Chapter 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
encoding
the process by which information gets into memory
automaticity
the ability to process information with little or no effort
strategy construction
creation of new procedures for processing information
metacognition
cognition about cognition, knowing about knowing
attention
focusing of mental resources
selective attention
concentrating on more than one activity at the same time
sustained attention
the ability to maintain attention to a selected stimulus for a prolonged period of time
executive attention
cognitive process involving action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances
joint attention
focus by individuals on the same object or event; requires an ability to track another's behavior, one individual to direct another's attention, and reciprocal interaction
memory
retention of information over time
schema theory
theory stating that people mold memories to fit information that already exists in their minds
schemas
mental frameworks that organize concepts and information
implicit memory
memory without conscious recollection - memory of skills and routine procedures that are performed automatically
explicit memory
conscious memory of facts and experiences
long-term memory
a relatively permanent and unlimited type of memory
short-term memory
retention of information for up to 15 to 30 seconds, without rehearsal of the information. using rehearsal, individuals can keep the information in short-term memory longer
working memory
a mental "workbench" where individuals manipulate and assemble information when making decisions, solving problems, and comprehending written and spoken language
elaboration
engagement in more extensive processing of information, benefiting memory
fuzzy trace theory
theory stating that memory is best understood by considering two types of memory representations: verbatim memory trace, and gist. In this theory, older children's better memory is attributed to the______ created by extracting the gist of information
episodic memory
retention of information about the where and when of life's happenings
semantic memory
a person;s knowledge about the world, including fields of expertise, general academic knowledge, and "everyday knowledge about meanings of words, names of famous individuals, important places, and common things
source memory
the ability to remember where something was learned
prospective memory
remembering to do something in the future
thinking
manipulating and transforming information in memory, in order to reason, reflect, think critically, evaluate ideas and solve problems, and make decisions
concepts
cognitive groupings of similar problems and make decisions
executive functioning
an umbrella-like concept that encompasses a number of higher-level cognitive processes linked to the development of the brain;s prefrontal cortex. Executive functioning involves managing one's thoughts to engage in goal-directed behavior and to exercise self-control
critical thinking
thinking reflectively and productively and evaluating the evidence
dual-process model
theory stating that decision making is influenced by two cognitive systems- one analytical and one experimental- that compete with each other
expertise
having extensive, highly organized knowledge and understanding of a particular domain

Rely on accumulative experience
Process and analyze data automatically
Have better strategies and shortcuts
metamemory
knowledge about memory
theory of mind
thoughts about how one's own mental processes work and the mental processes of others
information-processing approach
analyzes the ways people process info about their world and manipulate information, monitor it, create strategies to deal with it. viewed as continuous
simplified model of information processing
stimulus ->attention -encoding-> memory ->thinking -> response
speed of processing
dramatically improves across childhood due to myelination. linked to competence in thinking, linked to accumulated knowledge and abilities to perform
habituation
decreased responsiveness to stimulus after repeated presentations
dishabituation
recovery of a habituated response after changing in stimulation
attention in infancy
joint attention 7-8 months
gaze following 10-11 months
childhood attention
attention control increases with age
attention to salient stimuli
planning increases with planfulness
attention in adolescence
process irrelevant info decreases
multi-tasking increases
attention in adulthood
decline with age
in selective
categories
grouping based on characteristics
perceptual categorization
as young as 7 months
large gender differences based on interest
infants abilities much richer, more gradual, less stage-like than piaget thought
decision making
Older adolescents appear more competent
Ability does not guarantee every day usage
Social context plays key role here
changes in metacognition 2-3 years
awareness of emotions, perceptions, and desires
changes in metacognition 5 years
learn realization of false beliefs
changes in metacognition age 7
deepening appreciation of the mind itself
changes in metacognition middle and late childhood
mind seen as active constructor of knowledge
changes in metacognition adolescence
realization of ambivalent feeling
Metacognition in adolescence and adulthood
Adolescents more likely than children to effectively manage and monitor thinking

Middle age adults have accumulated a great deal of metacognitive knowledge

Older adults tend to overestimate memory problems they experience on daily basis
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