4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
nonshared environmental influence (NSE)
an environmental influence that people living together do not share which should make these individuals different from one another
shared environmental influence (SE)
an environmental influence that people living together share and should make these individuals similar to one another
empathic concern
a measure of the extent to which an individual recognizes the needs of others and is concerned about their welfare
a serious form of mental illness characterized by disturbances in logical thinking, emotional expression, and interpersonal behaviour
bipolar disorder
a psychological disorder characterized by extreme fluctuations in mood
neurotic disorder
an irrational pattern of thinking or behaviour that a person may use to contend with stress or to avoid anxiety
genetic restriction of phenotype to a small number of developmental outcomes; a highly canalized attribute is one for which genes channel develop along predetermined pathways, so that the environment has little effect on the phenotype that emerges
range-of-reaction principle
the idea that genotype sets limits on the range of possible phenotypes that a person might display in response to different environments
prenatal development
development that occurs between the moment f conception and the beginning of the birth process
period of the embryo
second phase of prenatal development, lasting from the third through the eighth prenatal week, during which the major organs and anatomical structures take shape
period of the fetus
third phase of prenatal development, lasting from the ninth prenatal week until birth; during this period, all major organ systems begin to function and the fetus grows rapidly
name given to the ball of cells formed when the fertilized egg first begins to divide
name given to the prenatal organism from the third through the eighth week after conception
the burrowing of the blastocyst into the lining of the uterus
a watertight membrane that surrounds the developing embryo, serving to regulate its temperature and to cushion it against injuries
a membrane that, as above, becomes attached to the uterine tissues to gather nourishment for the embryo
an organ, formed from the lining of the uterus and the chorion, that provides for respiration and nourishment of the unborn child and the elimination of its metabolic wastes
umbilical cord
a soft tube containing blood vessels that connect the embryo to the placenta
neural tube
the primitive spinal cord that develops from the ectoderm and becomes the central nervous system
name given to the prenatal organism from the ninth week of pregnancy until birth
white cheesy substance that covers the fetus to protect the skin from chapping
fine hair covering the fetus’s body that helps vernix stick to the skin
age of viability
a point between the 22nd and 28th prenatal weeks when survival outside the uterus is possible
external agents such as viruses, drugs, chemicals, and radiation that can harm a developing embryo or fetus
sensitive period (ch. 4: prenatal development, birth, and newborns' readiness for life)
a period during which an organism is quite susceptible to certain environmental influences; outside this period, the same environmental influences that must be much stronger to produce comparable effects
rubella (German measles)
a disease that has little effect on a mother but may cause a number of serious birth defects in unborn children who are exposed in the first 3 to 4 months of pregnancy
disease caused by a parasite found in raw meat and cat feces; can cause birth defects if transmitted to an embryo in the first trimester and miscarriage later in pregnancy
acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
a viral disease that can be transmitted from a mother to her fetus or neonate and that results in a weakening of the body’s immune system and, ultimately, death
a mild tranquilizer that, taken early in pregnancy, can produce a variety of malformations of the limbs, eyes, ears, and heart of the baby
diethylstilbestrol (DES)
a synthetic hormone, formerly prescribed to prevent miscarriage, that can produce cervical cancer in adolescent female offspring and genital-tract abnormalities in males
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
a group of serious congenital problems commonly observed in the offspring of mothers who abuse alcohol during pregnancy
fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
a group of mild congenital problems that are sometimes observed in children of mothers who drink sparingly to moderately during pregnancy
cleft lip
a congenital disorder in which the upper lip has a vertical (or pair of vertical) openings or grooves
cleft palate
a congenital disorder in which the roof of the mouth does not close properly during embryonic development, resulting in an opening or groove in the roof of the mouth
folic acid
B-complex vitamin that helps to prevent defects of the central nervous system
spina bifida
a bulging of the spinal cord through a gap in the spinal column
a birth defect in which the brain and neural tube fail to develop or develop incompletely and the skull does not close
a newborn infant from birth to approximately 1 month old
preinatal environment
refers to the environment surround birth
first stage of labour
the period of the birth process lasting from the first regular uterine contractions until the cervix is fully dilated
second stage of labour
the period of the birth process during which the fetus moves through the birth canal and emerges from the mother’s body (also called delivery)
third stage of labour
expulsion of the placenta (afterbirth)
Apgar test
a quick assessment of the newborn’s heart rate, respiration, colour, muscle tone, and reflexes that is used to gauge perinatal stress and to determine whether a neonate requires immediate medical assistance
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