Global History II Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy. Caused by Bismarck ultimately wanting to isolate their French rivals. 1882
Entente Cordiale
Treaty of friendship between Britain and France to combat the German threat even though Britain and France were not friends. 1904
Anglo-Russian Entente
Treaty that brought Britain and Russia together in order to combat the Germans. 1907.
Triple Entente
Name given to the alliance created after Anglo-Russian Entente of 1907 between Britain, France, and Russia
Franz Ferdinand
Archduke of Austria-Hungary that was assassinated in June 1914 by a Serbian terrorist and led to the start of WWI. Caused Austria to declare war on Serbia.
World War I
War lasted between 1914-1918 that involved most of the war. Total war because it involved every aspect of national societies.
Battle of the Marne
Infamous battle in 1914 that really set the tone for the war with trench warfare.
Verdun
Germans tried to take this over but both French and Germans had large losses. 1916
Shandong Peninsula
Japanese took over this region to crush German influence in 1914. Led to Japanese influence growing in China and Japanese started taking over islands in Germany.
Gallipoli
British landed here in hopes of taking the Ottomans out of the war quickly in 1915. This didn't happen because the British messed up.
Mohandas Gandhi
Backed the British efforts dring WWI and hoped that it would give India independence from Britain. Gandhi led an anti-colonialist movement in 1919 when there was a giant massacre in India. He formed the Indian National Congress and got the support of the Muslim population of India.
Balfour Declaration
British promised the Palestinians that they would have a Jewish territory after the war. 1917
Total War
War that involves every aspect of national societies. Citizens were all encouraged to help in any way possible and civil liberties were often restricted.
Lusitania
British cruise liner that was torpedoed in 1915 by the Germans. Contributed to the US entering WWI.
Woodrow Wilson
Cut off all diplomatic relations with Germany after repeated torpedoes and particularly after the Zimmerman Telegram.
Restoration of Mexico's "lost provinces"
Germans promised Mexico that they would receive land back from the US if they helped the Triple Alliance in WWI. Pushed the US over the edge. 1917
New States in Eastern Europe
German, Austro-Hungarian, Russian, and Ottoman Empires were gone after WWI. Instead, there were many new small states which had very mixed ethnicities which led to many conflicts.
Treaty of Versailles
Peace treaty at the end of the war which put most of the blame on Germany. Article 231 was the war guilt clause. 1919
Mandates in the Middle East
Although it was not legal to take over territories as colonies, mandates were a way to get around it. European powers were still able to boost their economy with mandates.
Nicholas II (Romanov Dynasty)
He was the final emperor of Russia. He was famous for establishing the secret police. Everything in Russia was backwards during this time. He made promises for changes, but when they were not made, a revolution began in 1917.
Vladimir Lenin & Leon Trotsky
Germans sent Lenin back to Russia where he joined Trotsky to make up the Bolsheviks, a small Marxist group. They were similar to the Jacobins. April 1917. They promised land, peace, and bread. Lenin took the position of chairman of Bolshviks and Trotsky was in charge of foreign affairs
Joseph Stalin
Commissioner for ethnic minorities that promised a socialist state. He nationalized economy and turned factories over the peasants. Civil war between 1918-1921. Stalin beat out Trotsky after Lenin died.
Totalitarianism
The state took over every aspect of society
Fascism
A different type of totalitarian government that came initially as a response to the Bolsheviks. First emerged in Italy.
Benito Mussolini
Fascist leader of Italy that wanted to bring Italy back into a world power. He promised a great future and brought a lot of nationalism to their country, which was struggling.
Indian National Congress
Founded in 1885 and became affiliated with Gandhi after WWI
Salt March
Gandhi's protests against the heavy taxes of the British government in 1934. Gandhi walked to the ocean and held up a lump of salt in the ocean. This was a quiet revolution.
General Yuan Shikai
Replacement for Sun Yat Sen who wanted to become the emperor of China. The Japanese's persistent attacks weakened Yuan's reputation and protests broke out in 1919. Warlords took over and this made way for a nationalist party led by Chiang Kai-Shek
Chiang Kai-Shek
Member of the national party and came to power. He struck down communists and stressed nationalism and the Western middle class started to emerge. During WWII, he stopped actively fighting the Japanese.
Japanese militarism
Ultra nationalist party of Japan that were unhappy about the working conditions in Japan. Extremists started to take power in Japan
Ikki Kita
Called for a military takeover and a new governmental system in Japan which was similar to national socialism. Believed that materialism had corrupted society.
"Personalist" dictatorships in Latin America
Began to dominate in 1930s and following decades. Autocratic military rulers emerged because the US demanded rulers of stable regimes to cooperate with the US.
Concordancia
The name given to the reestablishment of the power of the elites. The army leaders governed Argentina throughout the 1930s.
Adolf Hitler
Leader of Germany during WWII, believed that the German loss in the war came from the Jews, joined the NSDAP
National Socialist Germans Workers Party
A party that generally accepted everyone, a fascist party. The idea was that Germany would become strong at the cost of anything and it was one of the extreme right wing parties that emerged after WWI. It was anti-Semetic and anti-Communist.
Weimar Republic
Germany's first democracy and it was within this Republic that the Nazi's achieved their power. Known for hyperinflation in 1923.
biological materialism
This was a core tenant of Naziam. Hitler stated that history and world is a constant state of emergency because races are always battling each other.
Lebensraum
Room to live in. This is what Hitler says every race needs. It was essential.
Anschluss
Hitler annexed Austria, violating the Treaty of Versailles in 1938.
Sudetenland
Britain and France just allowed Hitler to have this region because they were afraid more of Communism than Hitler.
Japanese invasion of Manchuria
This started the conflict in the Pacific, which conflicted with US interests.
Rape of Nanjing
Japanese attack on China. Brutal defeat in China.
Tripartite Pact
Pact made between Italy, Japan, and Germany. They wanted to take over territories in the Pacific but ran into the US.
Pearl Harbor
Japanese surprise attack on Hawaii, bringing the US officially into the war. 1941
People's Liberation Army
Communist army in China led by Mao Zedong, who unlike Kai-Shek, wanted to fight back against the Japanese.
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Location in which two atomic bombs were dropped, leaving Japan in shambles.
Holocaust
Systematic extermination of Jews.
Death Camps
One of the ways that the Germans exterminated the Jews. The other two ways were through prisons and labor camps.
Auschwitz
This was a labor camp that became a death camp. Famously gassed people to death.
Zyklon B
Pesticide that was capable of killing thousands of people.
I.G. Farben
Company responsible for making Zyklon B.
Iron Curtain
The fear of the Soviet takeover after WWII in Eastern Europe. This was a term coined by Winston Churchill. This was an imaginary dividing Eastern and Western Europe.
Marshall Plan
Issued by the US government in 1947, providing $13 billion in economic recovery for Europe. The US wanted to use this money to rebuild countries so they would not fall to the Communists
Containment Policy
Official in 1948, the Allied powers wanted to contain the spread of communism. It became official because of what happened in Berlin.
Berlin Wall
A wall created by the Eastern Germans to protect itself from the imperialists of West Berlin.
NATO
Military alliance consisting of the US, Canada, and Western Europe
Warsaw Pact
Military alliance consisting of central Asia and Eastern Europe
Mao Zedong
Communist leader against Kai-Shek in China. Grew stronger as the Cold War persisted.
Chinese Revolution
All out war between Kai-Shek and Zedong, in which even urban middle class started fighting for the communists.
Korean War
War the brought the Cold War to East Asia. Ended in 1943
Ho Chi Minh
Communists in Indochina started rallying under this leader to be freed from French rule.
First Indochina War
War between French troops and communists of Ho Chi Minh. Lasted unti 1954
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