PSC 168 Part 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Schizophrenia (Chronic Onset)
Slow process of steady deterioration without periods of remission
Schizophrenia (Acute Onset)
Suddenly appearing psychotic symptoms with good "premorbid" adjustment
Schizophrenia (Prevalence)
1%
Schizophrenia (Onset)
Late teens - 20's
Schizophrenia (Misconceptions)
"Split mind" not "Split personality", shattered personality and not violent.
Schizophrenia (Course)
Better prognosis for acute onset, deterioration with each episode, treatable but no cure
Schizophrenia (Gender Ratio)
1:1 (More young males, More older females, but majority diagnosed when young)
Schizophrenia (Main Symptoms)
Perception: Hallucinations, Thought Content: Delusions, Thought Processes ("Formal Thought Disorder"), Emotion, Motivation, Relating to Others, Motor Behavior
Schizophrenia (Perception: Hallucinations Definition)
Sensory experiences without sensory stimulation
Schizophrenia (Perception: Hallucinations Symptoms)
Auditory mainly ("voices"), visual, olfactory or tactile,
Schizophrenia (Thought Content: Delusions Definition)
Fragmented, bizarre, and false belief systems
Schizophrenia (Thought Content: Delusions Symptoms)
Delusions of: paranoia, grandiosity, reference (directed at oneself), thought broadcasting (ppl can hear/read my thoughts), mind reading (read others' mind)
Schizophrenia (Thought Processes "Formal Thought Disorder" Symptoms))
Loosely connected thoughts, digressive/associative speech (makes no sense), impaired logic (cause-effect reversed/inconsequential), concreteness (cant understand figurative speech), neologisms (making up non-existing words), trouble selective attention (dunno what is important/unimportant)
Schizophrenia (Emotion Symptoms)
Agitated "manic" effect, inappropriate affect (inappropriate to the situation), flat, blunted affect
Schizophrenia (Motivation Symptoms)
Loss of: interest, enjoyment (anhedonia), goals, drive
Schizophrenia ("Relating to Others" Symptoms)
Social withdrawal, loss of social skills (missing subtle cues, loss of social graces)
Schizophrenia (Positive Symptoms)
Hallucinations, Delusions, Agitation
Schizophrenia (Negative Symptoms)
Loss of logical thinking & coherent speech, flat blunted affect, anhedonia, avolition (lack of goal orientation), alogia (nothing to say in convos), social withdrawal
Schizophrenia (Positive Symptoms vs Negative)
Positive symptoms are easier to treat with medications, and better prognosis
Schizophrenia (Types of Schizophrenia)
Paranoid, Disorganized, Catatonic, Undifferentiated, Residual
Schizophrenia (Paranoid Type: Symptoms)
Mostly positive, delusions of persecution & grandeur, auditory hallucinations (almost always), paranoia-related fear, anger or hostility, cognitive skills intact (no formal thought disorder)
Schizophrenia (Paranoid Type: Treatment)
Responds well to antipsychotic medications, likely to refuse medications and other treatment
Schizophrenia (Disorganized Type: Symptoms)
Mostly negative, formal thought disorder, social withdrawal, flat affect or inappropriate (giggling to self), anhedonia, avolition, alogia, bizarre mannerisms, regressed behavior (childlike, silly immature), inappropriate social behaviors (defecating/masturbating in public), disintegration of personality, may hallucinate
Schizophrenia (Disorganized Type: Course)
Chronic, poor premorbid adjustment (schizotypal), poor prognosis
Schizophrenia (Catatonic Type: Symptoms))
Mostly motor behaviors, stupor, rigidity, bizzare postures, may alternate with agitation, echolalia (repeat other ppl's words), echopraxia (mimic ppl's actions), very rare
Schizophrenia (Undifferentiated Type: Symptoms)
Clearly psychotic (doesnt fit other categories), delusions & hallucinations, some thought disorder & behavioral disorganization
Schizophrenia (Residual Type: Symptoms)
Remaining symptoms after acute psychotic episode, no active delusions/hallucinations, lingering symptoms (peculiar/odd beliefs), social withdrawal, blunted affect, they dont go back to former level of functioning, similar to schizotypal
Other Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders
Brief psychotic disorder, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, delusional disorder
Brief Psychotic Disorder
Symptoms last less than one month
Schizophreniform Disorder
Symptoms last less than 6 months
Schizoaffective Disorder
Criteria met for both major mood disorder (Bipolar 1 or 2, or MDD) and schizophrenia, psychosis for at least 2 weeks without simultaneous mood symptoms
Delusional Disorder
Non-bizzare delusions (erotomania), no mood symptoms, no hallucinations
Sexual Disorders (DSM)
Gender Identity Disorder, Sexual Dysfunction, Paraphilias
Gender Identity Disorder (Def.)
Cross-gender identification and discomfort with one's own sex
Sexual Dysfunction (Def.)
Problems with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain
Paraphilias (Def.)
Sexual attractions to inappropriate people or objects
Gender Identity Disorder is the same as:
Cross-gender Identification, Gender Dysphoria, Transsexualism
Gender Identity Disorder is different from:
Homosexuality (= sexual orientation), Hermaphrodite (= biological ambiguity), Transvestic Fetishism (= cross dressing for sexual thrill, a paraphilia)
List of Sexual Dysfunctions
Sexual Desire Disorder, Sexual Arousal Disorder, Orgasmic Disorder, Sexual Pain Disorder
Sexual Desire Disorder
Sexual Aversion Disorder, Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder
Sexual Arousal Disorder
Male Erectile Disorder, Female Sexual Arousal Disorder
Orgasmic Disorder
Female Orgasmic Disorder, Male Orgasmic Disorder, Premature Ejaculation
Sexual Pain Disorder
Dyspareunia, Vaginism
Treatment of Sexual Dysfunctions
Education about sex, Communication training, Sensate focus (for problems with desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, anticipatory anxieties), Dilators (for vaginism), Stop and squeeze techniques (for premature ejax), masturbation techniques (for sexual aversion; orgasmic problems)
Paraphilias (Def.)
Intense and recurrent sexual urges or fantasies involving nonhuman objects, non-consenting people, or suffering and humiliation
Paraphilias (Gender Ratio)
Mostly males
Paraphilias (Onset)
Early, usually in adolescence
Paraphilias (Comorbidity)
Other paraphilias, and is common
Types of Paraphilias (3 Categories)
Nonhuman Objects, Non-Consenting Persons, Suffering or Humiliation
Nonhuman Objects (Paraphilias)
Fetishism, Transvestic Fetishism
Non-Consenting Persons (Paraphilias)
Exhibitionism, Voyeurism, Frotteurism, Pedophilia
Suffering or Humiliation (Paraphilias)
Sadism, Masochism
Exhibitionism
Exhibit the genitals in public
Voyeurism
Pleasure from peeping on others undressing or having sex
Frotteurism
Pleasure from rubbing against someone
Findings in Schizophrenic individuals
Dilation of ventricles, atrophy of limbic system structures (hippocampus), thalamus irregularities (filtering deficit), Frotnal lobe schrinkage (underactive), neuropsychological impairment (memory, attention, concentration, problem solving, etc), soft neurological signs, EEG abnormalities, Temporal lobe abnormalities (auditory cortex), eye movement abnormalities, age of father (sperm donor), pregnancy/birth complications, developmental abnormalities (handedness, fingerprints, final neuronal trimming/pruning abnormalities), "seasonality of birth", biohemical abnormalities (dopamine system, serotonin system, glutamate system)
Dopamine system abnormalities causes what kind of symptoms (Schizophrenia)
Positive symptoms (hallucinations & delusions)
Serotonin system abnormalities cause what kind of symptoms (Schizophrenia)
Psychotic symptoms (LSD mimics serotonin molecules and blocks serotonin receptors)
Glutamate system abnormalities cause what kind of symptoms (Schizophrenia)
Both negative & positive (PCP is a glutamate antagonist = blocks glutamate)
Genetic predisposition (Schizophrenia)
There is a predisposition, but not a "genetic" disorder, genetics tells you only how sensitive you are to aspects of environment
How many genes responsible for Schizophrenia
Multiple, and overlap may account for different forms of Schizophrenia in spectrum
Genetic mutations in Schizophrenia
3-4x more glitches in patients found with Schizophrenia, cause signals not being fired and could explain hallucinations and such
Schizophrenia (Etiology)
Genetics, Neurodevelopment, Viral infections, Stress/trauma factors (Diathesis-stress model)
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