atp
mitochondrion
organelle where most of the stages of cellular respiration occur
enzyme
speeds up chemical reactions by straining bonds in the substrate molecule
Eukaryotic cell
has a true nucleus and organelles
photosynthesis
produces food molecules for plants
allele
different versions of genes for the same trait
locus
a gene's location on a chromosome
genotype
the alleles an organism has for a trait
phenotype
an organisms traits (observable/physical features)
homozygous
2 identical alleles for 1 gene
heterozygous
2 different alleses for 1 gene
dominant allele
the allele that determines the phenotype
recessive allele
the allele that has no noticeable effect on the phenotype
polygenetic inheritance
the effect of 2 or more genes on a single gene (has multiple effect)
paleioraphy
the control of more than 1 phenotypic character by a single gene (has multiple effects)
multiple alleles
-more than 2 possible alleles for 1 gene
Mendel’s Law of Segregation
-the 2 alleles for a gene separate from each other during gamete formation (meiosis)
Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
alleles of 1 genes separate independently of other genes during gamete formation (meiosis)
genotypic ratio
ratio with the letters from the square
phenotypic ratio
ratio with results of dominant and recessive (ex. 3 white:1 purple)
genetic disorder
inherited as dominant or recessive traits, controlled by a single gene. happens before someone is born
genetic abnormality
can happen after someone is born.
pedigree
a family tree representing the occurrence of heritable traits in parents and offspring across generations
carrier
someone who is heterozygous for recessively inherited disorder, and doesn’t show symptoms of that disorder
sex chromosomes
a chromosome that determines whether an individual is male or female. X or Y
autosomes
a chromosome not directly involved in determining the sex of an organism
sex linked gene
any gene located on a sex chromosome
autosomal recessive
causes most disorders like cystic fibrosis (born with)
autosomal dominant
causes some other disorders like Huntington’s disease
genes on the sex chromosomes
are sex linked
the inheritance pattern reflects
the fact that females have 2 X’s and males only have 1 X
most sex linked human disorders
are due to recessive alleles, that are mostly in males
genetic counseling:
-create a family pedigree, diagnosis of genotype, genetic screening
amniocentesis:
at 12+ weeks, results in a few weeks
chronic villus sampling:
at 8+ weeks, results immediately for some tests
pre-implantation diagnosis
in vitro fertilization, one tell taken from blastula for testing, if no disorders, the inserted into uterus
Blood Type
A & B and dominant, O is recessive
A
has carbohydrate A
B
has carbohydrate B
C
has neither A or B carbohydrate
AA
Type A- has B antibodies
Ao
Type A- has B antibodies
BB
Type B- has A antibodies
Bo
Type B- has A antibodies
AB
Type AB- has no antibodies
oo
Type o- has A & B antibodies
Dna fingerprint:
analysis of dna, cuts dna into pieces by using restriction enzymes in specific sequences, gel electrophoresis
ethical questions:
should they use the treatment or not? is it worth the risk/outcome?
How biotechnology and genetic engineering helps:
Agriculture and medical
Agriculture:
crops can carry a bacterial gene that helps prevent infestation
Medical
-has helped to produce genetically engineered insulin for diabetics
4 dna bases
A- Adenine, G- Guanine, T- Thymine, C- Cytocine
DNA RNA
is transcription
RNA protein
is translation
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