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What movement has been seen in the last 2 decades?
A movement toward seeing crimes involving force in sexual relations as crimes of violence and victimization rather than sex crimes
Prior to 1983, name the 4 statutes in the Criminal Code that prohibited sexual activity.
1. Rape; 2. Attempted rape; 3. Indecent assault against a female; 4. Indecent assault against a male
What were the 5 criticisms of the 4 statues in the Criminal Code that prohibited forced sexual activity prior to 1983.
1. Rape limited to forced heterosexual intercourse; 2. Assailant = male, Victim = female. Females couldn't be charged with rape and males couldn't be victims; 3. Husbands couldn't be charged with raping their wives (a woman couldn't legally refuse her husband's demands); 4. The victim's prior sexual activities could be considered as evidence of her consent and of the credibility of her testimony, effectively putting her past on trial; 5. Rape complaints that weren't made immediately after the attack were invalidated
Wrt sexual assault, how was the Criminal Code amended in 1983?
The offences of rape and indecent assault were replaced with 3 gender-neutral crimes of sexual assault that depended on the amount of force used to carry out the assault and the degree of injury sustained by the victim: (simple) sexual assault, sexual assault with a weapon causing serious injury or endangering the life of the victim or causing bodily harm, and aggravated sexual assaut
What are the 4 reasons why the Criminal Code was amended, wrt sexual assault?
To de-emphasize the sexual nature of the ffense, to stress their violent nature, to encourge victims to report these crimes to the police, and to improve the court procedure so as to reduce trauma to victims and increase the rate of convictions
Why is the amended Criminal Code, wrt to sexual assault, written in gender neutral terms?
To keep with the equality provisions of the Charter
What are examples of non-consent?
Children under 16, silence, inaction, ambiguous conduct, if the complainant is drug or unconscious, shows by their actions that they're not in agreement, or consents to engage in sexual activity and then changes their mind
What type of sexual assault victims are most likely to report to authorities?
Victims of sexual assault by a stranger
Describe the rate of reported sexual assault.
Decreasing since the 1990s
What are some reasons why women don't report their sexual assault to the police?
They believed that the police couldn't do anything, wanted to keep the event private, felt ashamed or embarassed, afraid of not being believed, fearing the perpetrator, and not wanting the perpetrator to be arrested
What type of women are at greater risk of experiencing sexual assault?
Women with disabilities are more than 4 times more likely than are women without disabilities
What is the most common type of sexual assault?
By men against women; and sexual assault by an acquaintance than by a stranger
What 3 things are associated with sexual coercion by a dating partner?
1. Higher depression; 2. Lower self-esteem; 3. More negative sexual self-perceptions
In dating relationships, what may contribute to sexual assault?
Miscommunication
Name 3 reasons for why sexually aggressive men misperceive women's communications.
1. Aggressors lack competence in "reading" women's negative emotions; 2. Sexually aggressive men fail to make subtle distinctions between women's friendliness and seductiveness; 3. They have "suspicious schema" and automatically doubt that women are communicating truthfully and accurately, particlarly when the women rejects a sexual advance
What type of therapy do prevention and treatment programs suggest to treat "suspcious schema"?
Cognitive therapy to get the man to change his suspicious schema.
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