chapter 10 Flashcards

stranger anxiety
Terms Definitions
emotion
feeling, or affect, that occurs when a person is engaged in an interaction that is important to him or her, especially to his or her well-being
primary emotions
emotions that are present in humans and other animals, emerge early in life, and are culturally universal; examples are joy, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust
self-conscious emotions
emotions that require consciousness and a sense of "me"; they include empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, and guilt, most of which fist appear at some point in the second half of the first year through the second year
basic cry
a rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry, a briefer silence, a shorter inspiratory whistle that is higher pitched than the main cry, and then a brief rest before the next cry
anger cry
a cry similar to the basic cry but with more excess air forced through the vocal cords
pain cry
a sudden, initial loud cry followed by breath holding, without preliminary moaning
reflexive smile
a smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. it happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep
social smile
a smile in response to an external stimulus, which, early in development, typically is a face
stranger anxiety
an infants fear of and wariness toward strangers; it tends to appear in the second half of the first year of life
separation protest
reaction that occurs when infants experience a fear of being separated from a caregiver, which results in crying when the caregiver leaves
socioemotional selective theory
the theory that older adults become more selective about their social networks. because they place high value on emotional satisfaction, older adults often spend more time with familiar individuals with whom they have had rewarding relationships
temperament
an individuals behavior style and characteristic way of responding
easy child
a temperament style in which the child is generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines, and adapts wasily to new experiences
difficult child
a temperament style in which the child tends to react negatively and cry frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, and is slow to accept change
slow-to-warm-up child
a temperament style in which the child has a low activity level, is somewhat negative, and displays a low intensity of mood
goodness-of-fit
the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands the child must cope with
attachment
a close emotional bond between two people
social referencing
reading emotional cues in others to help determine how to act in a specific situation
Strange situation
ainsworth's observational measure of infant attachment to a caregiver that requires the infant to move through a series of introductions, separations, and reunions with the caregiver
securely attached babies
babies who use the caregiver as a secure base from whichto explore the environment
insecure avoidant babies
babies who show insecurity by avoiding the mother
insecure resistant babies
babies who might cling to the caregiver, then resist her by fighting against the closeness, perhaps with kicking or pushing away
insecure disorganized babies
babies who show insecurity by being disorganized and disoriented
secure attachment style
an attachment style that describes adults who have positive views of relationships, find it easy o get close to others, and are not overly concerned or stressed out about their romantic relationship
avoidant attachement style
an attachment style that describes adults who are hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships and once in a relationship, tend to distance themselves from their partner
anxious attachment style
an attachment style that describes adults who demand closeness, are less trusting, and are more emotional, jealous, and possessive
romantic love
also called passionate love, or eros, this type of love has strong components of sexuality and infatuation, and it often predominates in the early part of a love relationship
affectionate love
also called companionate love, this type of love occurs when individuals desire to have another person near and have a deep, caring affection for the person
triangular theory of love
sternberg's theory that love includes three components or dimensions- passion, intimacy, and commitment
emotion coaching
monitor childs emotions
coach as to how to handle negative emotions
emotion-dismissing
deny or ignore negative emotions
associated with poor regulation in children
chess and thomas
easy child
difficult child
slow to warm up child
kagan
inhibition to the unfamiliar
uninhibited
considerable continuity from infancy through early childhood
rothbart and bates
extraversion
negative affectivity
effortful control
erik erikson
First year of life is critical for attachment development
Stage: Trust vs. Mistrust
Sets the stage for lifelong view of the world
John Bowlby
Infant biologically equipped to form attachment
Cries, coos, clings, smiles, and later follows caregiver
Phases of attachment
Undiscriminating social responsiveness
(birth to 2-3 months)
Engage in behaviors to promote contact
Does not discriminate across caregivers in behavior
Discriminating social responsiveness
(2-3 months to 6-7 months)
Intensity of social responses increases
Discrimination in favor of familiar others
Active proximity seeking
(6-7 months to 2 years)\
Develops clear cut attachment
Locomotion increases proximity seeking
Separation protest and stranger anxiety emerge
Goal-directed partnership
2+ years
Adjusts behavior in recognition of parental goals and plans
Proximity maintained mentally as well as physically
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