6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
catch-up growth
a period of accelerated growth in which children who have experienced growth deficits grow very rapidly to “catch up to” the growth trajectory that they are genetically programmed to follow
marasmus
a growth-retarding disease affecting infants who receive insufficient protein and two few calories
kwashiorkor
a growth-retarding disease affecting children who receive enough calories but little if any protein
iron-deficiency anemia
a listlessness caused by too little iron in the diet that makes children inattentive and may retard physical and intellectual development
obese
a medical term describing individual who are at least 20 percent above the ideal weight for their height, age, and sex
nonrorganic failure to thrive
an infant growth disorder, caused by lack of attention and affection, that causes growth to slow dramatically or stop
deprivation dwarfism
a childhood growth disorder that is triggered by emotional deprivation and characterized by decreased production of GH, slow growth, and small stature
sensation
detection of stimuli by the sensory receptors and transmission of this information to the brain
perception
process by which we categorize and interpret sensory input
enrichment theory
theory specifying that we must add to sensory stimulation by drawing on stored knowledge in order to perceive a meaningful world
differentiation theory
theory specifying that perception involves detecting distinctive features or cues that are contained in the sensory stimulation we receive
distinctive features
characteristics of a stimulus that remain constant; dimensions on which two or more objects differ and can be discriminated (sometimes called invariances or invariant features)
preference method
method used to gain information about infants’ perceptual abilities by presenting two (or more) stimuli and observing which stimulus the infant prefers
habituation
decrease in one’s response to a stimulus that has become familiar through repetition
dishabituation
an increase in responsiveness that occurs when stimulation changes
evoked potential
a change in patterning of the brain waves that indicates that an individual detects (senses) a stimulus.
high-amplitude sucking method
a method of assessing infants’ perceptual capability that capitalizes on the ability of infants to make interesting events last by varying the rate at which they suck on a special pacifier
phonemes
smallest meaningful sound units that make up a spoken language
otitis media
common bacterial infection of the middle ear that produces mild to moderate hearing loss
visual acuity
person’s ability to see small objects and fine detail
stereopsis
fusion of two flat images to produce a single image that has depth
pictorial (perspective) cues
depth and distance cues (including linear perspective, texture gradients, sizing, interposition, and shading) that are monocular—that is, detectable with only one eye
visual looming
expansion of the image of an object to take up the entire visual field as it draws very close to the face
size constancy
tendency to perceive an object as the same size from different distances despite changes in the size of its retinal image
kinetic cues
cues created by movements of objects or movements of the body; provide important information for the perception of forms and spatial relations
visual cliff
elevated platform that creates an illusion of depth; used to test the depth perception of infants
intermodal perception
ability to use one sensory modality to identify a stimulus or pattern of stimuli that is already familiar through another modality
perceptual learning
changes in one’s ability to extract information from sensory stimulation that occur as a result of experience
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
stimulus that elicits a particular response without any prior learning
classical conditioning
type of learning in which an initially neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a meaningful nonneutral stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit the response originally made only to the nonneutral stimulus
unconditioned response (UCR)
unlearned response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned response (CR)
learned response to a stimulus that was not originally capable of producing the response
conditioned stimulus (CS)
initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a particular response after being paired with a UCS that always elicits the response
extinction
gradual weakening and disappearance of a learned response that occurs because the CS is no longer paired with the UCS (in classical conditioning) or the response is no longer reinforced (in operant conditioning)
counter conditioning
treatment based on classical conditioning in which the goal is to extinguish an undesirable response and replace it with a new and more adaptive one
operant conditioning
a form of learning in which freely emitted acts (or operants) become either more or less probably depending on the consequences they produce
positive reinforcer
any stimulus whose presentation, as the consequence of an act, increases the probability that the act will recur
negative reinforcer
any stimulus whose removal or termination, as the consequence of an act, increases the probability that the act will recur
positive punishment
punishing consequence that involves the presentation of something unpleasant following a behaviour
negative punishment
punishing consequence that involves the removal of something pleasant following a behaviour
encoding
process by which external stimulation is converted to a mental representation
deferred imitation
ability to reproduce a modelled activity that has been witnessed at some point in the past
genetic epistemoogy
the experimental study of the development of knowledge, developed by Piaget
cognitive equilibrium
iaget’s term for the state of affairs in which there is a balanced, or harmonious, relationship between one’s thought processes and the environment
constructivist
one who gains knowledge by acting or otherwise operating on objects and events to discover their properties
organization
an inborn tendency to combine and integrate available schemes into coherent systems or bodies of knowledge
adaptation
an inborn tendency to the demands of the environment
sensorimotor stage
Piaget’s first intellectual stage, from birth to 2 years, when infants are relying on behavioural schemes as a means of exploring and understanding the environment
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