Global History II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Battle of the Marne
Infamous battle in 1914 that really set the tone for the war with trench warfare.
Verdun
Germans tried to take this over but both French and Germans had large losses. 1916
Shandong Peninsula
Japanese took over this region to crush German influence in 1914. Led to Japanese influence growing in China and Japanese started taking over islands in Germany.
Gallipoli
British landed here in hopes of taking the Ottomans out of the war quickly in 1915. This didn't happen because the British messed up.
Mohandas Gandhi
Backed the British efforts dring WWI and hoped that it would give India independence from Britain. Gandhi led an anti-colonialist movement in 1919 when there was a giant massacre in India. He formed the Indian National Congress and got the support of the Muslim population of India.
Balfour Declaration
British promised the Palestinians that they would have a Jewish territory after the war. 1917
Total War
War that involves every aspect of national societies. Citizens were all encouraged to help in any way possible and civil liberties were often restricted.
Lusitania
British cruise liner that was torpedoed in 1915 by the Germans. Contributed to the US entering WWI.
Woodrow Wilson
Cut off all diplomatic relations with Germany after repeated torpedoes and particularly after the Zimmerman Telegram.
Restoration of Mexico's "lost provinces"
Germans promised Mexico that they would receive land back from the US if they helped the Triple Alliance in WWI. Pushed the US over the edge. 1917
New States in Eastern Europe
German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires were gone after WWI. Instead, there were many new small states which had very mixed ethnicities which led to many conflicts.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty at the end of the war which put most of the blame on Germany. Article 231 was the war guilt clause. 1919
Mandates in the Middle East
Although it was not legal to take over territories as colonies, mandates were a way to get around it. European powers were still able to boost their economy with mandates.
Nicholas II (Romanov Dynasty)
He was the final emperor of Russia. He was famous for establishing the secret police. Everything in Russia was backwards during this time. He made promises for changes, but when they were not made, a revolution began in 1917.
Vladimir Lenin & Leon Trotsky
Germans sent Lenin back to Russia where he joined Trotsky to make up the Bolsheviks, a small Marxist group. They were similar to the Jacobins. April 1917. They promised land, peace, and bread. Lenin took the position of chairman of Bolshviks and Trotsky was in charge of foreign affairs
Joseph Stalin
Commissioner for ethnic minorities that promised a socialist state. He nationalized economy and turned factories over the peasants. Civil war between 1918-1921. Stalin beat out Trotsky after Lenin died.
Totalitarianism
The state took over every aspect of society
Fascism
A different type of totalitarian government that came initially as a response to the Bolsheviks. First emerged in Italy.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist leader of Italy that wanted to bring Italy back into a world power. He promised a great future and brought a lot of nationalism to their country, which was struggling.
Indian National Congress
Founded in 1885 and became affiliated with Gandhi after WWI
Salt March
Gandhi's protests against the heavy taxes of the British government in 1934. Gandhi walked to the ocean and held up a lump of salt in the ocean. This was a quiet revolution.
General Yuan Shikai
Replacement for Sun Yat Sen who wanted to become the emperor of China. The Japanese's persistent attacks weakened Yuan's reputation and protests broke out in 1919. Warlords took over and this made way for a nationalist party led by Chiang Kai-Shek
Chiang Kai-Shek
Member of the national party and came to power. He struck down communists and stressed nationalism and the Western middle class started to emerge.
Japanese militarism
Ultra nationalist party of Japan that were unhappy about the working conditions in Japan. Extremists started to take power in Japan
Ikki Kita
Called for a military takeover and a new governmental system in Japan which was similar to national socialism. Believed that materialism had corrupted society.
"Personalist" dictatorships in Latin America
Began to dominate in 1930s and following decades. Autocratic military rulers emerged because the US demanded rulers of stable regimes to cooperate with the US.
Concordancia
The name given to the reestablishment of the power of the elites. The army leaders governed Argentina throughout the 1930s.
Getulio Vargas
A wealthy landowner that seized power in Brazil. He transformed Brazil into a major industrial power.
Lazaro Cardenas
Elected president of Mexico and redistributed a lot of land in Mexico. He won a lot of support standing up to the US and was influenced heavily by the Bolsheviks.
Adolf Hitler
Leader of Germany during WWII, believed that the German loss in the war came from the Jews, joined the NSDAP
National Socialist Germans Workers Party
A party that generally accepted everyone, a fascist party. The idea was that Germany would become strong at the cost of anything and it was one of the extreme right wing parties that emerged after WWI. It was anti-Semetic and anti-Communist.
Weimar Republic
Germany's first democracy and it was within this Republic that the Nazi's achieved their power. Known for hyperinflation in 1923.
biological materialism
This was a core tenant of Naziam. Hitler stated that history and world is a constant state of emergency because races are always battling each other.
Lebensraum
Room to live in. This is what Hitler says every race needs. It was essential.
Anschluss
Hitler annexed Austria, violating the Treaty of Versailles in 1938.
Sudetenland
Britain and France just allowed Hitler to have this region because they were afraid more of Communism than Hitler.
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