5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (NBAS)
a test that assesses a neonate’s neurological integrity and responsiveness to environmental stimuli
natural and prepared childbirth
a delivery in which physical and psychological preparations for the birth are stressed and medical assistance is minimized
cesarean section
surgical delivery of a baby through an incision made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus
alternative birth centre
a hospital birthing room or other independent facility that provides homelike atmosphere for childbirth but still makes medical technology available
emotional bonding
term used to describe the strong affectionate ties that parents may feel toward their infant; some theorists believe that the strongest bonding occurs shortly after birth, during a sensitive period
postpartum depression
strong feelings of sadness, resentment, and despair that may appear shortly after childbirth and can linger for months
paternal analogue of maternal emotional bonding; term used to describe fathers’ fascination with their neonates, including their desire to touch, hold, caress, and talk to the newborn baby
a lack of sufficient oxygen to the brain; may result in neurological damage or death
breech birth
a delivery in which the fetus emerges feet first or buttocks first rather than head first
RH factor
a blood protein that, when present in a fetus but on the mother, can cause the mother to produce antibodies. These antibodies may then attack the red blood cells of subsequent fetuses who have the protein in their blood
preterm infants
infants born more than three weeks before their normal due dates
small-for-date (or small-for-gestational-age) babies
infants whose birth weight is far below normal, even when born close to their normal due dates
respiratory distress syndrome
a serious condition in which a preterm infant breathes very irregularly and is at risk of dying (also called hyaline membrane disease)
unlearned and automatic response to a stimulus or class of stimuli
survival reflexes
inborn responses such as breathing, sucking, and swallowing that enable the newborn to adapt to the environment
primitive reflexes
reflexes controlled by subcortical areas of the brain that gradually disappear over the first year of life
infant states
levels of sleep and wakefulness that young infants display
REM sleep
state of active or irregular sleep in which the eyes move rapidly beneath the eyelids and brain wave activity is similar to the pattern displayed when awake
autostimulation theory
theory proposing that RE sleep in infancy is a form of self-stimulation that helps the central nervous system to develop
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)
unexplained death of a sleeping infant who suddenly stops breathing (also called crib death)
cephalocaudal development
a sequence of physical maturation and growth that proceeds from the head (cephalic region) to the tail (or caudal region)
proximodistal development
a sequence of physical maturation and growth that proceeds from the center of the body (the proximal region) to the extremities (distal regions)
skeletal age
a measure of physical maturation based on the child’s level of skeletal development
brain growth spurt
the period between the seventh prenatal month and 2 year of age where more than half of the child’s eventual rain weight is added
the connective space (juncture) between one nerve cell (neuron) and another
nerve cells that receive and transmit neural impulses
nerve cells that nourish neurons and encase them in insulating sheaths of myelin
formation of connections (synapses) among neurons
process by which neurons are enclosed in waxy myelin sheaths that will facilitate the transmission of neural impulses
the highest brain centre; includes both hemispheres of the brain and the fibres that connect them
corpus callosum
the bundle of neural fibres that connects the two hemispheres of the brain and transmits information from one hemisphere to the other
cerebral cortex
the outer layer of the brain’s cerebrum that is involved in voluntary body movements, perception, and higher intellectual functions such as learning, thinking, and speaking
cerebral lateralization
the specialization of brain functions in the left and the right cerebral hemispheres
dynamic systems theory
a theory that views motor skills as active reorganizations of previously mastered capabilities that are undertaken to find more effective ways of exploring the environment or satisfying other objectives
proprioceptive information
sensory information from the muscles, tendons, and joints that help one locate the position of one’s body (or body parts) in space
ulnar grasp
an early manipulatory skill in which an infant grasps objects by pressing the fingers against the palm
pincer grasp
a grasp in which the thumb is used in opposition to the fingers, enabling an infant to become more dexterous at lifting and fondling objects
adolescent growth spurt
the rapid increase in physical growth that marks the beginning of adolescence
the point at which a person reaches sexual maturity and is physically capable of fathering or conceiving a child
physical activity play
moderate to vigorous play activities as running, jumping, climbing, play fighting, or game playing that raise a child’s metabolic rate far above resting levels
the first occurrence of menstruation
secular trend
a trend in industrialized societies toward earlier maturation and greater body size now than in the past
anorexia nervosa
a life-threatening eating disorder characterized by self-starvation and a compulsive fear of getting fat
a life-threatening eating disorder characterized by recurrent eating binges followed by such purging activities as heavy use of laxatives or vomiting
rites of pass
rituals that signify the passage from one period of life to another (for example, puberty rites)
a hormone produced by the thyroid gland; essential for normal growth of the brain and the body
a “master gland” located at the base of the brain that regulates the endocrine glands and produces growth hormone
growth hormone (GH)
the pituitary hormone that stimulates the rapid growth and development of body cells; primarily responsible for the adolescents growth spurt
female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for female sex maturation
male sex hormone, produced by the testes, that is responsible for male sexual maturation
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